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Bntind aaooidlac to A«t af Congnas, Is th* jww IBt), hf 
In lb* OOm of tlia Utmrian of Conpvu. Bl WuhlagtOB, D. C, O. 8. j 
All right! nMnid. 

PhU>d«1pbte,P«..U.^.Ai-.; / ' 

Tb* HtdlMl BallMfD PrintlnK H<nu«, 
IRIS dMnj StnM. 


Vert few ever fully appreciate the powerful inflwence which 
sexuality exercises over levliiig, tliouglit, and conduct, both in 
the individual and in society. Schiller, in his poem, " Die Welt- 
weisen," recognizes it with the words : — 

«Slii»tw«lleii bla den Bto der Welt 
FbUocopUe auHunmcnhilt, 
Krhilt ila daa 0«Crleba 
IhiTvb Hunircr tinil durrh LI«ib«."l 

Tt is remarkable that the sexual life has received but a 
very subordinate eonsidemtton on the part of philosophers, 

SchoiK-nhauer (" The World as Will anti Idea ") thought 
it strange that love had been thus far a subject for the poet 
alone, and that, with the exception of superficial treatment by 
Plato, Rousseau, and Kant, it had been foreign to philosophers. 

What Schopenhauer and, a(\er him, the Philosopher of the 
Unconscious, E. v. Hartmaun, philosophized concerning the sex- 
ual relations is so im|)erfect, and in its consequences so distaste- 
ful, that, aside from the treatment in the works of Michelet 
(" L'amour") and Mantegaxza ("Physiology of Love"), which 
are to be considered more as brilliant discussions than as scien- 
tific treatises, the empirical psychology and mrbipliysics of the 
sexual side of human existence rest upon a foundation which is 
scientifically almost puerile. 

The poets may be better psychologists than the psychol- 
ogists and philosophers; but they are men of feeling rather than 
of understanding, and at least one-sided In their consideration of 
the subject They cannot see the deep shadow behind the light 
and sunny warmth of that from which they dniw their inspira- 
tion. The poetry of all times and nations would furnish inex- 
haustible material for a monograph on the psychology of love ; 
but tlie great problem can be solved only with the help of 

> " Heanvrblle, anlll PtUloaoiibj absll at iMt qdIIc uid cualaulii tti« world, HuD^et 
iB4 Lpm Inpel It anwud." 




Science, and especially with tlie aid of Medicine, which studies 
the psychological subject nt its anatomical and physiological 
source, and views it from all sides, 

Perhnp;; it will be possible for medical science to gain a 
stand-point of philosophical knowledge midway between the 
despairing Wews of philosophers like Schopenhauer and Hart- 
manu' and the gay, naive views of the iwets. 

It is not the intention of the author to lay the foundation 
of a psychologj' of the sexual life, though without doubt psycho- 
pathology would furnish many important sources of knowledge 
to psychology. 

The purpose of this treatise is a description of the patho- 
logical manifestations of the sexual life and an attempt to 
refer thora to their underlying conditions. The task is a diffi- 
cult one, and, in spite of years of expericmce as alienist and 
medical jurist, I am well aware that what I can offer must be 

The importance of the subject for the welfare of society, 
especially forensically, demands, however, that it should be ex- 
amined Bcientitically. Only he who, as a medico-legal expert, 
has been in a position where he has been romjHilled to pass 
judgment upon his fellow-men, wliere life, freedom, and honor 
were at stake, and realized painfull}' the incompleteness of our 
knowledge concerning the pathology of the sexual life, can 
fully understand the tugnificauce of an attempt to gain definite 
views roneemiiig it. 

Even at the present time, in the domain of sexual crimi- 
nality, the most erroneous opinions arc expressed and the most 
unjust sentences pronounced, infiueucing laws and public opinion. 

He who makes the psych opathology of sexual life the 
object of scientific study sees himself plared on a dark side of 
human life and misery, in the sliadows of which the god-Uke 

» Hartmftnn'* pbUosophlca] rlew of love, lo Ui« " Plilloaopli; of ih* UncoiiMloiu," 
p. 583, Berlin, ISiW, Ic the following : " f.avt; rtunen mnrtr p«in tlinn plriunir*-. Pleanurr t* 
tllunor;. K»Boti wnuld ranse lore to be nrotdcd l( It were not for the f&tal acxual Instinct; 
therefore, U would be beat fork mnn In liavc hlmfiircwtrateJ." The MLmu oplolou^ Dilntts 
tbe coDKquDiicc, to alw eipr«n«tl by Schopeobkuer <" Ul« Welt ale Wllle uud Vom«lluci^," 
8. AoA., Bd. U, p. SM u. B.). 


creations of the (Hict becomn ludcou.s masks, and morals and 
{esthetics seem out of place in the " image of God.'* 

It is the sad province of Medicine, and especially nf Psy- 
chiatry, to constantly regard the reverse Bide of hfe, — ^Itumau 
reakness and misery. 

Perhaps in this difficult calling some consolation may be 
gained, and extended to the mornlist, if it be possible to refer 
to morbid conditions much tliat offends ethical and aesthetic 
feeling. Tims Medicine undertakes to save the honor of man- 
kuid before the Court of Morality, and individuals from judges 
and their fe!low-men. The duty and right of medical science 
in these studies belong to it by reason of the high aim of all 
mman inquiry after tnith. 

The author would take to himself the words of Tardieu 
(" Des attentats aux moeurs"): "Aucurie mlsere physique ou 
morale^ ancunc plaie, qnelque corrompnc qu'elle soil, nc doit 
eifrayer celui qui s'est voue a la science de rhomme et le miu- 
ist^re sacre du medccin, en I'obligeant a tout voir» lui permet 
aussi de tout dire." ' 

The following pages are addressed to earnest investigators 
in the domain of natural science and jurisprudence. In order 
that unqualified persons should not become readers, the author 
saw himself compelled to chouse a title nndcrstnnd only by the 
learned, and also, where possible, to express himself in terming 
(echnicls. It seemed necewiary also to give cei-tain particularly 
revolting poi-tions in Tiiitin' rather than in German. 

It is hoi>ed that this attempt to present to physician and 
jurist facts from an important sphere of life will receive kindly 
arcepttinci! and fill an acltml hiatus in literature; for, with tlie 
exception of certain single descriptions and cases, the literature 
presents only llie writings of Moreau and Tarnowsky, which 
cover but a portion of the field.' 

' "No phfalrAl or mora] mlwrj-, no RnlTrrtng, howrvw romipt It ni«y he, sliould 
Mfblm lilm «r)in luu il>>vAtMl liIntAi^ir ia & knowtf^i::^ or mftii ftnd tJ^^ uu^i-ed iniiiUtrjr nf 
nwdlcliici ; in that hP Is cibllffr<l c^ H<rc nil thlim< ^vX him be pvrmttUsl to My nil thlnga." 

■ The Likliii Is tril iiulrn minted. 

* Tbn worki of Moll ftud vou Scbimck'NoUlnK 1iiit« tixK^ tppeand. — Thasb. 


Thb disting^iished author of " Fsjxhopathia Sexualw" 
speaks for himself and liis work in its preface ; but there are 
not wanting otliers to speak for him. 

Dr. A. von Schrcnck-Notzln^, of Munich, writes^ : — 

"It may be questioned whether it is justlfialile to di.<H;uss 
the anomalies of the sexual instinct apart, instead of treating 
of them in their proper place in psychiatry. As a nde, they 
are certainly only Kvmptoms of a constitutional malady, or of a 
weakened state of the brain, which manifest themselves in the 
various forms of sexual perversion. 

" Moreover, attention lias been directed to the baneful influ- 
ence possibly exerted by such publications as * Psychopathia 
Sexualis.' To be sure, the appearance of seven editions of 
that work could not be accounted for were its circulation con- 
fined to scientific readers. Therefore, it cannot be denifnl that 
a pornographic interest on the part of the public is accountable 
for a part of the wide circulation of tlio book. But, in spile of 
this disadvantage, the injury done by implanting knowledge of 
sexual pathology in unqualified persons is not to be compared 
iritli the good accomplished. History shows that uranism waD 
very %vide-spread long before the appearance of * Psychopathia 
Scximlis.* The courts have r^jnstantly tn deal with sexual 
crimes in which Uie responsibility of the accused comes in 

"For the physician himself, sexual anomalies, treated as 
they arc in a distant manner in text-books on psychiatry, are 
in greater part a terra incogmia. Exact knowledge of the 
causes and conditions of development of s(?xunl aberrations. 

1 Dk' Sa^eittlui».Tb<<raple, eic., P. Buke, SEutt^vt, 1893. 




I. Fraobceht or a Pstchologt op the Sexual Lira, ... 1 

Power of the sexual inBtinct, 1 

Sexuality as the foundation of ethical feeling, .... 1 

Love as a passion, 2 

History of development of sexuality, 8 

Modesty, 2 

Christianity, . 4 

Monogamy, 4 

Woman's place in Islam 6 

Sensuality and morality, 5 

Decadence of sexual morality, 6 

Development of sexual feelings in the individual ; puberty, . 7 

Sensuality and religious enthusiasm, 9 

Relations between the spheres of religion and sexuality, . 9 

Sensuality and art, 10 

Idealizing tendency of first love, 11 

True love, 11 

Sentimentality, 11 

Platonic love, . . . . : 13 

Love and ftiendship, 12 

Difference between male and female love, 13 

Celibacy, 14 

Un&ithfulneas, 15 

Marriage, 15 

Desire for adornment, 16 

Facts of physiological fetichism, IT 

Religious and erotic fetichism, 1*1 

Eyes, odors, voices, and mental qualities as fetiches, . . 21 

Hair, band, and foot of woman as fetiches, .... 22 

II. Phtbioloot, 28 

Sexual maturity, 23 

Duration of sexual instinct, 23 




Sexual sense, 24 

Localization (f), 24 

Phjeiologioal development of sexuality, 24 

Erection ; erection-oentre, 24 

Sexuality and the olfactory sense, 26 

Flagellation an excitant of sexual desire, 28 

Sects of flagellants, 28 

PaulUni's " Flagellum Salutis," 39 

Erogenous zones, 31 

Control of the sexual instinot, 32 

Cohabitation, 33 

Ejaculation, 33 

III. Qeherai. Pathologt 34 

Frequency and importance of pathological manifestations, . 34 

Schema of the sexual neuroses, ...... 34 

Spinal neuroses, 35 

Cerebral neuroses, 36 

Paradoxia sexualis, 37 

Aoffisthesia sexualis (congenital), 42 

Anffisthesia sexualis (acquired), 4T 

Hypereesthesia sexualis, . 48 

Parsesthesia sexualis, 56 

Perversion and perversity, 66 

Sadism, 57 

An attempt to explain sadism, 57 

Sadistic lust-murder, 62 

Anthropophagy, 64 

Violation of corpses, 67 

Injury of women, 70 

Defilement of women, 79 

Symbolic sadism, 81 

Sadism with any object, 82 

Whipping of boys, 82 

Sadistic acts with animals, 84 

Sadism in woman, 87 

Mosochism, 89 

Relation of passive flagellation to masochism, .... 101 



Ideal masochiBm, 115 

Symbolic masochism, 116 

Bouaseau, 119 

Lairated masochism, . ........ 123 

Feminine maBochism, ISV 

An attempt to explain masochism, 139 

Masochism and sadism, 148 

Fetichism, 152 

Part of the female body as a fetich, 157 

Female attire as a fetich, 167 

Special materials as fetiches, 180 

Contrary sexual instinct, or homo-sexuality, .... 185 

Acquired homo-sexuality, 188 

Simple reversal of sexual feeling, 191 

Eviration and defemination, 197 

Transition to metamorphosis sexualis paranoica, . . . 202 

Metamorphosis sexualis paranoica, 216 

Congenital bomo-sexoality, 222 

Psychical hermaphroditism, 230 

Umings, 255 

Effemination and viraginity, 279 

Androgyny and gynandry, ....... 804 

Diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of contrary sexuality, 319 

IV. Spboiai. Patholoot, 358 

Fathol<^cal sexuality in the various forms of mental dis- 
ease, 358 

Imbecility 359 

Dementia, 361 

Paretic dementia, 363 

Epilepsy, 364 

Periodical insanity, 370 

Psychopathia sexualis periodica, 371 

Mania, 372 

Satyriasis and nymphomania, 373 

Melancholia, 374 

Hysteria, 375 

Paranoia, 376 



T. Patholooigal Sexoauty in its Legal Aspects, , . . 378 

Dangers to society from sexual crimes, Sfg 

Increase of sexual crimes, 378 

Canses, S78 

Defective appreciation of such crimes by jurists, . . . 879 

Conditions necessary to remove legal responsibility, . . 381 

Exhibition, 382 

Violation of statues, - . 396 

Rape and lust-murder, , . . , . . - , . 397 
Bodily injury, injury to property, and torture of animals de- 
pendent on sadism, ........ 401 

Fetichism, 401 

Yiolation of children, 402 

Sodomy, 404 

Pederasty, 408 

Cultivated pederasty, 414 

Social life of pederasts, 415 

Ball of the woman-haters, 417 

r\ Psedicatio mulierum, . . . , 420 

_J.^Lesbian love, 428 

'^ Necrophilia, 480 

Incest, 431 

Immoral acts with persons in the care of others, . . . 432 




The propagation of the human species is not committed 
to accident or to the caprice of the individual, but made secure 
in a natural instinct, which, with all-conquering force and 
might, demands fulfillment. In the gratification of this natural 
impulse are found not only sensual pleasure and sources of 
physical well-being, but also higher feelings of satisfaction in 
perpetuating the single, perishable existence, by the transmission 
of mental and physical attributes to a new being. In coarse, 
sensual love, in the lustful impulse to satisfy this natural instinct, 
man stands on a level with the animal ; but it is given to him 
to raise himself to a height where this natural instinct no 
longer makes him a slave : higher, nobler feelings are awakened, 
which, notvrithstanding their sensual origin, expand into a 
world of beauty, syblimity, and morality. 

On this height man overcomes his natural instinct, and 
from an inexhaustible spring draws material and inspiration 
for higher enjoyment, for more earnest work, and the attainment 
of the ideal. Maudsley {Deutsche Klinik^ 1873, 2, 3) rightly 
calls the sexual feeling the foundation for the development of 
the social feeling. " Were man to be robbed of the instinct 
of procreation and all that arises from it mentally, nearly all 
poetry and, perhaps, the entire moral sense as well, would be 
torn from his life." 

Sexuahty is the most powerful factor in Individual and 
social existence; the strongest incentive to the exertirfn of 
strength and acquisition of property, to the foundation of a 
home, and to the awakening of altruistic feelings, first for a 
person of the opposite sex, then for the offspring, and, in a 
wider sense, for all humanity. 



Thus all ethics and, perhaps, a good iNirt of tcsthetlcs 
and religion dejieiid upon tlie existence of seximl feeliug. 

Though the sexual hlb leads to the liighcst virtucrs, even to 
tlie satrrificc of the ego, yet in its sensual force lies also the danger 
tliat it may degenerate into powerful passions and develop the 
grossest vices. 

Love as an unbridled passion is like il tire timt btima 
and consumes everj'thing; like an abyss that swalluws all,— 
honor, fortune, well-being. 

It seems of liigh psychological interest to trace the devel- 
opmental pliases through which, in the coui"se of the evolution 
of human culture to the morality and civilization of to-day, the 
sexual life has |Kiss*'d.' On primitive ground the satisfaction 
of the sexual appetite ui' man seems like that of the animal. 
Openness in the sexual art is not sliunned; man and woman 
are not asharae<l to go naked. To-day we see savages in tliia 
condition (comp. Floss, "Das Weib," p. 196, 188-4); as, for 
example, the Austrahans, the Poljiicsians, and the Malays of 
thi! Phillipiues. The fennde is the common property of the 
males, the temporary booty of the strongest, who strive for the 
possession of the most beaiitUtil of the opposite sex, tlius carry- 
ing out instinctively a kind of sexual selection. 

Woman is a movable thing, a ware, an object of bargaiaj 
and liiale and gif^; a thing to satisfy lust and to work. 

The appcamiice of a feeling of shame before others in! 
the manifestation and satisliiction of the natural instinct, an^i 
modesty in the intercourse of the sexes, form tiie Iiefrinning of 
moraUty in the sexual life. From this arose the effort to con-i 
ceal the gcnitjils ("And they knew that they were naked")] 
and the secret iierfornmnce of the sexual act. 

The development of this d^■gree of culture is favon?d by] 
the rigors of climate and tin; necessity for complete protection 
of the body thus entailed. Thus in part the fact is explained' 
that among northern races modest)" maybe proved anthropo-! 
logically earlier tlian among southern races. 

A further stage in the development of culture in sexual 


life is marked when the female ceases to be a movable tiling. 
She becomes a |>crson ; mid il* still for a long time placed far 
below the male socially, yet the idea that tlio right of dis|>o$at 
of lierself and her favors bclonj^s to her is developed. 

Thus she becomes the object of the male's wooing. To 
the barbarous sensual feeling of sexual desite the beginnings of 
ethical feeling are added. The instinct is intellectiialized. Prop- 
erty in women ceases tn exist. Individuals of the opposite sexes 
feel themselves drawn toward each other by mrntjil and 
cat qualities, and sliow love for each other only. At tins stage 
woman has a feeling that her charms belong only tn the man 
of her choice, and wishes to conceal them from others. Thus, 
by the side of modesty, the foundations of chastity and faith- 
fulness — OS long as the bond of love lasts — are laid. 

Woman attains this degree of social elevation earlier 
when, at the transition from nomadic life to a state of fixed 
habitation, man obtains a liouse and home, and the necessity 
arises for him to possess in woman a companion for the house* 
hold, — a hou.Hcwife. 

Among the nations of the East, the F^yptians, the Israelites, 
and the Greeks, and among those of the West, the Germans, 
early attained tliia stage of culture. .Among all tliese mces, at 
this stage of advancement, the esteem in winch virginity, 
chastity, modesty, and sexual faithfulness are held is in marked 
contrast witli other nations which offer the Icmalc of the house 
to the guest for his seximl enjoyment.' 

Tliat this stage in the cnlturn of sexual morality is quite 
high and makes its appearance much later tiuin oilier develop- 
mental forms of culture — as. for example, esthetics — is seen 
from the condition of the Japanese, with whom it is the custom 
to marry a woman only after she has lived for a year in the 
tea-houses (which correspond with European houses of prosti- 
tution), and to whom the nakedness of women is nothing shock- 
ing. At all events, among the Ja|)anese every unmarried woman 
can prostitute herself without lessening her value as a future 
wile, — a proof that with tliis tcraarkable people woman possesses 


ao ethical worth, but is valued in marriage only as a means of 
enjoyment, procreation, and work. 

Christianity giivc the most jwwcrful impulse to the moml 
elevation of thu sexual relations by raising woman to social 
equality witli man and elevatiuj; the bond of love betw(K?n 
man and woman to a reli^io-moral institution.' 

The fact that in higher eivilization human love must be 
monogamous and rest on a lasting contract was thus recognized. 
If nature tloi's no more tlian provide tor procreation, a common- 
wealth (taniily or state) cannot exist xvitlioiit a guaranty that 
the olthpring shall flourish j)lLysicully, morally, and itileUecLuulIy. 
Christeudom gained both mental and material suix-riority over 

I Tbte gennnUlj etLterlnlned Idra, iJmo held by ta^nj hUlurlaUB. rt^illlrts tame limita- 
tion, In thftl tbc aymboHc AOtl ucrnncntal '(•hftrttcUr or inArrU^e nait fint, imitdc clear Aiid 
niwialrocalbjUMiCflunvlI of Trent, nvfiii tltouKb tbcrawftaerer lu the spirit af CtirliUniilty 
thai wlilcb would rive voiuui and ralso lior frani Lhc Inferior putltlun ixjcupkd hy hut In tba 
anclcut world ami ilir OM TMtauienU 

That tills took plaoe *o I«t4> may wril br due In part ta Lh« traditlnti* of (ii-iipili of 
the «K!oniI>r): rmatlou of iroiiin]i frmii tlu- r]t> ol man, uiid of her jiart la the Pull, utd thn 
couNcqueDt <;ur»e : "Thy will eball be to thy bushand." Since the Fall, for wbkli Ihn Old 
Teataincnl mndr woman re«pon.ilbl«, beouuo the corDvr stone of the fabric of church- 
ti-achl»KSf the wifn'M tne\A\ pfMltlon CAUld but mnnlii Inferior until the epirttof CbrlRtiBiillj 
bad ^lDi<d a vlctorj- over tradltluii and (cbolaallcUtu. 

It la roniarkable tliat, with th^ vircptlon of thn (iiU<rr1li;tlon of putHnff Bwa; a 
Wlfc (Matt. Ill, B), thfl poii]M'U contain noLhliiK favorliiR woiunn. Omtlnni-m u>wAtit th« 
■doHeroM and th^ mpentaul Mi^cdaleuc docs uot aff»L Uir poaitlon of the Kifi? fn lUrlf. 
The KpUUeauf Paul tiprclfli-ally ili-rlurA thul Uio |>okiUAn of womsn iiliall not bi altvird 
(It Corinth, xl, 3-12: Kphpa.T. W: " Wlvre, subintt jtoufmItm unto yoor hiuih&nd* ;" sod 
KI,"Aiid the wife «M that ebc iwcrvtico bcrbuiibaiid"}. 

PnMaeM lu Tt-rlulltnii ubow how tbL> Fathom of tli« Church WL-re |in:judtn-d acal&al 
wumor. hy Eve'e ^■ullt: "Wmnati, tlum Hhoiildtt forf^nr go lu wimjw and ra{;8, thy (jyev 
dll«4l with tt-ai-n 1 Thou ba«t brought mau lo Llie i;rtm»J 1" St. Hltfroiiyniui baa nmhlttK 
good to aay uf woiuaa. He aaya, " Woinan in n dixir for tht; dcrlt, b Mr*y lo t'rtl, Uiv atlng 
of the acorplon," {" Ih: culm ffwitnariim," 1, 1.) 

Canonical Law dcclorca : " Only mau waa cnatiid lo Uu Ima^eof God, nut woman; 
therefore, woman Khould acrvti hliu and be bla mold 1" 

The Provluelal Couufll of Macon, In tlin etxlh c«titlUT, earueatly debated the qiui-j 
tlon whether woman h«il n *c)ul. 

T)in ctlvct ol tUute Idena in thu Church on the pcuplea enibractni^ Christianity wa 
dirvrt. Amonf* the Grrmaiia, aflAr tlii! Acc^ptanM of the now faith, for the foregulii); tvaaoi) 
tho wcrcpflil for a wife — the simple pxpr^flfilon of her val ue— fliTnT-aanl (J. Faiko, " OUi* 
ritterllcbe GeenllBchan," ii. 40. Berlin, ISd'i). Cuncemlug ilia value of each sex among 
tba Jewa, efcf« U- villi: uu, ixvll, 3 aud 4. 

Uureuver, poly^my, whluh U «spnwcly recognlnjd In the Old Tuitiim«nt (Dent. xxJ. 
15), la nowborn cxpliillly lultrJlctad In Ui« Nrw TmiaKiiJtt. CbHsllan prlncea (e.g., the 
MattivlnKinii klD(^, Clotar I, ChlMebort I, Prplii I, und niauy uf tho royal lYanka) llvml In 
IKilygauij ; aiid at that Utm; the Cliurfh rnadc no Oji|H>«Illon t<i It (Wclnliold, " Dhi deut- 
teiien Fraiun Im MlM4tL&ltrer,'' II, p. 15). Comp. al«oUiiirer, " Ulc Eho,"Dtc., and the eiool- 
laut work by Loula Brtdd, " Lu ftuuiua ut la droit," Parta, 1884. 


the polygamous Taccs^ especially Islam, througli tlicpqiializution 
uf woman and man, and by (!stahlis)iing munogamous marriage 
and sccnring it by legal, religious, and moral ties. 

If Moliammed was actuated by a detiire to raisi? woman 
from her place as a' slave and meaus of sensual gi-atifieation to 
a higher social and mntriraonjal plane, nc%*ertlieles8, in tlie 
Moliamnunlan world woman rematnrd Ihr below man, to whom 
alone divorce was allowed and also made very easy. 

Iiilam kept woman from any imrticipntion in public life 
under all cireumstarKWJ. and thus hindered lier int^-lleclital and 
moral development. In consequence of this the Mohammedan 
woman bos ever remained essentially a means of sensual gratifi- 
cation and pi-oerejition ; while, on tlie other Imnri, the virtues 
and cajMtbilities of the (Jlmstiaii woman, as housewife, edueutur 
of cbildre]!, aud equal com|xinion of man, have Ikkmi allowotl 
to unfold in all their beauty. Islam, with its jralygamy aud 
barcm-life, is glaringly contrasted with the monogamy and 
famUy life of tlie Christian world. 

The same contrast is apparent in a comjmrison of the two 
religions with reference to the conception of the hereafter. The 
pieture of eternity si?on by the faith of thi; Cliristian is that of a 
[>aradisc freed from all earthly sensuality, promising the ])nrest 
of intellectual happiness; the fancy of the Mussutnian fiLU the 
future life with the drliglits of a liarom full of houris. 

In spite of nil the aids wliirh religion, law, education, and 
morality give civilized man in the bridling of his passions, he is 
idways in dangt;rof sinking from the clear height of pure, chaste 
love into the mir« of common sensuality. 

In order to maintain one's «elf on such a height, a con- 
stant struggle between natural impulses and morals, between 
sensuality and morality, is reqiiirpd. Only cliaraeters endowed 
with strong wills are able to c<)mpi('tWy emanrt]iaU; themselves 
from sensimlity and sliare in that pure love from which spring 
tlie noblest joys of human life. 

It is yet quc-itionable whether, in the course of the later 
centnries, mankind has advanced in raonility. It is certaui, 
however, that the race has become more modest ; and this phe- 



nomcuon of civilization — this hiding of the animal propensities — 
is, at least, a roncession tliat vice makes to virtue. 

From 11 reading of Schorr's works (" History of German 
Civilization ") one would cerlainly jLcain the impression tliat, in 
comparison with those of the Middle Ages, nnr own ideas of 
moral.s liavi! lieearae refined, even when it must also be allowed 
that ill many instances finer manners, without greater morality, 
have taken the place of earHer obscenity and coarseness of 

When widely separated periods of history are comirared, no 
doubt is lell that public niomlity, in spite of oreasionjd temporary 
retrogression, makes continuous progress, and that Cl^istiamty ia 
oufi.cLthe most powerful of the forces favoring mora! progress. 

To-day we are far beyond the sexual conditions which, as 
shown in the sodomilie worship of tlie gods, in the life uf the 
[>eoplc, and in tlic laws and religious practices, existed among the 
ancient Greeks, — to say nothing of the worship of Phallus and 
Priajjus among the Athenians and Babylonians. of the bacclianals 
of ancient Home, and the prominent place prostitutes took among 
these peoples. In the slow and often imperceptible progress 
which linman morality makes there are variations or fluctuations, 
just as in the iiulividnal scxunlit:\' manifests an ebb and flow. 
.-i('* Periods nf moral decadence in the life of a people are 
jg^ always ctHitemporaneous with times of effeminacy, sunsuality, 
and luxury. These conditions can only be conceived as occur- 
ring with increased demands upon the nervous system, which 
must meet these requimments. As a n'sult of increase of 
nervousness, there is increase of Bcnsnality, and, since this leads 
to excesses anning the musses, it undermines the foundation of 
society. — the morality and piirity of family life. When tliis is 
destroyed by excesses, unfaithfulness, and luxury, then the de- 
struction of the state is inevitably compfls.«cd in material, moral, 
and political ruin. Waniing examples of this character are 
presented by Rome, Greece, and France under Louis XIV 
and XV.' In such times of political and raornl destruction 

■Ooiap. Fricdl&ndM- "SlUeDgvachWbt*- Rouw." liVlvdenielkter, "Der Citwoa. 
wahuion." Surtouloft. More*o, " Du ftbeiratioii* dii km gdoMqnt." 


monstrous perversions of the sexual life were frequent, which, 
however, may in |*art be referred to psyclio-patliological or, 
at least, neurn-|mtlinlngical rnnditions existing in the |H'op]e. 

It is shown by the liislory of Babylon, Nineveh, Rome, 
anil also by the "-mysteries" nf life in modem Cajiitats, that 
largf citii^s are the breeiiing-places of neivoiiMiess and di^en- 
erate sensuality. The liict which may be learned from reading 
Floss's work is rcmnrlinble, viz., that perversion of the sexual 
instinct (save unionji; (he Aleutians, and in the form of ninstnr- 
bation amon^ the females of the Kast and the Mama Hottentots) 
does not occur in uncivilized or half'civilized races.^ 

The study of the sexual life in the in<ilndual must begm 
at its development at puberty, and follow it thmufih its different 
phases to the extinction nf sexual feelings. In his " I'liysiology 
of Love," MantegaKza descrilH-s the longings and impulses of 
awakening sexual life, of which presentiments, indefinite feel- 
ings, and impulses have existed long before the e]>och of 
puberty. This epoch is, physiologicjilly. the most im|)ortant. 
In the abundant increase of fceUngs and idea.s wliich it en- 
gcndei's is manifested the significance of the sexual factor in 
mental life. 

'f hese impulses, at first vague and incomprehensible, arising 
from the siMisjiti()ns which are awakened by organs wliich were 
previously undeveloped, are accompanieil by a powerful excita- 
tion of the emotions. The psychological reaction of the sexual 
impulse at pnlH-rty expresses itself in a multitude of matnlcsta- 
tioUB which have in common only the mental coiidition of emo- 
tion and the im]>nlse to express in some way, nr render objective, 
the strange enmtionality. Religion and poetry lie to it, 
which, after the time of sexual development is past and these 
originally incomprehensible feelings and impulses have cleared 
np, receive powerful incentives from the sexual sjdiere. He 
who doubts this has only to think how otlen religious enthusiasm 
occurs at the time of pulterty ; how fre*iuent sexual episodes are 



t TIk»i- iili»lfiiMiil», however, are nppoacal Irt Frledralch ("IWb. J. fr«rfcbtkinU 
PnxU," i, |i. OTI, IIU;t>, HDi) alan [.ombrmtii (n/j. eil., jk 42), a^'fortlfng tn whom pedenatf 
k mrj fnnaenl nmwig Uie UDi.'tvtlU«d Anerluuia. 


in the lives of the saints;' how powerfully HMisiinlity expresses 
itself in llie histories of religious fanatics; and in what revolting 
scenes, true orgies, the religious festivals ol' antiquity, no less 
than the *' meetings " of certain seets in modem times, express 
theinselvcR, — to say nothing of the lustful mysteries which char- 
acterized the €ults of the aiieients. On the other Iinnd, wc see 
that un&atistied sensuality very frequently 6nds an equivalent in 
religious enthusiasm." 

This relation Iwtween religious and sexual lecling is also 
shown on the basis of nnrquivfunil psyelio-]itithologieal states. 
It Buflires to reejiU liow intense MMisuality niakett itaeK manifest 
in the clinienl histories of many religious maniacs; the motley 
mixture of religious and siexual delusions that is so fn^quetitly 
observed in psychoses (e.g.. In maniacal women, who think they 
are or will bo the Mother of (iod), but particularly in mastur- 
batie irisunily ; and, finally, the sinisual, cruel st'lf-punisliinents, 
injuries, self-castrations, and even self-crucifixious resiUting from 
abnormal sexual-religious feeling. 

Any attempt to explain tbc relations In-twceii religion nnd love has 
tUnicultiws lu cncouiiltT. .Many nualcniii'B present lUc'iiisKlves. The ft-t'ling 
of s«^ximl nttrnclitin an<l rvli^iouii f<>eliiig (cnnHUlerucI iis a pttycliolugical 
Iftct) consist of two elcm<^nta. 

In rcli(;ion the prinmry tlfiriunt in n fc'<?!inp of depemlencc,— ft fiict 
whk'-h SchlL-ii-rrimfliiT mc-ofmizt'd loiif,' ItL-fnrf thu l!ili>r hMkUch in antliro- 
pology nnd t-thnograpliy, IbiniiiL-d on tlip oI)8t'rTation of prhnllivc ecmdi- 
tionH, imd k'ti to IfK' ssnu' conclusion. Il is only :it a Light-r alagc of cnl- 
tu^*^ that the s<-cond iind eftrtontially (ithicjtl elfment — Iovb of Ood — enters 

' Corn p. Prleilrdeli, "g*ricbtl. Psyctp)*>gi«," p. 399. wtio liu collwwd Dumenas 
4XWDplc«- Tlnia llic iiuu Blnntieklti waa aIksjs trnuhlcMl vrllh til* thnujrbl nhoiil whnl tiMl 
baeome tif tlii^ [uirt IlhI hE tlii' i-lrcLiDiii.-|nluu of Cliilsl. Veronicn Jultnlil, oaiioiiUrtl by l'o(>i^ 
Plua IT, 111 uii^moi; r>r tlx- divliii- iUm, look nn at-tunl lion In her bed and klaxtl It, mid M 
it auck from Uft )irea«i: ; kticl cycvi tute^nUfA n fev drops i>f milk Tm It.. Si. Cntlr-rliic, or 
Onnoa, atleu Immcd wiCli Buch Inward flra thai. In ardrr Ui roti[ lienelt, eho would lie ilowu 
AU the gruuinl kud cry '' Love, luvo, I cku eudun: It ou Iciticur '. " At the nme time shD 
ftlt ft peculiar Inrllnailmi far her ooiifi.'Bsor. Ono dav elic lined tilrt linnil lo ber none and 
•nellod •■} dor whirli in'netratnl tii her Iii^htI, " n Iiniivi'iil)' piTTiiCDP, »o df lljftitful thai U 
wuuM waico tli« drad." St, AT'fni:1li; and St. EHe^Ik'Hi nvnt tmultLeil with ■ Ktmltnr 
latmltig for thi.- child Jimhia. Tlic tfni|>tatloni nf St, Anttinn.v, of Padim. an.- veil known. 
An old pnjTH U alj:nlllc&iit: " O, that I hwl tbund Uuw, II»l,v riiiunitd : U, Ibat L hud Xhvc 
In nj bed vt bring iktllfclU to bod]' aod tuul. Come and He mine, and my hoart Ahnll h« 
thy mUng-placc." 

■ Omp. Friodrdr-h, " IMngnooUk dar pajdi. Knuik)i«lteD," p. M7 m-ff. f Neumantt, 
" Lebrb. a. P«ycW»u-lB," p. 80. 



■to religious fetllnje. In the place of the cvjl Hpirita of the primitive 

>plfs came the two-faeed — now kind, now Biigry — cnvtiunH uftlie more 

"coinplioU'd iu_vtliolo},'it!8, until, llmUly, the iJod of love, its Ihe pver of 

eternal happiness, is reverence^l, wbother thin Lk' liopwl for from Jehovali, 

OS a t)lteiMUig on enrtb; from Allftfa, as n phyfticnl bloxsing in I'»nKli«e; 

ftttm Christ, as etiriiflJ Mitu in heaven ; or as thr Xirvana of tli*- RiuldhiHto. 

I n M^xunl (leRirv, lore, llie ('X|ieutJLllon of uulKitindeil li»ppua-t%H !» the 
primary elomeut. Tlie fei'llug of dvpL-udence is of sccoudary deveiop- 
menl. Tlie nucleus of this feeling exiols to botli parties, but it mny re* 
Duiin undvvflopod in one, Aa ;> rule, owing to her |»a»!*ive p-trt in 
procreation and ftofial ronditiono, it is more prononnend in woman : (mt 
except ionuUy this is true of men having minds that iippronclL the feminine 

In both the religious and soxtiid ttpherei) tovc is luysttoil, trana- 
ooudeutnl. In sexual love the reiU purpose of the instinct, the propngn- 
tion of the s|»*s;ics, does not enl«r into eonsciousncss ; mid the strengtb 
of the desire in greater than any that eonHt^iononess of puq^ose oonld 
oreftte. In religion, however, the good sought and the olijcet of devotion 
are of siioh nature that they cannot iM-come n jwirt of I'nipirlenl knowledge. 
Therefore, hotfa mcnUU procL-sscB give uiilimiu-d range lolhe iiuagiuatiou. 

But both have au immortnl objefTt, in ns iiir ns the bliss whieh the 
dfxual wiMitiiiK'nt en-ates in fiuicy woiiis infonipnrahle and intlnile in coii- 
irsist wiib all other pleaannible feelings; and the game is true of the 
promised hlessings of faith, which arc conceived to lie eternal and supreme. 

From tlie corre«pondeneo (•ctween the two states of eonscions- 
Detts, with rettrt^naf to the commantling iinportanru of lln-ir ohjeiaH, it 
follows that they both often attain an intensity that iti irresistible, and 
which overcomes all opiKibiug motives. Owing to their »imilitrity in thHt 
their oliJuct« cannot be atluined, it follows thnt both iiiMily tlirgenerate 
into siUy enthusi»sm, in which Ibe intensity of feeling far HurpaNHea the 
cl*4rnf>SH and eonstancy of the idejiA. In lx)th cases, in this enthnsinsm, 
with the expectjition of a hnppincH» thut lunnot tic aLlained.tlie iieerssil.y 
of unconditional su1iiii{i«sion plays a part. 

Owing to the correspoudenee in nuiny points betwt-tn thuec two 
emotional ^t.itea, it is clear tbiit wbcu they are very intense the one may 
take the pla»-e of the ntlicr; or one mny ajipenr by the side of the other, 
atneo every intenaiflcntion of one dement of mental life also intcnsifiea ila 
nttAociationa The constant emotion thu>; calls into eonsciousmtes now 
one and now the other of tbe two seric? of idcns with which it is con- 
nectetl. Either of tbcH* mental states may becouie transformed into the 
impulse to crudty (actively exercised or passively snlTered). 

In the religious life this is expressed by fUKTifioe. Primarily this is 
done with the Idea that tbe victim is maU'rially enjoyed by the deity ; 
then, in reverence.os a sign of aubmLssion, us n tribute ; and. finally, with 
tbe belief that suis and transgressions against the deity are tbus atoned 



for fliitl Hos^inp obuiiiicit. If. howeior, tlit- offt-ring ponKi«t nf s(>:ir>ptini(ih. 
TiK-nl, wbii-Ii occurn in nil n.'ligHiii>*, in iinliviiliinls oC vory exciuhle re- 
ligioiiH iintiirc, it Bcrvus not only as n symbol ol' siibinietiioii mid aa an 
iM|ulvHlL*iit in the cxchnnut* of )jn>K^iit iulid IW lUture Mititi, but evurytbiiig 
lliiLt is tlioit^lit U> c-i.iim- Iroiii tiif deity. aII that b»)i|K>iiti [n obeilieiu'^- to 
divine niaiiiia.t»> nr to the lioTior of the ^odhi-ad, is felt flir«fctly ai> pleflanre, 
Tiinti relisioiiB cntliUMinsm loads to ep^tnsy, to a poiiclition in whicb con- 
soinnniiPSH 1» so preoc^ciijiii'il witb l(-4>lin;^H of mi>nt»l iilt'ii-tiire thnt Clio 
ponctipt of suderiiig i-ndurud imn ouly be ap{)urcoivcd without it« {niinfiil 

Tlie exaltation of rflijfiontt enthudisum inny lead nctively to pleiwure 
in tlie sm-rifK-t' of auotlier, if pity be overcoiiipi-nsjitt-d by R'eliujf*! of 
rtsIi);ioiiii ple.t.snrf'. 

Sfldittm, tmd particularly uinaocbiam (u in/ra), fllion* tbnt In tlio 
ajilicri' tif llii^ rtpxiinl litV IIhtc may 1h' similar ^ihciionii'iia. Thna tli« 
w*'ll-estiibIislK'd rt'ljilioris lii;twi.'iai ri'lif|:ioii, IiihI, luiil friiflly ' miiy Iji* 
coTQprubi'iiiicd in the following formula: Sttitva of reltgiouu and hvxuuI 
L'Xfitvment. id tht* seme of ttu'ir development, may eonvspond in the 
atiioiiut and (jUHlity of expitentriit, mid, therefure, iiiiik*r Civoriii(; cir- 
cumstances, one Tn»y take the place of the other. Both, in pathological 
cnmlttiona, inay becoino transforinfd into cmelty. 

The t«!xiial fitctdr proves to be no 1ms influentiiLl in awaken- 
inff asstlietic feelings. AV'lmt would poetry and art be without a 
sexuul foundutiou ? In (sensual) love is galucd tliat warmth of 
fancy without whidi a true crieatioii of art is impossible; and in 
the fire of sensual feeling Its glow and warmth are preserved. 
It may thus he understood wliy gjeat poets and artists have 
simmtal natures. 

This world of ideals reveals itself with tlie inception of the 
processes of sexual dcvrlnpmrnt He who, at this period of lifc, 
cannot hrcome enthusiiistir for all that is great, nolWe, and 
bcautifiil, remains a Philistine nil bis life. At this epoch does 
not the least of natural poets fnrjL^e verses t 

At the limits of physiological reaction there are events 
which take place at the time of puberty in which these obscure 
feelings of longing express themselves in paroxysms of despair 

1 tlie nrlalt')!) nf thU trio And* ttti nprcMiion ndt only In the ctc^U of real We, u 
aboTO IndlcftUd, hut alto In tnmitBce, nnil evni tpi the oenlplurn of i1efrcn«nit« cru. Aa an 
(?iain|)l<> wA mny point to tho group of St. Tfarrroft, by Bi-nilnl, who " sinks Id an bydlcrlcal 
Tklnt on a inarl>lc cloud, with aa Riiioroiu uigtl plattginf; Die arrow (of divlac love) lata 



of self and tliL' world, wlucli may go on lo tmilium vitw, and are 
often arroni[miiirtl hy a de»in; tn dn }iarni tx) oLhers [weak 
analogies of a psychological cuunec-tion lK?twi>fn luxt and 

Youthful lovr has a romantir, idealistic rharacter. It 
elevates the heiovtxl object to aijothcesis. In ils iiire]>tion it is 
]>latonic, and tiinm to forms of poetry and romance. Witli the 
awakening of sensuality there is danger that thi.s idnnlizing 
powor may be hronght to hoar npon persons of tlic opposite sex 
who are mentally, physically, and socially of inferior station. 
Thus there may occur nt^AsalfianreA, spdnetions. and errors, with 
the whole tmgedy of a jMLssionatc love that comes in conflict with 
the dictates of social position and prospects, and sometimes 
terminates in suicide or double suicide. 

Over-scnsual love can never be lasting and true. For this 
reason the first love is, as a rule, *'ery fleeting ; hecnusc it is nothing 
else than Ilie flare of a jMLssion. the flame of a tire of straw. 

Only the love that rests upon a recognition of the sm-ial 
qualities of the belovcnl [Hjrson. only a love which is willing not 
only to enjoy present pleasures, bul to Itear sufl'ering for the 
beloved object and sacrifice all, is true love. Tlie love of a 
strongly constituted man slirinks before no difficulties or dangers 
in order to gjiin and keep possession of its object. 

I*nvc expressc's itself in acts of heroism and divriug. Such 
love is in danger, under w;rtain circumstances, of btx-oming 
criminal, if moral princijdes be weak. Jealousy is an ugly symt 
in this love. The love of a weakly constituted man is senti- 
mental. It sometimes leads to suicide wlien it is not rr^turned 
or meets with obstacles, wliile, under like conditions, the strongly 
constituted man may become a criminal. 

Sentimental love is in danger of becoming a caricature, i.e., 
when the sensual element is weak (the Knight of Toggenbnrg, 
Don Quixote, many minnesingers and troubadours of the Middle 

Such love is flat and soft, and may be even silly : but (he 
true expression of this [Hiwi^fnl fi-eling awakens appropriate 
pity, respect, or sorrow in the hearts of otliers. 



FrcHjuontly this weak love expresses itself in equivalents — 
in (Kjctry, wliich, however, nnder siinh rin-umstnupes, is effcmi- 
nalfi; in icsthelics wliich are overdrawn; in reU^ion, in which 
it gives itself up to mysteries and religious enthusiasm ; or, 
where there is a more jMiwerfnl sensual fmindation, founds sects 
or expresses itself in rrli^ious insanity. The immature love 
of the age of puherty has somL*thing of all this in it. Of all the 
poems and rhymes writttm at this time of life, they only are 
readahle that are the product of poets divinely endowed. 

Notwithstanding all the ethics which love requires in order 
to develop into its true and pure form, its stronge-st root is still 
sonsniLJity. Platonic love is an impussihility, a wlt-ddrvptioii, a 
false designation for related feelings. 

In as far as love rests upon sensual desire, It is only con- 
ceivable in a normal way as existing bctweea individuals of 
opposite sex and capable of sexual intercourse. If these con- 
ditions are wanting or destroyed, then, in the place of love,! 
comes friendsliip. I 

The role which the retention of sexual functions plays in 
the case of a man. Iioth in originating and ri^ttiining the feeling 
of self-ivs|»eet, is remarkable. In the deterioration of inaidiness 
and self-confidence which the onanist, in liis weakened nervous 
state, and the man that has btTome impotent, present, may be 
estimated the significance of this factor. 

Oyiirkfivrt;hk,v (mrinnL Imimtt^tiz. Viunna, 188Ek) saj-s, vprj- justlj', 
that nli] iuui ,vi>img men ei^sentially dilfcr iiK'nUlly, on uccuunt ot the ui>ti- 
dltion of their virility, apd that uiipotene« Iim * detriiuontjil clfoct upon 
the ffi'lintf of wdl-lHiiiiR, menljil frcsliiifss, ftrl.ivil.y, wlf-cnuHil»?iu'c, aad Ih© 
phiy ofraiK-y. This Io«s liooonies the more importi\nt the younger a man 
\» when be lo«« liis virility and the more sensnnlly hi? was constiCiitcd. 

ITniU'r Huch tnreiinwtanccs a siiddcD lf>t»« of virility niay indiirp severe 
Tucluncholia, and even lend to suicide. For such natures life without love 
i« iinlMifirahle. 

But, also, ill cnaep where the reaction is not bo deep, the ruan berefl. 
of hitt virility i« morose and spiteflil, cfrotistlc, jealons, <*ontrary, listless, 
lina but little Belf-respfct or senHe of honnr. and is rownrrfly. Analogioa 
arc seen in the Skopzcus,* vho, ofLer their taisCratioo, change for the 

PSYCnor>OGT op TIIK sexual lAFK. 


The ItMtM ol' virility in still more DotJcculiUi in ixtrtuui wenkly oon- 
alituted iuUi^-i(luaLEl, where it exprL'ttseu iUelf in funual cUcmiuution (v. 

Ill n woman who lias become a matron tlie con<Ution is of 
much less iniportuuoe jjsychologically, Lliough it i.s noticcuble. 
II' tlie past period ot' sexual life has been satisfactory, if chil- 
dren delight the heart of the aging mother, then she is scarcely 
conscious ol* tlic chniign of her personality. 

The situation is different, however, where sterility or cireum- 
stauces have kept a woman from the perfurmance of her iiutimil 
functions and denied her tliat happiness. 

These fuets place in a clear liglit the differences which exist 
between man and woman in the psycholojry of the sexual life, 
and in all the sexual functions and desires. 

Undoubtedly man has a much more intense sexual appetite 
than woman. As a result of a powerful natural instinct, at a 
certain age, a man is drawn toward a woman. He loves seu- 
snally, and is influenced m his choice by physical beauty. In 
accordance with the nature of this powerful Impidse, he is 
aggressive and violent in his wooing. At the same time, this 
demand of nature does not constitute all of his mental existence. 
When his longing is satisfied, love temporarily retreats behind 
other vital and social interests. 

With n woman it is quite otherwise. If she is normally 
develo]KHl mentally, and well bred, her sexual destrc is small. 
If this were not so the whole world would become a brothel 
and marriage and a family impossible. It \s certain that the 
man that avoids women aud the woman that seeks men are 

Woman is wooed for her favor. She remains passive. 
This lies in her sexual organization, and is not founded merely 
on the dictates of good breeding. 

Nevertheless, the sexual sphere occupies a much larger place 
in the consciousness of woman than in that of man. Tlie need 
of love in her is greater than in man, and is continual, not inter- 
mittent ; but this love is mlher more spiritual than sensual. 
While a man loves a woman tlrst as wiie and thBQ as mother of 



his chilHren, a woman h primarily consi:iou8 of a man as the 
father of her children and tlien as liusband. In the choice of a 
life-comiKinion a woman is influenced much more by the mental 
than the physical fjnalities of a man. Wlicn she lias become 
a mother she divides her love between eluld tind husband. 
SensuaUty disapjwars in tlic mother's love. Thereafter, in 
marital intercourse, tlie wife finds less sensual satisfaction than 
proof of the love of her husband. 

A Avoman loves with her whole soul. To her love is Uie ; 
to a man it is the joy of life. To liiin misfortune in love is a 
? :-^ wound; but it costs a woman her life, or at least her Imppiiiess. 
A psychological question worthy of consideration is whether a 
^'* woman can truly love twice in her life. Certainly tlie mental 
inclination of woman is monogamous, while in man it is 

The weakness of men in comparison with women lies in the 
great intensity of their sexual desires. Man becomes dependent 
upon woman, an<l tlie mon;, tlie weaker and moni sensual he 
becomes ; and this just in proportion as he becomes neurdpathie. 
Thus may be understood tlie fact that, in times of effeminateuess 
and luxury, scn.suality tlouri.shea luxuriantly. Then arises the 
danger to society that mistresses and their dependents may rule 
the state and cnnipiiss it-s ruin (the mistresses of the courts of 
L«nis XIV find X\'; the prostitutes of an(ni;nt Gnxiee). 

The biot^raphies of many statesmen of ancient and modeni 
times show that they were the uistmments of women, owinp to 
their great sensuality, which had its foundntion in tlieir neuro- 
pathic couslitutions. The fact that the Catholic Church enjoins 
celibacy upon its priests, in order to cmancijKite them from 
sensuality and ])reserve them entirely for the purpose of their 
calling, is an example of disceniing ]>sycliologtcal knowledge 
of mankind; but it is unfortunate that tlie priests, living in 
celibacy, low; the elevating effont wliich love and matrimony 
exert upon the development of character. 

From the fact that man by nature plays the aggressive 
rote in sexual life, he is in danger of overst(?pping the limits 
which morality and law have set. The unfatttifulucss of a wile. 


in t»m])arisoii with that of a hitslNind, is murally much inure 
weiglity, and should be more severely [uuiislied legally. The 
unfeithfiil wife dislionoi's not only herself, but also her husband 
and her Ihrnily, not to speak of the possibility tii [tater iiicertiui. 
Natural instinct and sttclal position favor unlaitlifulncss on the 
part of a husband, while the wife is afforded mucli protection. 
In the case of an unmarried woman, sexual inU?rcourse is some- 
thing quite diiferent from what it is in an unmarried man. Of 
a single man society demands decency ; of a woman, aUo 
chastity. In the cultivated social life of to-day, woman, occupy- ; 'A* 
ing a sexual pusitioti and conceruiug hei*self in the interests of i)^" J- 
society, eanjjiily be th ought of as a wife. a' 

The aim and ideal of woman, even when she is sunken in 
the mire of vice, is, and remains. raaiTJafje, Woman, as Man- 
te*razza justly remarks, desires not only satisfaction of her sexual 
Iccling, but also protertion and support for herstdf and her chil- 
dren. A man of right fi-eling. no mutter how sensual lu' may 
be, demands a wife that has been, and is, chaste. The emblem 
and ornament of a woman seeking this, her only worthy puqiosc 
in life, is modesty. Mantcgazza finely characterizes modesty 
as "one of the forms of psychical self-respect " in woman. This 
is not the place for anthropological and historical consideration 
of this, the most heautifid attribute of woman. Probably, 
feminine modesty is an hereditarily evolvtxl product of the 
development of civilization.' 

In remarkable coutrjist with it. there is occasional exposi- 
tion of physical charms, conventionally sanctioned by the law 
of fashion, in which even the most discreet maiden allows her- 
self to indulge in the hall-room. The reasons which lead to 
this display are evident. Fortunately the modest girl is as little 
conscious of them as of the reason for the occasionally rw:ur- 
ring mode of making certain poilions of the body more promi- 
nent (panniers) ; to say nothing of corsets, etc. 

* WHWrniBrck(ap.M., p. Sllj.mftdrBrarcfaln-rkirof tljucvfilcncc, mjr: "ThCMs 
facto ftppFftr Iw prove ibiit Ili« fv«Utis of thaow, far from Mni; thci ort|;lD)L) c«u«» of nuui's 
GOTvrinc III" l"»>ly. t«, on I ho contrary, i» iTfuU of tlilncuKUini ; aiid ttimt tbt ri>vi-Hn^, If not 
OMd ■• ■ praUNrUoo f'otn clImniR, owcn iu o(lKi"i ^^ lrn>C iu « K^uat uiouy cam, lo Me 
dsdrv of men atwl Monieii Ui muki: tIivDi»clT«« attncUTt:." — Tkans. 



lu all times, and among all nices, women show a desire to 
adorn themselves and be cliarming.' In the animal kingdom 
nature has distinguisliwi the male with the greater beauty. Men 
desiguati! women an the beautiful sex. This gallantry dearly 
arises from the sensual desire of men. As long as this personal 
adiniiment has a puriK>se only in itself, or the true psychological 
reason of tlie desire to please remains unknown to the woman, 
nothing can be said against it. When it is done with knowl- 
edge, the eflort is called flirtiiig. 

Un der a ll circumstances a dandified man is ridiculous. We 
arc accustomed to this sliglit weakness in a woman, and iind no 
fault with it, so long as it is but a subordinate manifestation. 
When it has become the all-absorbing aim, the French apply to 
it the word coqftctry. 

Woman far surpasses man in tlie natural psychology of 
love, partly because^ through heredity and education, Iier native 
element is love ; and ]»artly berause slit; has finer fei^lings ("Man- 
tegazza). Even in a man of the very highest breeding, it cannot 
be found objectionable that he recognizes woman as a means of 
satisfying his natural instinct. But it becomes his duty to belong 
only to the woman of his choice. In a civilized state this 
becomes a binding social obligation, — marriage; and, ina^smuch 
a:4 tlic wife riN|uires for herself and children pmtection and su[>- 
port, it becomes a marriage right. 

It in of great imporhvuvo psychologically, aud, fur ivrtnin pntbologl- 
Uil inanifiwtatiotiH to bo Inter (ie.-icrilH><1, indiKiM'iiHnhlv, to fMimiiio ttii> |))*y- 
eholf^iciil evfiits which dniw t\ nutii i\mi a womitn together and unite them ; 
HO thnt, of nil otlicrr perBuiis ul' the sBin<! aux, only the beloved one flecros 

If one could demonstrute design in the proccsees of natnre, — adHpta- 
tion cannot be denied them, — thu fiiet of fusciuHtiou by a Hingle person of 
tbe opjM>site sex, with indiirpienw toward nil others, iix it occurs bi-tweun 
true and happy lovers, would app«ir «« a wonderful creative provieion to 
Insure nionoKanious unions for the proniotion of their object. 

I This It not llti?Tm]ly the cnM. '* It 1b expreaily MtitMl, of tha women of aertnH 
$mw»igf pvoplra, that tbi-> iirv Inw ilmlroaa of wtf-tlov oration itian Urn lueii, *' — Wvntermafck, 
op. eU., p. 151. And Ltiu BMiH? wrUi.-r(|j. l!t'J) Mjr* Uiat "It f» ticominnii nutloii tbat wonen 
■re bjr nature valuer niul more. lultllcUd t<i Lln.'K»1tu; miij ikt'iiratltiK LtiHiuMiIrrB tliMi Ulna. 
Tbto tvrt«iiil7 ii\KA not holil tfuod lor mvo^ » wiil kftrbttruua peoples In gcueraL" — Tbam*. 



To the Adeotihcohsorver, however, this love, or " harmony ofaoiiU," 
this " heartbontl," does not, by any uifans, appear as s " Boul-myiitcrj- ;" 
but, in the majority of aisva, it may Ih> reftrriH) ti> Ltvrtuiii pliysifal or 
mental pcculiaritii:^, ns tliu uumu muy bo, by which Iho attruclivoncsH of 
th« beloved i^erson is i-xerttnl. 

Thus wc sjK'irtk of what i* niUed fHich i\wX felivhiifvi. In the 
term/etich we an? wont to comprehend object«, or parts, or simply |>ocu- 
liarities ofobjecttK, whic-b, by virtue of asMueiiitivu rt^'latioiiit to nn intense 
reeling, or to a ptTHoimltty or iilcn thnt uwitkeus ilrcp iiitert>8t. exert a 
Idnd or cbarui {"/etixao" Portuguese), or, at Icutet, owing to peculiar 
tndiviilanl c-oluring. produce* a very ile«p itnpresAion which does not belong 
to the external m^n (f>ymlM)1. fetich) in itself 

The individual valuation of the feticli, whioh may i;o lo the extent 
of ah nnreasoniD<!'enthiisin^iu iu the individual all'ectod. is culled fctiebixm. 
This interesting i»fyehol4^i)«! phenoinemm ih explitaiUe by nn empiricjil 
law of nssoeiatiou, — the relation of a jitirticular t^> a geuenil concept, — la 
whieh, however, the eetaeiitial thing it) the plea-HVirablc otuotioual coloring 
of the iiarticular txtuecpt peeiiliar to tbe individual. It iH niwt comnton 
in two reliil*-d nictila! spln-ros, — those of relipious jhhI erotic leetinus and 
ideas. Heligioua felichi«m dillers in rclatiou and Higuilicauce from sexual 
(elichiHm, for it fouitd, urn) Htill lindK, it« original motive in the delusion 
that the object of the feliehipui, or the iilol, posKcHseH divine attril»ute», 
and that it is not simply a (<ymbol ; or peculiar wondei'-worltinff (relics) 
or protective (amulet) virtues are Buperstitiously ascribeil to the fetich. 

It i» otherwise with erotic fetichism, which liiids itH psycho logieal 
motive in fetiches which consist of physical or mciit.*i.l (jualities of a 
person, or even merely of olijects which a person has used. These 
always awaken iiittnisu associnUve Ulcjui uf the pentouality as a whole, 
and, moreover, are always colored with a li%'ely feelin;; of sexual pleusurv. 
Analogies with religious fetichism are alwayn dit^-emible; fur, under 
certain circumslaiiceSf in the«r,the most iusij^iilic-unt objects (bones, 
nails, hair, etc.) l>ecome fetiches, and arc aa^ociaU^d with pleasurable 
feclinfcs which may reach the intensity of ecstasy. 

With rcspt'nt of tlie developtnenl of physiological love, it 18 
probable that its itiicleiis is always to be found in an individual 
Jetich (charm) wtiiclt a person of one sex exorcises over a ptM*.son 
of the ojtposite sox. 

The case is the simplest wliore the siyht of o person of the 
oppotriU; sex oecnrs .simultaneously with sensual excitement, and 
the latter is thus increased. 

* Ccnp. MkiMILIlcr, who dtirlTfiBtbv word IkUcb eqrnoluglcaJl; IVoDi/nefOtouj (artt- 
nclaJ, MB iMlgiilflciuit thing). 




Kmotional and visual impressious are bruuglit into associa- 
tive connection, and tbis associutioii is strcn^tiieiictl in propor- 
tion as tlie rt'curring rmotioii awakens the visnal memory-picture, 
or the latter (auotlior meetiiii?) rt-uews sexual exc-itcnient, which 
may possibly reoch the intensity ol" orf;;asnt and pulhitiou (dream- 
pintiirn). In lhi& case tlie whole physical ^personality has the 
effect of a fetich. 

As Billet and otbcrs show, merely parts of the whole, 
simply peculiarities, either physical or menial, nia;- afft^rt the 
person of the opposite sex as a fetich, when the perception 
of them is associated with (accidental) sexual excitement (or 
induces it). 

It is well known from experience that accident determines 
this mental association, that the objects of the letich may be 
individually very diverse, and tliat Uius tlie most peculiar sym- 
imthies (and antipathies) arise. 

These physiological facts of fetichism explain the individual 
sympathies between husband and wife; the preference of a 
certain person to all others of the same sex. Since the letich 
represents a symbol that is purely individual, it is clear that its 
effect must be individual. Since it is colored by tlio most intense 
pleasurable feeling', it follows that jMJssible fuidt.s in the beloved 
object are overlooked ("Love is blind"), and an exaltation of it 
is induced that to others is inconi[nehen-sible. and even silly 
under some circumstances. Thus it is clear why lovers arc not 
underslood by tlieir unaffected fellow-tnen ; and why they deify 
their idols, develop a true cult of devotion, mid invests them 
with attrihuU:s which olijectively they do not posst^ss. Thus we 
may understand why love appears sometimes more like a irassion, 
sometimes as a formal, exceptional mental stale, in which the 
unattainable seems attainable, the ugly beautiful, the profane 
sacred, and every other interest, everj- duty, disappears. 

Tarde {ArrJurcji rle Vnn(hrfipt)h>ffie crimincUe, v year. No. 
30) rightfully einphasi7x?s the fact that tlie fetich may vary with 
nations as well as with individuals, hut that the general ideal 
of beauty remains the same among civilized people of the same 



Binct dcscrvps fprat credit for ha%'ing studied and atmlviwd 
in detail the fetidiism uf love. The particular sympathies all 
spring from it. Thus one is attracted to slendt^r, anotlier to 
plump beauties, to blondes or brunettes. For one a peculiar 
expression of the eyes; for another a peculiar tone of the voice, 
or a particular (even an artificial) odor (i>erfuuie) ; or the hand, 
the foot, the ear, etc., may be the individual fetich (charm), — 
the beginning of a complicated chain of mental processes which, 
as a whole, represent love, i.e.. the longing to possess, physically 
and mentally, the beloved object. 

This fact is important, as showing a condition for the origin 
of a fetichism timt falls within physiological limits. The fetich 
may constantly retain its significance without being pathological; 
but this is possible only when the particular concept is developed 
to a general concept; when the resulting love comes to take as 
its object the whole mental and physical personaHty. 

Normal love can l>e nothing hut a synthesitt, a gciieralizn- 
tion. I^udwig Bninn,' under the heading, " The Kcticliism of 
Love," cleverly says : — 

"Thus normal love appears to us as a symphony of tones 
of all kinds. It results from the most various stimuli. It is 
likewise polytheistic. Fetichism recogniws only the tone of 
a single iustmment; it results from a certain stimulus; it is 

On slight reflection any one will see that real love (this 
word is only too often abused) can be spoken of only when tlie 
whole person is both physically and mentally the object of 
adoration. Love must aUvays have a sensual clement, i.e., the 
desire to possess the beloved object, to \)e united with it and 
fulfill the lawa of nature. But when mcn*ly the body of the 
person of the opjiosite sex is tlie objt^ct of love, when satisfaction 
of sensual yjleasure is the sole object, witliout desire to possess 
the soul and enjoy muttml communion, love is not genuine, no 
more than that of platonic lovers, who love only the soul and 
avoid sensual pleasure (many cases of contrary sexuality). For 
the former merely the body, for the latter simply the soul, is a 



fnticli, and the love fetichism. Such cases certainly represent' 
transiLioiis to patlmlogiciil frticliism. This assumption is even 
raorR justified when, as a further criterion of real luve, mental' 
satislactioii must \>e given by the sexual act. 

There remains to he mentioned, within the physioloj^ical 
phenomena of fetichism, the fact that among the many tilings 
tliat may hcfrome fetiches Uicre arc certain ones tliat gtuu such 
significance for a majority of persons. 

As Kucti for a man may be mentioned the hair, the hand, 
the foot of a woman, the expression of her eyes. Certain ones 
of tlicse gain a remarkable eigniticancc in tlie pathology of 
fetichism. These facts clearly play a role in the fcminiue mind, 
either consciously or unconsciously. 

One of the greatest cares of women is the cultivation of the 
hair, to which oRen an unreasonable amount uf time and money 
is devoted. How a mother cares for her little daughter's hair! 
What a part the hair-dresser plays! Falling of the hair would 
cause desfiair in a young lady. I n^Jill a prout) lady who 
became insane over it, and died by suicide. Ycuiig ladies like 
to talk of coiffures, and arc envious of beautiful hair.^ 

*MKcnaii'B"eplnkl c6r»bnl pmUiiaar/'whoflutUplcuun In <t*«ry wooian, uidoM ' 
Wtiom cvcnr vrotnan luoka wUli fnvur, hw uulj- dctln: lo ruUtfy bU ]ui>t, PurclmMNt ar 
furccd li'vu Is iivl tvul line (Maiit-jiuEia). Th« imc wbu urIjfliinUil tbu'tttLfltiB, "Sublalft 
IlKPruk DulIuDi •llccriitipD intrr fcmttia*," niiiMt tinvr bcnn n irviili' lixti'pij. Poiirvr In S UiUI 
to prrfnnii Itivit's iu--t U iiu ptuuf that CliU mitkH ^xiwiblK lliv gir^lrtl plcaniirv of love. 
There M«, liiiJ«iil. urulugs wbo an.' polcnt Tor ironitMi, — luru wbo du tiul love tboir wlros, 
Init w)iuarr«till u)>IrIii pcrrorm lh« nmritAl "Uuiy." In nio«t i'k»r» of till* kind, luiln?)!, 
Ihrm is iio lufltrui plruiire ; It Ia luai-iitlAlly a Itliid nf onanlAtle not, for ttie DiCMt |>i>rt mmtlc 
[MMlblc by moaiifl of tivlp iif ttiiBj^ttatJoii Uj&t c4lU up aitctluT bclovod pfrmti. By UUa 
dixcptliiti •euaunl pU-atiun; can be ai(luci-4, but tliU ruillmeiitary piycbk-sl HlUfaeUort U 
Uie nwull i>r a mcratal irlck, Ju«t a*. In •oHtnry onsnUtii, wbrm Tntiry hiw b> Molit In ordvr 
to Inducu ■rtiKUnl pleoaiiri!. A* a rul«, Itic -deKcm of on^ariii iii'tFBiiury an a incaDii l<> Ui« 
■Ualtiwtint uf liistrul plfH^un: •r'^rma nitulnatilc unly whrn tlii- lina^lnallun Intfrrrcnci. 
Wbimc oienLnl iiiijirillinritU i-xUt (iiKlldiTi-iirr, n-|)ui.'iiah<'t', dl»<i.''ii-'<t, fi^ar of iBirt-cUou nr ' 
pregnancy, rU-.), sinftuid [ilouaiiru seisins lunally waiiUiiic- 

■"Tbc Imporlam pan playca by tbc Unir i>f the head aa a atttnulant of mnnl 
paaaluQ appears lu a corlouB way fmcn Mr. SibnH>V annuitt at King RmUma't attempt lo 
liilnxluci' European oufitom* ainoEig Oif- limp* cjT MiulairaBi'ivr, A* fHja na lii; luul Mlop<«d , 
tfac military tatrtkN of the EnitHali, lie ordered Ibal all tiU otllrrrv uitl wldlvra aliuul«t liavo 
tlielr lialr u-ut, bul tlits command pia>]iic<Td mi g^rrat a dl«tur^aupe amnug the. wotnrn of 
tbi: capital that Uif^y aawcnUlMl In ffrMtt DDOibcrB to pmtcist Bcnitut the kltig'a thrdfrr, awl 
• could Diit bft quUttd untU they w«n aurruitntlwl by tnwpa, and iliclr li-adrra cruelly 
•peared."— Wcalcnuonik, op, rtl. 

Hcr« uiaK' liolr vraa a physlologlc«l fetich of femalw. It nfmamtfi n rolnllon of 
Utc aexe* that rivlllxatlDti liaa grwlually rvveraml. While In civtlUcd society arotnan ex«r- 



HcAutifiil hair is a powerful fetich with many men. In 
the legt-nd of the Lorcley, who lured men to destruction, the 
golden hair, wliidi »hv combs with n golden comb^ fipjx^rs as a 
fetich. Ki'equeiitly the hand uiid foot |ioss4!ss un atlractiveness 
uo less powerful, when, indrcnl, iifteti (tlionjjh by no means in- 
variably) masochistic and sadistic feelings aid in detennining 
the pecidiar kind of fetich. 

By a transfi'i-enee throngli association of ideas, the gloves 
or shoes nuiy obtain the BJgnific'aiice of a fcticli. 

Briinn (o/>. cit.) justly pointn out titnt among tlie customs 
of the Middle Ages drinking from the shoe of a beautiful woman 
(stili to be found in Poland) played a remarkable part in gal- 
lantry and homage. The shoe also plays an im|)ortaut role in 
the legend of AscIwMibrodel. 

The ex])ression of the eyes is particularly im|>urtant as a 
means of kindling the sparks of love. A neuropathic eye fre- 
quently afft'ct-s itersons of both sexes as a fetich. " Madame, vos 
beaux yeux me font mourir d'amonr" (Moliere). 

There is snperflnity of examples showing that odors of the 
body may become fetidics. 

This fact is also taken advantage of in the ars amandi of 
woman, either conscionsly or uucoTisi-inusIy. Ruth sought to 
attract Koaz by perfuming herself. The ilniii'nioitiie of ancient 
aiul modem times is noted for its use of perfume. Jiiger, in 
his " Discovery of the SonI," calls attention to many olfactory 

Cases are known where men have married ugly women 
simply because their |»rrsanal odors were exceedingly pleasing. 

Binct makes it probable tital the voice may also become a 
fetich. He relates a case iu point of Dumas, who used it in his 

^B b«r Iog«oaHy to Incrnw b^ attrwUTcnrM. vnontr MTat:r« It Ic Ui« meu wlio an: 
Mtxknu to in«reMe tbclr phjril«al cbanuA. Tbla iwcrMi of iti<> prUaitlro nlKtloc In > Tcry 
InUfMUne f«t, atld 1» pn>biilJly to b« uiplalnrd by tin tntiisfi-n'nre at U)q "llbtrrljr of 
cbolee " ttom wumftti U> iDkn wlili-h clTllliaUiiu hu irmilual.lj loduvnl. WMtlrnrtu-ck (eft. 
eU-, P- 1SS) mjt: " It vbnulil h* iioti'il that II Is, u a rule, thr njao onlj Lbal tuD» the r1*k 
of bHsg obllgrd to !nul & ftliiKle Uri-. nnui- it Li obrlnn* Uiu, tn tba bf«l oriib aMIUy, 
hw mwl FDileavor lo br ttikt-n UtUi favor by maklnj; hllDMilf U UtracUro ua pct«Mbl«. In 
clTlllenl Ruropc, nn the r>t)icr biin>l, thr nr<|">iiiti: uucun. Here tt la l\ns womau Uiat baa 
Ibe graaUat difficult]' lo ^UIdk luturle*], aud >be U also tlu valaer of tbe two."— TK4jia. 


novel, " La Maison du Vent." It was the case of a wife who 
fell in love with a tenor's voice, and thus became untrue to her 
husband. Belot's romance, "Les Baigneuses de TrouviUe," 
speaks in favor of this assumption. Binet thinks that many 
marriages with singers are dae to the fetich of their voices. He 
also calls attention to the interesting fact that among singing- 
birds the voice has the same sexual significance as odors among 
quadrupeds. The birds allure by their song, and the male that 
sings most beautifully flies at night to his charmed mate. 

The pathological facts of masochism and sadism show that 
mental peculiarities may also act as fetiches in a wider sense. 

Thus the fact of idiosyncrasies is explained, and the old 
saying, " De guatibus non eat di^pxUandum" retains its force. 


PuBiHa the time of the phyMolngical proceowA in the Kprodactive 
^IbdiIs, dosirce arise ui the oonsciousuuas of the imilvidual vrtiieb have for 
tliiiir purpiwi! tlir tHifiH-tunlidii of th<> t^jHn^ii-ii (m-xuHl int^liiK-l). 

Sexual dcBire during the years of aexuul mHtniily is n iibyHiolc^cuI 
Iftw. The duration of the physiolo^icnt proccsHeet in the sexual or^aoa, 
118 well nM tlie titrenptli oflho ttoxuat (lei»ir«* iiiHiiirftnted, vary.liotb in iiuli- 
vidiittlH nnd in rnr-os. lluce, (!liiuaUs heredity, nnd ttocial oircuinstanpes 
hETe a very decide*! influence uikjh it. The frrentcr flciisuality of Ronlhem 
rnces n» coni|airfd with the sexual neetU of those of the North L"* well 
known. Sexuiil develupuient in the tnliiiNitaulK of Irupieitl climes lakes 
place much earlier Ihan in those of more northern regions, lu women 
of Dorthem eouittries ovniation. recojrniznhle in the devi^lopment of tbo 
body and the occnrrenoe of a poriodir^l flow of Mood from the {fenitnls 
{nienRtruation). usually IwijiuB about the tliirtecnth or fifteenth yeAr; in 
men pnljorty, ri'cojifnizalile in the dei^peniti^ of the voice, the appearance 
of hair on the face and the mous veneris, and the oci^utional oerarrcnce 
of poiltiliouA, etc., tnkeK place atiout the flfleentli year, lu the {nhalnt- 
anlfl of tropical countries, however, sexual development takes place 
Beveral yearH earlier in women, — sometimes as early as the ei<j;hth year. 

It i« worthj- of remiirk that (jirls who live in citien develop about 
a year earlier than pirls livinjj in the country, and that the lar)^r the 
town the earlier, teteris jiaHbiis, the derelopmenl takes place. 

Heredity, however, hiiw no small influence on lihido and sexual 
power. ThiiH there are fauiilifs in wliieh. with grent phynioil strength 
and longevity, jnvat libido and virility are preserved until a great age, 
while in other flimilies the vita snxualis develops late and in early 

in women the time of the nrtivity of the reproductive glands is 
ahorter than in men, in whom the sexual ftmetion may last until a greiit 
age. Ovulation cca.scH alrfiut thirty y«irs after pnlwrty. This period of 
WMation of aetivity of the ovariea is called the change of life felimac- 
terium). This biological phase does not represent merely a eeftsation of 
(Vinctinn and tinal atroi>by of the reprodnctive organa. but also a trans- 
formation of the whole org!tni*m. In Middle Europe the sexual maturity 
of men Ix^ius alKtut the eighteenth year, and their virility r^-achea it« 
acme at forty. After that age it slowly declines. 

The pntentla genersndi cetixes usually at the age of sixty-two, but 
|H>tentia tueundi may he prei*ent even in old age. The eiintence of the 




sexual in»tincl ixcontiiiuou?* during (.1ictim<;of Rexunl life, but it rarieB in 
intensity. I'ndir phyaiol^^i*-*! onnditioiitt it, is never intc-nnittent, (period. 
leal), lis in onironla. Id men it niiinifestf* nn organic \'ariatioD of ititcnsity 
in conBannnup with ttte coIU^ctiuu and t-xjH'ndltun' of Kvnu'Ji ; in iroincn 
the inun-iwo of sexual desire coincides with Ihf proci^es of ovulation, and 
in suvb A wny Mint libido sexiiidiH is (greater tiller the menntniHl period. 

Si*xuiil InBtiii(.-t — H8 t'liiotton, idt^, and impiiUe — is n f\mction of ttie 
eerclirsi cortex. Thnn far no definite rt-jfton of the cortex has been 
provoi:) t« be exoIu«ivel_v the scftl of sexual fn'tityilions nnd iinjiulsoti,' 

Owinj; to the closy relations wliicli pxiHt iMttwi-eji the Kpximl ini^tinoC 
and the ol Ekutory sense. It Is to be presumed that Ibe sexual and olfiictory 
centres lie clone tojiether in the cen-bral cortex. The development of the 
Sexual life IAim it*> bf^inniu^ in the or^.iiiie HeHMtitiontt which nrixe from 
the developing reprodiietivo (flands. These excite the atti>ntion of the 
individual. Keadinirs and the es|H?riencej» of every-day life (Trliich, un- 
forHinatel^', tcwlay are Loo early and Itto ft-ecjuently su<jj!(*filive) convert 
tliCBu notions iulu clear ideas. These Uecorae aocentuatcd by oi^anic son- 
satSons which are plesisuiiible. Willi thi^t accentuation of erotic ideas by 
liiMtful feclingn, an impulse to induce these (scxitnl desire) is developed. 

Thii* there is **Rtnbli?ihed n mutnal dependence between the cerebral 
cortex (as the place of ori|pn of sensations and ideas) nnd the reproduc* 
live orpins. The tatter, by reason of physiolnfriwil [iroccHaes (hyper- 
a>rotn. Hi«retion of semim, uvnbition), give rise to sexual Ideas, Images, 
and impulses. 

The cereliml cortex, by means of appereeived or reproduced sensual 
ideas, reacts nn the reprodtietive onjnns, inducing hyperjemia, secretion 
of semen, erection, ejaculation. This results by menns of centres for 
vasomotor inriei-vation nnd ejaculation, which are situated in the himlmr 
poi-tion of the cor<l nnd lie close tt>j»ether. Both are reflex centrea. 

The erection-centre ((JoHz, Jickhiml) is an iii termed tfite Hlation 
placiHl I«-lween the brnin and the genital aiipaniliis. The nervous paths 
wbie-h connect it with the brain proIiaVily run through the pediiueuli 
cerebri and the pons. This centre nuty be excited by centnd (psychical 
nnd organic) stimuli, by ilirtHit irriLiitinn of (he nerve-tract in the pednn- 
eulis cerebri, iions, or cervical portion of the cord, as well aH by periph- 
eral irritation of the sensory nerves (penis, clitoris, nnd annexa). It is 
not directly suljordinated to the will. 

The excitation of this centre is conveyed to the ct^riwra cavernosa 
by means of nerves (nervi erigentes — Kckhard) running in the first three 
aaeml nerves. 

The action of the nervl erigentes, which renders erection possible, 

> ITic olfsetorj ceotr* U pmunied b>- Ferrier (** FunctloDi of the BralD '*) lo be In 
QUi rtf^OD or ttx' yj/rut uxonari^. /.acktrkmwl) (" I'l'Itrr Jan RIvilioctiLnim," 1(^7) , from 
rasearchM In cotnp«nUTe anatomy, coDclodw UiM tbt olfwlory cimtre hu ItA amt In 
Amnoa'a livni. 



Ib mi inhibitory out.-. 'V\wy iuliiblt tlie gunglioQic oerrous mcduiiiism in 
tim corpora cavemoea upon tbe action of whicli the smooth muncle-fibnv 
of the corpora cavemowi nre rft-iHjiKlwiit (KiillikiT niul Ki>hlniui*ch). 
Under Ibo influence of the action of the nervi erigentcs Ihtse Hhres of the 
corpora cavcmoMi K'oomo relaxed nud their spaces fill with blood. SimiiU 
taneously, as n result of the diliitntion of the c-npillary net-work of the 
OOFfwra cavemoMi, pniKKure is exerted upon the vi-iim of the |>eriiH and 
the return of blood is impeded. 'V\u» etl'ect is aided by contrnetion of 
the Imlbo cnremosna ntul iHcbto e-ivvriKrtu» iniiitcle», whicli iire inserted 
by meiins of an apuncuro^iis on the dor«(l Hurfnoe of the penis. 

The erection-centre is nndrr the influence of both iMeiting and in. 
hibitory [Dnervation nrising in tbe cerebrum. Idens and .seiisc-)teroe)»- 
tions of sexnnl content liavv au exciting elR'irt. Also, H(H;ordin|( to 
observations tuiLde on men that have been hnn^, it is evident that the 
erection-^.'enlre may l«e exeit<?d by fxcitation of the tract in the spinal 
cord. OlMorrutions on the in»ane and those sufTerint; with oerebml di»- 
«*Ae show thai thin i.-^ also poKsihle ah n reRuU of organic in'itntion in thn 
oerchral (-ortex ( psych o-»exual centre f). Sjiinal dii*eii.se3 (tabes, e»iRH!ially 
myelitis) affeetin;; the lumbar portion tit the uord, in their earlier atagvs, 
may directly excite the eriHrtion-eeutre. 

Reflex excitation of the centre in pOHitiMe iind fVciiiient in the fol- 
lowinff ways: by irritation of the (perijiheral) acnsory nerve.* of the 
genitals and Hiirroundinf; part^ by fricllon ; by irritniion of the nrethra 
(gooorrho^a ). of the rectum (hientorrluilds, oxynriK), of the bladder 
(ditttenBlon with nviue, cspetrially in the nioriiin;j:, irriljition of eaienli); 
by distension of the vesiculie Keniinales with ounien; by hypenemia of 
the genitab, oecaoiuned by lying on the back, and tliuR inducing presnuru 
of tbe intciitine)^ u|Hni the blood-ve»)iK*lH of the |H-lviit. 

Tbe eretrtion-ccntre may also l>e excilcrt by irritation of the DArvoua 
f^ngtia which are so abundant in the profltatic tiflnuc (profttatitis, intro- 
dncUun nf catheter, etc.). 

The exfjeriuient of Uoltz, according; to whom, when'Xin dogs) the 
iumlnr |>ortiou of the cord i» severed, erection i» more easily induced, 
ahowH that the er«ction<centre is also subject to inhibitory iuUuenccH from 
the brain. 

In mea the fUct that the will and emotionH (fear of unsueceesfiil 
Qoitutt, surprise inter actum sexualem, etc.) may inhibit the occurrence 
of erection, and cause it, when pre>«;nt, to diwtppear, also indicates this. 

The duration of erection is dependent upon the duration of ita ex- 
ettiDf!^ cauBcs (sensory iitimuli), tbe absence of inhibitory iiiflnences, tbe 
nervfiuH ene^^ of the centre, and the inirly or late occurrence of ejacu- 
lation (v. infra). 

Tbe central and highest poilion of the sexuaJ mechanism is the 
cerebral corl-ex. It te Jufltifinblc to presume tlmt tbore t« a deHntte ref^on 
of the eort«x (cerebral centre) which gtvea rise to acxnal feelings, ifleiia, 



and irnpiilBo«, ami ia tht pkop of origin of tho psythn-oornatio prooewwfl 
wliich wt" ilesi^nntc ns sexiiiil life, »osu(iI itiHtiiict, nnil Ki-xiinl de-'^ire. Thifl 
Ctiutrt! is cxciUtblf U* hoth cuiitra) aiitl pvripht^ni.1 nttmuli. 

Centml stimuli, in llie form of cirjpitik* excitation, may be due to 
diseflitrs of thu crrohral fi>rTPx. Pjiysiologicnily they t-onttist of pay* 
chicaJ atimuli (rai-mory and simsory pfrc*ptloiiB). 

Under ])liyNioIo«ripHl conilitions tliese Btiiimli are esacnttnlly vistui 
porcvptiotit; and rni'mury-pietiircH (f .n., liisiiiviuuH Hti>riuu) and also lartile 
ilQprestiions (touch, preHsuix* of the hand, kiss, etc.). 

Within pliysioloffical lirnitA auditory and olfsfrtory p«^reeptions cer- 
tainly piny Itut n very suliordinntc role. Under patliologieal conditions 
(ii. infra) thi> luttor linve n vi^ry di<i:ided liillutinRe in inducing Bexunl 
exciti: UK-lit. 

Jlrnong nnimnlfl the influent-*^ of ollartory pereeptions on the sexual 
BPn»e is unmistakable. Althans (" Ueitriiiri- zur Physiol, iind Patlinl. des 
Olfiiolorius." Arrftir /iir P^ijeh,, xii, U I) deelareti lliat the sense of 
Binell is importiint with refercni-e to the reprotluution of the Bpecies. He 
Hhows that aniuialti of o|>|H»Kito r^exow are drawn to ejieh other by iiivans 
of olGiotoi'y perception^!, iind that almost all noimnls, at the time of rut- 
ting, emit a very Hlrciiji odor fnmi llieir i^enitaU. An t-xpftriintMit by 
Hciiiir is eonlinjifttory of this. He extirjxated the oll'nftory nerves in 
puppies, and foun<l thiit, an the anlinnls fjrew, the male wfl» iitiahlo to 
distinguish the female. On the other hand, .in experiment by Mnnte- 
giizxn {" Hygiene of Love "), who removed the eyes of ndihitH and found 
that the defettt constituted no obslaele to procreation, shows hov im- 
portnnt in iininmU the olfactory »eusc is for the vita Kcxualiti. 

it is aUu reniarknbli; llmt many animals (miisk-ox, civet-CAt, 
beaver) poHSCSS glands on their sexual organs, which secrete materinls 
having a very strone odor. 

Alihau.-' also shows that in man there are certain relations exiittiiig 
between the olfactory and sexual iteiises. Me mentions Cloquet (" Oephr^ 
aiolojrie." Pari*, 1K26}, who ealLs attention t'l the sensual pleasure excited 
liy the odors of fl<»wers, ;ind tells luiw UiclU'Iieu livwl in an atmosphere 
loa4li-d with the heaviest perftimes, in onlor to excite his sexual Ainetious. 

/ipia* ( Wien, Med. Wurhenavhnfi, I87y, Nr. il), in connection with 
a case of kleptomania in an otianist, lilcewUc estublishcM «ueh relatioun, 
and cite« ilildebriind as authority, who in his popular physiology says: 
"It cannot be doulited that the olfactory aensc stands in remote connec- 
tion with the sexual appamttis. Odors of flowers often occasion pleasur- 
able sensual feclingH, and when one remembers the pawsage in the ' Song 
of Solomon,' * And my hands dropped with myrrh and my lingers with 
Bweet-smeliing myrrh upon the haiutles of the lock.' one flnds tliat it did 
uot e«o)ipe Solomon's observation. In the Orir-nt the pleasant perAimes 
are esteemed for their relation to tlio sexual organs, and the women's 
Apartments of the Sultan are lillcd with the perf\ime» of flowers." 



Vost, profbitHor in RoHtock ((.■omp. Zi|>|ie), relates : *' 1 leametl from 
a sensiul yoang jHatsaat tbat be had excited many a olmste girl scxiialiy, 
and eawily Knme«J lii» end, hy carryiiij* biH liaridkerfliii.'f in liis sxilla for a 
lime, wLitf di(rK'itt|;,)ind then wipiiif; hi*i psrtner'i* pfr*piriii[j; tnKv with it." 

The case of Ilfiiry III shows tlint contflftt with « person's perspira- 
tion mny K^ the exciting rnosc of imsHioruitc love. At the betrothal 
ft-'UHt of tht> Kiug of Navarre and Miir);uret of Vnlois, he aceiilenljdly 
dried his fncc with n gannctit of Marin of Cleves, wtitub vats [uoi»t with 
her perwpiratioii. Allhuiigli she wii«» ibe bride »f the i'riiice of Oond^, 
Henry conceived immcdi:ite)y siioh a passionate love for her thftt he 
eould not resist it, and made hc-r, as liiKlory shows, very iirihuppy. An 
analogous instance is ndated of Henry IV, who^e fmsston fur the beauti- 
ful Uabriel is said to have originated at the instant wheJi, at a Imll, he 
wiped bii^ brow witli her haodkercbief. 

l*rofen*or Jiiger, llie *'diw:'Ovei'er of the soul," refers to the same 
thing to his welUknonm hoolc (Sd e*!., IKHII, chap, xt, p. 118); for he 
regards the sweat an im]>OTtant In the prodnetinn of aexiia) e(rect<> and 
aa being especially seductive. 

One learns from ruiidinfi the work of Ploss ("Pas Weih**) that 
attempts to attract a pen^oti of the o|»pnsite sex 1iy meaus of the ]versp1- 
ration may l>e discerned in many forms in popular psycholc^y. 

In reference to this, a custom which holds among the natives of the 
Philippine Islnnds when they become engaged, as reported by Jiiger, ie 
remarkable. When it becomes necttssary for tlie t-ngsned iwiir to separate, 
they exchange article^i of wefiring-apuflrel, I>y means of which each be- 
comes aSHiireil of faith fulness. These olgwfji are carpfiilly preserved, 
covered with kisses, and smelted. 

The lore of rertnin lilmrtines and sensnal women for perAimes' 
iudicates a relation between the olfactory atid sexuiil senocs. 

A case mentioned by ITeschl ( Wiener Zfitsvhrifl f. pmct. Heil- 
kunde, March S4, ISfil ) is remarkaMf. where the absence of both olfac- 
tory lobes was awomimnied ]iy impirrfectly developed genitals. It was 
the case of a man aged iit, in all re>tiH!i>ts well developed, with th« exce|>- 
tion of the testicles, which were not hirger than beans and contained no 
seminal canals, and the larynx, which seeme«I to b« of feminine diinen- 
nons. Every trace of olfactory nerves. waa wanting, and the trigotiii 
otfiu^orfa and the furrow on the under surface of the anterior lobes 
were absent. The perforations of the ethmoid plate were sparfngly 
present, and occupied by nerveless pro<-rsses of tlie dura instead of by 
nerrcs. In the mucous membrane of tlie noBc there was also an absence 
of nerves. Finally, the clearly-defined relation of the olfjielory and sexual 
•eases in mental diseases is worthy of notice, in that in tbu psychottes of 

* Oomp. Lsycock, wbo <" Kcrvou* DIkum oT Womcu," 1840) founi] timt In wotnca 
Um }tm for noik uul tlmllw ^erfunn wu nloMd to texokl excltemeDt. 



both Biix.eB JupuiiUt^ut on mii^turbntion, as wel! as in ranimity dae to 
diflcase of tbe sexual orgKiis of tliu rciiiii!t.>, or <Iui'iii<; the i>)imact4^rio,' 
olfactory halluciimtioiisi Hrc. esiieciijlly frequent, while in cases where a 
sexual cause iw wjuittnp they nrt vt-ry iiifrciiimiit. 

I nm incliDcd to doiibl' that olfiu-tory iiiipn'Ksi<iiiH in man, under nor- 
mal roniliuonu.a^i in aiiiinati'', i>lny nii iinportHiit rCie in tbc excitation of 
tlio fKixuai centre. On nvrount of tlie inipurtance of tlii^ vunitT'isuH for tUe 
underslAnding of iwibolofticjil oases, it 'm nec-cs«:iry here to thoroughly 
conni<ler tlic rclfttionB cxistiu^i; lic^twi^oii the olftietory and sexiinl scn«M. 

The Bcxuo] sphere of the ceri'lirnl cortex may he excited, in tbe 
scnHC of an excitation of sexual concepts and ImpulseH, by proceesea in 
till! goucrative or^ns. This in possible as a result of nil cooditious 
which also excite the erection-ecu Ire by oicanft of ceTilri|>etal influence 
(tttimulus resulting from disteui^ioa of the seminal resirlps; enlargvd 
OrnaflaD follioK'; nny sensory »iitiinub]i4, however prodiip<sl. about the 
genitals; liyiiencinia and tnrgcHwncc itf the pcnitalH. cHpoMiill^' of the 
erectile tissue of the corpus eaveriioKum of the fienis und clitoris, mt n 
reanlt of luxurious, swlentary life; plethoni abdominalis, bifib external 
temijcrature, w:inu btuls, clothing; tiikin^ of caiiLharidct*, pepper, and 
other spicus). 

IJhido scxunlia may nl»n Iw Indacod by stimulation of the gluipnl 
region (eastigation, whipping).' 

Thi« faot tH not iininiiinrtELnLfor theundcTwtatnlingof certrain pntlio- 
logifial DUUilfe^tiLtLons. It eonuitimes happens that in boya the first 
excitntioii of llie uexual instinct i» caused by a it[>aukiug, and they ktii 
thus incited to mit-it u rbation. Thin should be rwmeinbered by those who 
Iiave tb<? care of children. 

On account of the dangers to which this form of punitUiraent of 
children gives riwe, it would lie better if parents, tcnchers, and nurses 
were to avoid it entirely. 

Passive Hngellation may excite Hensnality, as \n shown by the seots 
of flnjirellants, so widcttprend in tbe thirteenth aud fiftcejith ceuluriefl. 
They were accustomed to whij* themselve«, partly ii* atonement and 
partly to kill the flesh (in accordance with the principle of chastity 

1 AI»o In Uip Inanndj or gMtaUon. — ^Taucs. 

> Tbr riillowliiK (-njc, reported hy BInrI, iuh'ris to be In opposlllon to Ibla (dot. 
Dnfortimalvljr iiulhliijf 1> mIi) ronn-riilti); tbe mi-iil«] cliKraoU'rlfilrs r>f cbi^ p«raoa. In 
KUy ev«[it, il !• t'l-rlAinlj' cnnnminUiiy of Ch« ivLnlloDa exIalltiK bcLwitcn tlic aituQtory nod 
•nKiiAl ■Mti>i>i> : — 

D.. B nioillrAl student, vnx scaEed on abench tn « pnhlie iwrh, riMAlag a book (on 
ptlbology). i4u4il<-nlj ivvlotpiit rreutlnii lUHturlH:^ him. He lookiil iipuiid nntin'd UiaI a 
lady, KdoJflOt wtili jwrfuiiii;, lind ukcn h »'al uiioii Dk; oUirr md oT Uip berioti. 1>, tnoli! 
attribute Uw erwtinn tn nnthing but tbr UTuotiKlimii olfactory lui{ii'i.-rali)n nmle upon lilm. 

* MellKniiluii, " Db floKftiniiu umu tn rv uii^\cn," LoDdon, 1705 ; BoUeau, " Tlie Ul>- 
torjr of the Pl^ellauU," London, 1788, 



-I.e., Uie eutanciiintiuu of the sool from 

Iiraiiiulgntwl bj the Cbui-cli, 

ThetM! MfL-tH were nt fin*! favorvil hy the Cbua-h; I>ut, since »eti»ii- 
»l\ty Km* only exciu-tl tlic more hy Ha^i'llation, ntid ttie fact hecamr' a[>- 
parrjit in unplonsant occurrences, the Church was Hiiolly conipelled to 
opposi^ il. Thi- following I'lictH from Ihu livt's of th« two huroiiii-tt of 
tliijft^llution, Marin .Mii>;iliili:iui of I'uzzi tiiui KlizulHitb of (ioutuu, clearly 
kUow tliu stguificiiutx' of fliij^ullation as a sexual excitant. The former, a 
child of diMtinguinhfd {uircirtK, wan n-Ciiriiiclite niiii iii Klort^iict; (alioiit 
1580), and, by her tlaji»?lI»t.ioiis, and. still mort;, t.hron[»li the ivsnltB of 
tbcm, she bc<;amc quite ci-lcbraltHi. aiid !« mcntionotl in the AnnalH. ft 
ffiu her greatoi^t delight, to hnvc the prioress bind her liiiiuU behind her 
and liave her wbipjied on tbu naked lointi in lliu prtiHenueof lUuaiwumblud 

But the whipping^, contitiiH*d front her oaMioiit youth, quite dc- 
atroypd her nerrons nyKtcm, and porhapH no other heroine of lla^elUitioii 
had »o many hitllneiiintioiifi (^' Knlzuckungcn "). While being wbippcnl ber 
tbougbtH wwre of hivv- The inner fire tlireat*'»e<l to coiijiiiuie her, ami «be 
ft«iuently cried, '' Knough I Kau on loogur th« flamu thut conmnmw uii^ 
Tbi» is not the denth I long for ; il eomvs iriib aU too much pleiisuru and 
dvlighl.'* TliuK it oontiuiK-d. BiiL the spirit of impurilv wove tbi- tnoat 
wnstiiil, laacivioua fiuicicH, anfl she was several tiint?* near loning ber 

It wan the xaniu with Rltzabeth of OenU>n. Ah a remill of whipping 
abe actually pu««ed into a stnt*- of huvlmrialian madn(.«t4. An a rule, xhe 
reetMl whun, excited by unusual llagcllatioti, Hbe liclicred herself united 
with her " ideal." Thia conditioi> wtt!* »i> «txiiiii:<itely pleasant to her that 
abe would fre(|U*ratIy cry out, '* O love, O eternal love, O love, O you 
crcaturea 1 cry out with mc, love, love I" 

It is known, on the authnrtly of Taxil (op. cit., p. 175), tluit rakes 
■ooHiimcs have thenisolve^ Hagelluted, or pricked luitll bhind llon-B, juut 
before tbu liexual act, iu order to titiiiiiiUte tlieir diiniiiie'h*-il ttexual jiowur. 

TbeiM- raetM find an Intertxting confirmation in the following cxperi- 
enoM, taken from Paullini's " Flogellum SalDtis"{lst ed.. ItiOlt; repro- 
duction, .Stuttgart. 1X47): — 

"There are Komo iiatiouH, viz., the I'ersianR and Russians, where the 
women regard blown a*i n peculiar eigu of love and favor. Stniiigely 
enoagb, the Kussian tvomon are nevi^r more pleaded and delighted than 
when they receive hnnl blows from their husbands, as John Bftrol«y 
rdatca in a n-nmrkable narrative. .A (Jennan, nameil Jordan, went to 
Rui>8iii,aDd, pleased with the country, he settled thert! and took a RusMian 
wife, whom he loved dearly and Ui whom be was always litnd in every- 
thing. But she always* wore uri expre»4iun of distsatialiiction. and went 
■bout with aighs and dowmnat eyea. The huaband itaked the ruaaon, for 
he could not nnderatand what was wrong. ' Aye/ she Mid, ' though you 



love nic you do not show mo nny sign of it/ tic embrmccd bcr and 
l»egg«*"i lo be lold wlial he liail i-arelpssly and nncotisdouHly donu to hurt 
bur fuclingg, aud to bf forgiven, for bt* would never do it again. ' I want 
Dotbiiig,' wan tb« aiiitwvr. ' but what is cantotoary in oar country, — the 
whip, the real (tiffn of love/ Jordan olMN.-nr(<d the (-u»toni and Hcciiatonivd 
hiuiitolr to it, and then bis wffo W^can to lovu him dearly. Similar Atoriefl 
are told by Peter Petrius, of Erlcsund, with the addition that tbo 
husbands, immt^iatvly after the wedding, among other inditipeo sable 
bouacbuld arTifkw, provide tbeiuJH-'lves with whi]*." 

On i*agu 78 of tbis rt-iu»rkiible buok, the itiithorsays further: "The 
celebrated Count of Mirindula, John I'iriiR, rrlnt4« of one of hia intimate 
acquaintances that he was uii insatiablo fi-Uow, hut i^o lazy and incapable 
of love that he waa practically im)Hitent until be hud U>en roughly 
bandle^L The more he tried to satisfy lut^ di^sire, the heavier the blows 
be needed, and he could not attain his desire until he tiad bevn whipped 
until the blood came. For this purpose be had a suitable wbi|i made, 
which w&« placed in vinegar the day IWore uning it. He would gire tltis 
to bia companion and on lionded knees lieg her not to spare him, but to 
strike blows with it, the heavier the better. The good count thought 
this Hingnlar man IVmud the phfiuiure of love hi this puniHlimeiil. While 
in utbur i-usi>ects he was not u bad uuin, be uudcrstootl and hated hia 
weakness. Coeliiia Khuiitgin reUtes a airallar atory, aa does alao tbe 
celebrated jurist, Andrea* Tiraquell. In tbe time of the skillful physiciau, 
Ott«n Eirunft^liU^n, there lived in Municii, then tbe Capital of thi- BavariaQ 
Electorate, a debuucbee who 4.>onld never |ierform hJH [aexualj duties 
without a severe prepanttury l>eating. Thomas Ibirthelin also knew a 
Venetian who had to be l>eutun and driven before he cfluld have inter- 
oouree, — -Just as Cupid himself movitl reluctantly driven by his ibllowere 
with Hprays of hyacinth. A few years ago there wda in l^iibeck a cbeeae- 
mongcr, living on Mill Street, who, on a complaint to the authorities of 
unfaitbrulnees, was ordered to l^ve the city. The proatitnte with whom 
he bad been went to tbe judges and begged in his behnjf, telling how dif- 
ficult all interooursie had Ux-ome for htm. lie could do nothing until be 
had been mercilessly Ivateii, At first the fellow, from t^luime and toavoid 
disgrace, would not conl'eaa, but after c^irneitt queittioning he could not 
deny it. Tborc Is said to have been n man in the Xotberlanda who was 
aimilarly inc:ipHltle,and could ilo nothing without blnw!4. On the decree 
of tbe authorities, however, be was not only removed from his position, 
but also properly punished. A credible friend, a physiciau in .an inir 
portaut city of the kingdom, told me, on July 14th, last year, how a 
woman of l«d character bail told a companion, who bad been in the hos- 
pital a short time before, that she, with another woman of like cbftracter, 
had l»een sent to the woods by a man who followed them there, cut rods 
for them, and then uxiaised biit nates, commanding them to belatior him 
well. This they did. It ia easy to conclude what be then did with them. 



Not only men have been exited and inllmmi) to laHciviouMiieKH, but also 
womcu, that thuy too mijfbt expfricnce gn'nter intensity of pK-iihure. 
For thiti ruanuu Umi Koniuii wunmii linil lior»ell' wbi]>|M^l and tieittcn by 
the luptrcia. Thus Juvenal wrilcu; — 

" ' SutIIu* moduiitur, el lllb 
TrtrgfilB imn prodrirt ctmilila ptytjdo Ljrile : 

In men, AS wet) as in women, erection and orgaam.or even i-jacu- -^ 
tatiou, inay be iuduw^il by irritation of varioiin other ri'<rion» of the .-tkin -^ 
and mucous membrane. These "eiogeiious *' zoni's in woman are, while ^7 
»be is a virgin, the clitoris , a nd, after defloration, tlic va f^ina und cervix -^ 

In woman the nipple particnUirly weems to poAftcxs this quality. 
Titillutio higus regionis pltiym nn imiiortjiiit jinrt in tliear« eroliva. In 
lUB"Tyiioj;rapiciit Amitoniy," 1865, IM. i, p. 5fi2, Hyrll t-iles Vnt. Iltlde- 
indt, who observed a peculiar lutotuuly o( the ttexuni InKtiiiirt in a ^rl, 
which he calh'd guctiisitupratio. ^he hucl her mamma: sucke<l by her 
lovtT, and finally, by prailuully drawing on her uippluti, nhe became able 
to fiurk them herself, — nn net that gave her most intense pleiistire. Ilyrti 
al&o cnlls attention to the fact that cows sometimes suek the milk from 
their own udders. L. Bruiiu (Zeittj./. Lii^raUtr, etc., d. Hiimbnrg. Cor- 
rcBpoodent, 1889, Nr. 21), in an iuten^Htiuj; nrtiele on " SeiiHuiility and 
Love of," jpoints out how Kcnlously the nurt^iti^ mother pvcH hirHi-tf 
to Dtirsing the Imbc, " for love of the weak, uaUeveloi>ed, helpless being." 

It is uatiy to assume that, by the side of the ethicnl motivei), the fiict 
that the «uekin|; may Ik? attended by ft^linjjK of |)Iiysieid pleasure plays a 
part. The remark of Brunn, whieh is correct in itself, but one.«ided, that, 
according to Houzenii'a experience, among the nmjorivy of animals it la 
only during llie time of nnrsin); that the rehilions between mullier and 
otfttprlng are cloi^e. and tlien-fLfler iiulillurent, also speuk--^ in Uivur of this 

Uastiiin found the same thing (bhniting of the feeling for the ofT- 
»pring atXijr we.ining) among »:tv;iges. 

Under {Kitliological eomlitiou^, aii \* i^hown by Chamtmnl. amoo^ 
oth<Ts, in his thesis for the ilnrtornte. other portions of tlie body (in 
byMleri(!»l [)erKont4) abinit the mnmmiemid genitals may attain the siguIA- 
canee of " erogenous " zoiie8. 

In man, pliyfliologienlly, the only " erogenous " zone ia tlie glans 
pvuis, and, perhaps, the skin of the external genitals. 

tinder [Kitholouie:d conditions the anus may ttpiomean "erogenous" 
MteA. Thus lUial auto-mastiirbalion, which seems to be only too frequent, 
and passive pedemnty would be explained. (Comp. <janiier, '' Anomaliea 
BexuelKts," PiiriB, p. 514 ; K. Moll, " Contrare Sexuiiicmpilndung," p. 163.) 

The pftycho-physiulugicHl procesa coiuprehended in the idea uf seJcuaL 



instiiict i» uomtKiiJed of (I) coiioeptt> awakvittHl ivntrHlEy or pwipheralty ; 
(S) (be pluasurnl>Ie feciiug!:) ns^MJcLnted wiiti tticm. 

Tti« liniy;iiiy for »«xuhI SAtwfnclmii {litiido sexusilid) nrintfn from 
them. Tl)i8 demre ^rnwH stronger coiiKtAiitly, in {iroportion Ait the i>x- 
dtfttion of ttic opTcbrol B|tbi:;rQ iiccuntuatea tho feeling of pleasure by 
.i]iprojirliLte concepts iitid activity imH<^iiiattui] ; hihI the {iliuitiiiniMu 
seiiHutiotiH ure liirreiLSeti to lui^lfut feeling by exeitutinu of lUu erection 
ceutre and the euiitiequeiit liyperieinia of the genitals (eiitrauee of Uquor 
proetnlifus into the urethra, L'te.). 

If eirc(iinstj»ntie*i are fnvonihle for the performance of the sexual aft 
flatinfflctorilv, the constantly-iiic reusing tle;<ire is complietl with ; If. how- 
ever, conditions are unluvonihle. inhibitory conceplu ot-cnr, overcume the 
sexual loii^in^, and pruvuiit Urn dexuul net. 

To civilized man cuUivjition of a readiness with idenu which inhibit 
sexual detire in necesssry and distinctive. The moral ft-ei-doiii of tlie 
individanl.ftnd the decUion whether, under certain fiircumstftnces, exceae, 
and even crime, !»• ooniinitti'd or not, depend, on Ibe one hand, upon the 
strength of the instinctive concepts nnd the nccompnnying organic sen- 
sntions; on the other, upon the poww of Uie itihlhitory I'onwptB, Con- 
stitution and, especially, oiganic inllucn'ccs buve a miirked etfi^t upon 
the instinctive impulHeH; education and cultivulion of HeH'-euntrol have n 
decisive inllueiiee on the 0]>po!«iing concepts. 

The exciting and inhihitory powers arc viirinhle quantities. Over- 
indulgence in alcohol in this respect is very fatal, since it awakens 
and incrensea Hhido aexualiH, while at the name time it reducea moral 

Thr Act of Cohabitation.' 

The eBscntlal (H)nd]th>n for the man \n anfllcient erection. Anjel 
(Arch, /iir Pn\/ch.. viii, II. '2) calls attention to the fact that in aexual 
excitement the erection evutru is not atone iuflueticed. — the nervous ex- 
citement Is distributed to the entire vasottirdor system of nerves. The 
proof of tbiA i» the tnrgeitrence of tho orgami in the sexnal act, iajt-elioii 
of the conjuncttvn, prominence of the eyes, dilatation of tht- pupils, and 
canliac |>aJpitat.ion (resulting from iiaralyais of the vaaomotor nerves of 
the heart, which arine ft<nn the cervical sympatlietle, and the consequent 
dilatnttou of the canliac arteriem, and the increased stimulation of the 
uardiac ganglia induced by the consequent bypenemia of the cardiac 
walls). The sexual act i« awompanied by a pleaanrabte feeling, which, iu 
the male, is conditioned by the passage of FM-mcn through t)ie ductut 
ejaculatorii to the urethra, canaed l>y aentfor}' fltimiilation of the genitals. 
The pleasurable sensation occui-s enrUor In the male than in the female, 
grows rapidly in intensity until the monieul of euamicnccment of ejacti- 

■ GMnp. RoahKBd, " TnUU He ltnpiiltMn«« et Ae la n«TlllU." Faria, 1878. 


lation, reaching its height in the instant of free emission, and disappears 
quickly post ejaoulcUionem. 

In the female the pleasurable feeling occurs later and comes on more 
slowly, and generally outlasts the act of ejaculation. 

The distinctive event in coitus is ejaculation. This function is de- 
pendent on a centre (geoito-spinal), which Budge has shown to be situated 
at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. It is a reflex centre. The 
stimulus that excites it is the ejection of sperma from the vesiculoe semi- 
nales into the pars membranacea urethrse, which follows reflesly from 
stimulation of the glans penis. As soon as tb[< collection of semen, with 
ever-increasing pleasurable sensation, has retwRed a suflicient amount to 
be effectual as a stimulus of the ejaculation-centre, the centre acts. The 
reflex motor path lies in the fourth and flfth lumbar nerves. The action 
consists of a convulsive excitation of the buibo-cavernosus muscle (inner- 
vated by the third and fourth sacral nerves), which forces the semen out. 

In the female as well, at the height of sexual and pleasurable ex- 
citement, a reflex movement occurs. It is induced by stimulation of the 
sensory genital nerves, and consists of a peristaltic movement in the tubes 
and uterus as far down as the portio vaginalis, which presses out the 
mucous secretions of the tubes and uterus. Inhibition of the ejaculation 
centre is possible as a result of cortical influence (want of desire in coitus, 
emotions in general ; influence of the will, in a measure). 

Under normal conditions, with the completion of the sexual act, 
libidb sexualis and erection disappear, and the psychical and sexual 
excitement gives place to a comfortable feeling of lassitude. 


Abnormality of the sexual functions proves to be es|>priaUy 
frequent in civilized races. This {act is fxplnincd in jmrt by the 
frequent abuse of the sexual organs, and in part by the circum- 
stan(*c that stich riiiictiunal anomalies lire oflen tlic sl^ns of an 
ahuormal ronstitulioiiior tho central nervous system, which is, for 
tlie most part, hcrothtniy (" funirtioual signs of degeneration "). 

SincAi the generative organs stand in important funt-tional 
connection with the entire nervous system, and especially vvitli 
its psychical and somatic functions, it is easy to understand the 
frequency of general neuroses and psychoses arising in sexual 
(Eunctiotml or organic) disturbances. 


( a. AnjpAtheaia. 
_' I. 

I. Periphkral.' 

1. Sensory. -i b. nyprrft«>the8ia. 

3. Secretory. 
8. Motor. 

i c. Nciirnlgia. 
( rt. 



( ft. Polysiwrmia. 
{ a. I'ollutioiiH (spMAin). 
i b. SiHTiiiatoiTlm-;]. (iiaralysis). 

f 1. Affwtions nf llic nrwrt/ioii (-i-iilre. 
\ 2. AflfK'lions uf the i-jaculatioii centre. 

r 1. raniiluxia. 
I 2. Amuotlic-sin. 
I ;t. HyiK-TiiislLeaia. 
4. PutWHtlmsiB. 

■ Lltemtun' : Purffii»-Diip|i»tclel, Pnjutlliition dmnii U vHIa tin PnriB, 1 SS?.— Rown- 
bauin, EuUtchiing ilrr 8;pblll», n»llc, 18H9: i»l«o, Dk I.ubIkcUi-Ii^! Im Allir Ilium, ITallf, 
1X30 — nmrurpt, l.a inMeulnft ilr-s [iiuecinitK, I'liiia, ISfin.—Ciwpi-r. Klin. NotcIIch, 1883.— 
BMrlBii. IJer McnRi:h In ikt Geschlclilt".— Friwilsnder. Suli-j(t:ii*i'hIihU) Rf>in».— Wlwin. 
incUUr, ("iwan-iiwuini^liiii. — Solivrr, Dirulx-lic Cullur- and SlUougc- schkliti', Bii. I, Cap. 9. 
— Tanileu. Dcs mtcntnte nux iitocura., 7 MK,, 16TS.— Bainilti;;liBU»i 1Ni>clio|iullivl., pp. US, 
225, Sao. 2Sa.— dtliBlp, lliindbucl) tier (ti'lMf-kroiiWliHton, p. U4.— Marc. Dk QelilwlcnuiK- 
iMlleli, aiwre v.Mi^lrr.ll, [I. IJH.— V KralTl, Ltlirii. Orr l'iiri:lilAlri<-, * Aiifl ,1, p, 90; Lehrb, 
d. gcr. raj-uliopattiot., 'i AuH., p. 2.11 ; Arclilv f. Pnyclilaltiv. yU, 3.— Mureau, Urn aberra. 
Itoni flu sens 6in68l*ii»c, l'*ri». I8W1.— Klrti, AnR. ZHbwIir. f. P»>'«IiUtriL', «»xU, Heft 3 
n. S.— Lomlti'UM, G««ctilechtstrlot) u. VerhrecJicn tn llirPii ptg<'iiiM-li4){i.'n RMElcliuiiKrn 
(Qoltdiiminur't Arvhlr, Bd. xxx.).— Tnruowiky, Die kninkluirU:n Enohclnun^n dos 
0«scbl«rbt«duii», Berlin, ISi^A.— Ball, l.a. Folic 6rc>tlqutr, Ptirlo, 1 Sl«^,— St-rlcux. RwiiurebM 
cl1ni<|UPXKUr k'anti[j>itin)li» <l<! I'luBlfiinl iM;xu<.-t, Pari*, ISSS. — lliijitiiiiincl, Sitxuiil linpoI«OD8. 

Tiitfe UliKtiiaiiu. Gf^Liilo.ljriuai'jr Nl'utomm In tlic Male (pobllsliwl \iy The V. A. 
Davla Co., Phllftttrlplilk), Tor (llM'iii»ii>n oj p(>rlphi^r&l iietimKtf. 

(34) . 



1. Affections of the Erection Centre. 

(») IrritaliOK (priapiBiu) Brisen reflexly from peripheral w^nsory 
irriUots (e.g,, go(iorrhoe«) ; flirectly, from «rj»aiuc irritation of the aerve 
tracte fW)tn the brain to tbc eroctioii ccntrv (nplnnl rHHcnAp in tlu> tower 
c«rWcal and appcr dorsal rcgiuns), oruftLe <viitreit«i']r(cci'tniti imisouH] ; 
or from p»y«luoal irrilfttion. In the latter vam: sntyrijisiB existe, »>., iib- 
noruuU duration of erectioD, with libido sexualis. In simply n^Qi'x or 
direct organic irritation, libido Huxualin may tie wimting, and the priapism 
be accompaniod by tinpli>nHant fcplinfrg. 

(b) Paralyttis from dciitniction of the ofntre or of the norvp-tracts 
(nenH orffccDtes), in diseases of the spinal cord (pandytic impoti^ncc). 
A milder form w ttiat of U"««ened pxeitaltility of the eentre, re.Ridtiug 
from overKlimulatioit (in acxu&t cxcl'Si^l-s, v«pvcially m OLiiuii>«m)^ or from 
alcoholic intoxication, abime of bromides, etc. It may be accompanied 
by cerebral anie«thf*ia, and often with aim'Min5sia of the exlenml genital*!. 
Cerebral hyi^erresthesiji ta here more fretiiient (increased libido soximlis, 
lost). A peculiar form of diminished excitJibility U shown in those 
cases where the centre reaponds oidy fo certain stimuli. Thus there are 
men for whom sexual coutuct with their virtiumN wives doi's not Hiip]>ly 
the necessary stimulus for the excitation of ait erectioD, but in whom it 
occunt when the act is nltempted with a prostitute, or iu the form of 
some imnatnral Hexual act. Aw far as psychical stimuli are here con- 
cerned, they may be inadequate (r. infra, parffistUesia and pt-rversion of 
sexnnl instinct). 

(c> Inhxhiiion, The erection centre may become flmctiounlly inca- 
pable as a result of cerebral inHuence. This inhibitory iniliiencc Is oji 
vmutioD (disgu*<t. fear of contagion), or an idea ' uf iui[ioteuce. There 
are many men in the firat condition who have an unconf|Uer.ible loathing 
for their wives, or fear of inft-elion, or are suffering witli ]>tTverso st-xual 
feelingft. In the latter conrlilion are neurojathic individnals (neuraa- 1 
Llienica, hypochondriaes), frequently weakened sexually (moMlnrbatora), / 
who hare reason, or think they hnve, to raistrmst their seximl power. / 
This idea acts as an Inhibitory concept, and mukes the act with the ]ier- 
Aon concerned of the opposite sex temporarily or absolntely impossible, j 

(d) Irritable weal-itfiia. In this condition there la nbnormAl im- 
pressionability of the centre, but accompanied by rapid diminution of its 
energy. There may be functional disturlHUicc of the centre itself, or weak- 
ness of the iuDerTation through the norvi erigentes; or there may be 

1 An iBlETMtlnjt esaiuplvof licw on ttnpvrmtlye eotic«i>tlou of Doii.«exuaI coa(«iit 
can QXert an InOuMtcr I* n>latr<] by Mnj^uci (Ann. mM- [«^Ii , laSA) : Studonl, kgwl 31, 
•troii|[l]r prwlUpiiartl iK-nilllDrlly, girvTlouiilr » uiuLurbntor. ruiiBtauli;r atruj^Klt^* «!Lli Hid 
number 18 •• kii imperallTc OMicrprion. An mmr m he ittU-ni|>ta coitiu the trnptratlnt 
Idu Inhlbiu erection «nd malu* Uw act (mpoealblfi. 



weakneiw of tho iftehio-cavcruoBua miiHd«. Vtinen in wbich the ercctiou 
is ioetfoctual. on (iceouut of aUioriuull^' airly I'JHuiilation, fomt a transition] 
to the followuig unoiaAlies : — 

S. Affectiona of the Ejaculation Centre. 

(b) AbnorvtuUff navy ejacutatio)) fniiii nbsuiiw of ei-rt'linil inlnlii- 
tioii, rosuitiiiy from cxcunaive psj-ybk-al tfxcitt.'nivtit or irritable weaknys* 
of tiie centre. In this case, uiifler corttuii circiiiustaiic«8, tbv simple cou- 
c#i]tioti of It IiutciviouH situiillnn i^t !«iiltl<-l(?rit to r«>t tlic centre in action 
[h\gU ()L-gr«H;uf .spiiinL iii.-iinLsLlu;nliL, iisimlly rt't^iiltiiig from uexuiU Abuse). 
A thinl poHsihillty in hyiii'niwtliuHiik of tliu luvtbni, by virtiii! uf wtiiob, 
wlioii the ^emen cutei's it, nii iinmetliute nml i.-xcL'!i»iYu rcQcx autiou of 
the ejncuhition Hfiitie i" imliii'wi. In mucIi m cnse, 8im|ile j^ruximity to 
the fcDuile genit-iln may be Hiilliuinnt tn imUicrc cjiu;ulnt.iim (aule pot-tain). 

In caac of byiiciu'sthcHin of the urethra, as a cntue, the cjacuU- 
tioD may be iLci-um|Hi.nieil by [Hiitifiil, iiiKtemI vf pltjiiHumble, tietitmitionH. 
CBUiilly. ill eases where there in hy|)enestbesia of tho urethra, there 
Is, at the ttnme time, irritable weakueas of the eeiiti'e. fjotb I'Uuotioual 
disturbamn.'M are irTi|>orttuit iu the production of pollutio nimla and diama. 

The :ieconipanyin£; pleasurable fe»-Iing may be patholopodly ab- 
sent. This («;cur« In ilefuPtive uieii and women (anttsthosid, aspormia?J, 
and, flirthor, as a result of dinease (neumBtbenia, hysteria) ; or (in prcu^ 
tituten) it follows overstimulation and tUe bliiulini; tliuH induced. Tho 
intensity of the jjloa-surable feolin); (It'[»eudR on tUe de^rreo of pHvchioal 
and motor excitement accuiupauyiu^' the Hexual uut. Under iHitholuglea.] 
couditionH tlii»t may btfcome ho pronoiineeil tliat the tuyveuieut* of coitus 
take on tbo eharncter of involuntary convulaivc movement-ii. and even 
pass into general <;onrulHions. 

(b) Abnormally difficult ejaculation. It ia ocranioned hy inexcitfu 
bility of tho centre (nbseuue of libido, pamtyBts of the ei:tntru : or^uic, 
tYom disease of bruLu or «])iual curd ; Oinetional, from »«exual abuses^ 
oiarasmus, diabetes, tnorphininm), and, in th)» eate, for the moi>t jmrt, 
in connection with anjestboaia of the gcnitaU and imralyais of the 
erection rentre. Or it ia the result of a lesion of the reflex arc, or 
of peripheral anaistbesia (unttlira), or of nKiHTmia. The ejaculation 
occurs not at all, or tanlily, in the course of the sexual act, or only 
alWrword, iu the form of a pollution. 


1. Pitradoana, i.e., sexual oxcitement occurring indr[)cnd- 
ently of the period of the pliysioloj^ical proce»ses iu the 
generative organs. 

2. Anceat/iesia (absence of aexiial instinct). Here all 



organic impulses arising in tlio scxtml organs, as wdl as all 
coDcepUs, and vtsiml, auditory^ and niructory S(>n8(^inipressions, 
fail to excite the individual M^xiially. Tliis it; phy»iulogical in 
cliildhood nnd old age. 

3. Hi/iftriEst/tesin (increased desire, satyriasis). In this 
state there is an abnormally increjised impressionability of 
the vita sexualis to organic, psychinil, and sensory stimuli 
(abnnrraully intenw libido, lusiruliicRS, losciviousncss). The 
stimulus may ho central (nympltomaiiia, satyriasis) or jieriph- 
eral, functional or organic. 

4. Para't/t/teAin (perversion of tlie sexual instinct, %.€., 
excitability of the sexual functions to inadequate stimuli). 

These cerebral anomalies fall witliin the domain of psycho- 
jMilhoIogy. The spinal aiul periphinti! anomalies may occur 
in combination with tliem, but these affect persons, as a nUe, 
that are free from mental disease. Tliev mav occur in various 
combinations, and become the cause of sexual crimes. For this 
reason, they demand consideration in the foUowHng description. 
However, the cerebral anomalies claim the principal interest, 
since they very frequently lead to the commission of perverse 
and even criminal acts. 

A. Pabadoxia. Skxuai, Instinct Manivestino itsklf iNDiu>K»D£NTLi 
OF t*in"ftuir.or.iOAl. I'RurESitxa. 
/. Sexual Ivstinct Mani/estetl in Childhood. 
Every physician conversant with nervous affections and 
diseases incident to rhildfinod is aware of the fact that mani- 
festation of sexual instinct may occur in very young children. 
The observations of Ultzmann confarniug umstnrlNition in 
childhood' are xvorthy of attention in relation to it. It is 
necessary here to differentiate l>etween the numerous cases 
where, as a resnlt of pliimosis. Imlanifis, or oxynris in rcxtum 
or vagina, young children have itching of the genitals, and ex- 
perience a kind of pleasnnible sensation from manipulations 

> htnya-VUltnTfj ipeftka nT TnMtBT^ftClMR In ■ ^rl oT S or 1 jMni, and M(k«ad 
fAbcmitloiis (Id tent g^n6sl[]u<-, " 'J i>i1tL., p. SKi) or ttie tame tn one of 'i yt^an. 8m, 
fiirtlit^r, Mnadtl^y, " Phyilologry utiJ. Paifinlnjty of Mind ; " Hli«clu|ininc {Kopenhaetn), 
Bm-Ud. klin. Wocbomobr., 18«S, Sr. 38 ; Lombraw), " TIm Criraliid," CakM 10, 19, aud 81. 




tlms induced, siiid thus come to practice? masturlmtinn ; ami 
those cases in which sexual ideas and impulses occur in tlie 
child as a result of cerebral processes without ijeripheral causes. 
It is only in tliis latter class of cases that we have to do with 
the early manifestation of soxunl instinct. In snch cases it may 
alwiiys he rej;ard<rd us an afctmnianvin^ symptom of a ncuro- 
jiKycFiopathic constitutional condition. A case of I\Iarc*s ("Die 
Geisteskninklieiten," etc., voii Ideler, i, p. 66) ilhistnites very 
well these conditions. The saibject was a jfurl of eight years, 
of res|x^rUihlc fumily, wlio was devoid of all <lilld-Uke and moral 
(ccling.s, and had mastnrhaled frtnn her fourth year; at the 
same time she consorted with hoys of the age of ten or twelve. 
She had tliought of killing her parents, that she might become 
her own mistress and give herself up to pleasure with men. In 
these cases of early manifesUnion of libido the children come also 
to masturbate; and, since they arc greatly predisposed constitu- 
tionally, they frequently sink into dementia, or become subjects 
of severe degenerative neuroses or jKvchoses. 

Lombrofto (Archiv tit Pgichialria, iv, p. 22) has colkfted a numl»er 
of awes of fhiUlrc'ii atl»H:teii with very (lecttled liereditMry taint, which 
belong in this witcgnry. One was that of a girl who inaalurbatetl shame- 
lessly and (ilraoHt conHl.nntly at the age of throe. Another prl began at 
the ago of i-'iglit, and continued to practice masturbation when married, 
and even during pregnoocy. She was pregnant twelve times. Five of 
the ehililren died early, lour wore hydrocepbalif, and two Iwya Wgan to 
iiiai*turbBl«,— <»ne at the age of seven, the other at the age of four. 

Zftiuhaoo (L^Encephale, 1882, Nr. 1, 2J tells the disgusting story of 
two sisters atfeet^l with iirematiirt' and fiervcrse sexual desire. The cider, 
R., nmMtiirl):aL-d at the age of seven, pmcUeed lewdness with lioys, stole 
wherever she eouUI. seduced her ton r-y ear-old sister into Diastiirhation,axid 
at the age of tun was given up to the pructice of the moFit revolting vices. 
Kvc'ii f'tnTum candr.nx att clitortdt^ni had no etTeol in overcoming the 
ptaetico, and she mastnrbated with the cassock of a priest while be was 
exhorting Iwr to reforuiatlon. 

2. RfMiwakening of Sermil Inytinrt in Old Age} 
There are infrequent cases in which the sextial instinct per- 
aiflts until a great age. "Senectus uon quidem annis sed virihus 

* Oonp. Klra, ZelUclU'. f. Pifcli., Bd. zxxjx. Lcgraatl ilu SkuUo, Annal. d'bjg., 



magis ffistinmtiir" (Zittmnnii). Ocstcrlen (Maschka, Uaiidb., 
iii, p. 18) mentions the case ol'a mim ngetl 83, wlio was sentenced 
to three years' imprisonment by a WmlemlH-t^ court on account 
of sexual misdemeanors. I'nfortnnately nothing is said of the 
iiatuie of the crime or of the mental condition of the criminal. ' 
The niaiiifestation of sexual instinct in old age is not in 
itself pathologioil ; but presumption of patliological couditious 
must necessirily b«M'nU;rtnini'd wliem the Individual is decrepit 
and his sexual life has already long become i-'xtinet; and wlien 
the impulse, in a man wliosc sexual needs were in his early 
life, perhaps, not very oiarked, manifests itself with greater 
strength, and strives for even perverse sati^laction in a shame- 
less and impuUivc manner. In such cases there is at once 
iiggested a presumption of jHithologinil conditions. Medical 
science recognizes tlie fact that such au impulse depends upon 
the morbid altcnitions of the brain which lead to senile dementia. 
This abnormal manifestation of sexual life may he the precursor 
of senile dementia, and make its appearance even long before 
there arc any well-defined manifestations of intellectual weak- 
ness. The attonti%'c and exp<'rienced observer will always be 
able to detect in this prodromal stage nn alteration uf ebaraeter 
in pfjus, niut a di'ti-noratiim of the moral sense aceom]xuiyii)g 
tlie ^lecuiiar s<fxual nuinilt-station. 

The libido of thot*e passing into senile dementia is at first 
expressed in lascivious speech and gesture. The next objects 
of the attempts of these senile subjwls of bmin atrophy and 
sychical degeneration are children. This sad and dangerous 
ict is explained by the better opportunity they have of fulling 
in witli children, but more especially by a fettling of impertect 
sexual power. Defective sexual power and greatly diminished 
moral sense explain the additional fact of tlie perversity of the 

)Tbr lr»i»]ftUir lins \itlt\f tctm nroA^of thin kliil that illtititrftlM thr Iiu-k of catc 
lAktn hj (iiir i-Hmlnal courU. A very liiltrnt miMi, a^vxl S& to nO, under (avorlng clrciirii. 
slaD««, made an uiuiiFrrMful m-xua1 avaull »:i a iflrl ajp-O abnut IS. At tilf> trial he tnade 
filU ouufi-Mlon, BDd vxplaiuv<l liln atl as <1uq to crdlTiary elnruliiu*. Ittt was tlie TalUcr at 
a famUjanO Hviuj^wllli tilti wife, luul up tnOiat Time hlamplriw itriiially. He wa« ft«at«DC«d 
Ui live fi-ar* (>r liani latxtr ! lie was iMClI|nlI)!(^ uf almuAt the IIkIiUvI vork. C(>nTci«at)iiiEi 
witti bita wlilk lujalt iliuwrM at uiiec tlial Ik- wna wril ailriiiiM-d hi urtille itvnlcntliL Lt^pd 
ri4MaUoB eooMrahig bli nr-tiial cniniaioii waa cot ralM^l.—tiecanee h« cauffMi^, probaMjr I 



sexual acts of these ajwfil men. They are the equivalents of the 
impossible physiological act. 

The aiiiiaU of legal medicine distinguish, as such, exhibition 
of the genitals,' lustful handling of the genitals of children," 
inducing them to perform manustupratioii of the seducer, and 
performing masturbatiuri^ or iiagellatiou on the victim. 

In this stage the intellect may still be sufficiently intact to 
allow avoidance of publicity and discovery, while the moral sense 
is too far gone to allow consideration of the moral sigiiiticance 
of the act and resistance to the impulse. With the progress of 
dementia, these acts are more and mon^ shamelessly committed. 
Then care on account of defective sexual power disiip^H-ars:, and 
adults also be<;ome the objects of the senile p!i.ssion ; but the 
defective sexual power necessitates equivalents for coitus. Not 
infrequently sodomy results, and. as Tarnowsky {op. cit., p. 77) 
points out, in the sexual act performed with geese, chickens, 
etc., the sight of the dying auinml and its death-struggles at the 
time of coitus afford complete satisfaction. The perverse sexual 
acts with aduUs are quite as horrible, and may \te explained 
psychologically in the same way. 

Case 49, in the author's "Text-Book of Legal Psycho- 
pathology," s£«!ond ed., p. 161, demonstrates how enormously 
increasi-'d sexual lust may l>c during the course of senile 
dementia, Quum seiiex libidiiuMius grrmanam suam liliam 
tttmulationc motus necaret et adspectu |Kx:toris sciosi puellie 
moribundee delectarctnr. 

Erotic delirium and states of satyriasis may occur, in the 
course of the malady, with or witlmut maniacnl episodes, as 
ihe following cjumj shows: — 

Caws 1. J. Rcntf, always given to indulgence in sensuality and sexual 
plcAsurcfl, bTlt alwnys witli regftnl for decoi'um, bos nbown, eince liis 
geventy-ftixth y<'ar, & prcign-sHive kww of intellii^cncc and ineroasing ijct- 
vermun iif bis moml e<?n8e. I'reviouBly briglit and oulwardly moral, he 
now woatfd bis proiierty in coucoursB with prostituteB, fru({U<->ntod brotbds 

t Cum, fbU Iju^uc : ■• Ut cxliIhitloiil»U-a," Uiiluii iiiMli^ali-, 1877, M*j lat. 
■Legniii] du Bntilli^, I.* folio il^Tftiit lr» tribtitiAiix, ji. 53(>. 

■Kirn,'Miu>c)iku'e Uoudb. d. ger. M<^., PP-:i^. ItT^ : Allf-ZMtMhtin f. P«yc.hUli1«, 
Ba. xxslx, p. -£U. 



only, aakM] every womiut on the ativet to marry hhn or nllow coitus, and 
tbiis hecnmc so publicly olinoxious tlint H waa jieceamry to pla^e him in 
AU asylum. Tlivru the m-xunl KxritHnjfnt iinrwised to a verilftble saty- 
riasig, which Lasted iiiiiil ho died. Ho mnfiturt'iitiHi coiiUiiiioiit^ly, even 
before other» ; took delight only in obs^^ene ideas ; thought the mcu about 
bira were women, followed them with indecent proixwAlM (Legmnd da 
Saollc, " La Folic," p. SaU). 

Moreo\*i*r, women previously mora!, whou affcfrtjvl with senile de- 
mentia, tiiuy iimiiifeHt Rimilar conditiuna of great Besoal excitement 
(iiyiopUomaiiia, l\iror uterinus). 

It may be seen from a rpadtng of Schopenhauer,' that, as 
a result of senile dementia, the ahiiormally excited and jwn'ersc 
instinct may be directed excUisively to persons of the same sex 
(('. iii/ra). The manner of the sjitisfaetion is Iieve passive 
pederast}', or, as 1 aiscertained in the tbllowing case, mutual 
masturbation : — 

Case 3. Mr. X.^agnl 80, of high social position, from a family hav- 
ing heretlitarj' taint. He was always very sensual and a cynic, <jf uncon- 
troilaMe teroiK-r, and, nceordinu to h\* own confession, am s youii^ man, 
prL-f(.Trvd uiHi<ltirl>»liou to coitus. However, lie never tthowt-d nigub of 
conlmry itcxnal inntiiict, and kept n)ii4treHfii>s, ralniuf; a eliild by one. At 
the njrc of forty-eight he marriwl, ont of inelinfttion, and Iiejicat six chil- 
dren, and never pive his wife ciuihc for complaint, I could obtain bnt nn 
Incomplrtc hi>;tory of liii« family, it wa B_ceita[n thai iiJH brother yioA 
BnH])ectcd of Iqvc for ioen, and that a DCpbew liei-Jimp iosajie tm u ruKulL 
of exiN^isive ]ua»turl>»Liun. 

The i>atient, always* iiecnliar and qnick-temj>ered, for year* La« been 
groyi'mff more extreme in character. ITc has become exceedinj^Iy sus*- 
picions, and Hlight opposition to hia vi^heH in<luces nttjicks of an^er 
which may lic<toinc' ftctnal raving, and in which he may raiHc hia hand 
a^uiust his wife. For a year tliere hnvu bt'i^n unniistakablc signs of in- 
cipient senile dementia. The patient has become forgetful, localizes past 
evrottf incorrectly, and ba« fain* idean of time. For fourl-een mouths it 
Itts been notit-wl that he manifests flifeetlon for certain male wrvants, 
especially for a gmrdener's Iwy. Otiierwiae rude and overbearing to 
servanlH.lie HurfeitH his favorite with favont and present*', nnd commands 
hiti f'liniily and his house otHeials to treat ttie bny with the greatest 
respect. The a^cd patient uwnil» the hour of rendezvous in true sexual 
excit«inent. He fiend» his family away, tliat he may be with his favorite 
undiHturljed, and remains shut up with him for hours ; and when the 

> Me W«tt ftl« WIIU and TorsUllung, 18SB, D. H, p. Ml « mf. 



iliiura nrt! (1[h>iii-(1 iig:uii, liu U rouml l.ving oi) llic IkhI oxlmustcd. Ue^ides 
thiti objwl of Iiis (KiRHJoii, tliB imtieiit lm«l iiilttix'uun*« *;pi!«0*iically witli 
other servants. It i» cuilJiiii IIulI Ik- t'liticoil tln-m, nRkod tlioin for kisacs, 
evliiltiti-<l tiiTnsi;lf,]iilon'e() ni:uii)>iiIiitioii a<\ ;(fiiititliA,tin(l prHCtiii;)! iimtual 
niaHiiirl)Atiott. Jiy tUorM! pmL-ti<->cs ulintolute deiiiornlizitLioii was broufrlit 
Hhoiit. The fniiiily wtis [KiwrlttH^ ; for any oppositimi i-aii»t«l violutit 
oiit,lin'jikH of niij;»*r wml I'V^ii tliii-aU «jjaiiist bi» rfliilivus. The ]mtifiit 
ytaa completely withuut Hpprccintioii or bis perverse Hexual ucU; and 
iLcreforn) the only i'oui>*y left lo the atllifti^l rsiiiily wiiA to remove xll 
aiilhorily from tu8 ItnixlH ami |>l:irt! hiiii in nil fu^yhim. \o orotic iiu'litlii- 
tion toward thr opposite wx wns obwrvcil, though the i«itieiitot'cupicil a 
f*lt'4'piii!;-n])arim<.'iit witti his wil'f. Willi ri^fprciico to thv iHTverso sexu- 
ality iiiul Ihu lii'fci^tivi! uiuml Keii^it ul' ihiM iinrorLuuate iiiuu, it is worthy 
of iiulc that he qiietitioaeil the iwrvaiitrt of Ills UiLU^tiLer-iii-law as to 
vhetliLT »he hail a lover. 

iJ. AnjBstbesia Skxualih (AnsENCB OF SicxHAL Prrr.iNn). 

1. Aa a CtJ7VjenUal Anomaly. 
Only thosfi cast's ran lie regartk'tl as uiHiuestionnbIc exam- 
ples of absence of sexual instinct deijcndcut oil ccrebrnl causes, 
in wliirli, in Kiilto of gtmerative organs nurmaily dc!veloj>ed and 
the (jerformaiioe of their functions (sccnrtion of semen, meniitiiia-' 
tion), tlie corresjwnding emotions of sexiial life are absolutely 
wanting. These fuurlionally sexless intlividunls arc seldom seen, 
and are, indeed, always jicrsous having degenerative defects, 
and ill whom oilier finictioniil ccrebrnl disttirbanccs, states of 
psychical degt-neratlun, and even atialomieal siyiis of dngenem- 
tion, are obsen"ed. I-.egrand ilu SauUe describes a classical case 
that falls under this licad {Aunaks in^dicopeycltvi. May, 187C), 

Caso 3. 1)., ngc<l .'}:i, hnd n mothpr who Biiircrcd with liiBniiity of 
perseoutioii. The mother's fiither alsu (iuUereil with iM-rseoiitory insanity, 
mid cominitlcJ miicirlp. Her niottu-r was iuHniiu, nnd this woman'tt mother 
Ijwamc iiiMiuo in the piicrin'r.i.l stale. Three oV her luotliwr's children 
died in Ijohyhood, atid thofle thnt livpcl longer had .in alinurmal <'haraet<>r. 
As early a^ his ttiirtceiith year, I>. wiis troiililetl wilh the thought of be- 
coming iii;?ano. At fourteen he ntten)])te<I suicide. L-iler, vagahomla^, 
and, as a soldier, re|)i>uted insubordination HTtd crazy pranks. His jntol- 
ligcrice »a« very limite^l; no sign of dctfenenition, genitals normal. At 
sevvntet--n or cight^x-n he bad eiiUHsionFi of semen, h»tl never niaxtiirlmted'] 
or ba<l sesnal feeling, and never hiid sought inttTconrse with women. 

Case 4. v., aged 8R, common labonT, w:is received at my clinto ii 



the lieginning nf Novuiiilier <iii aci'Oiiiil of sixuttic etiiiml jwmlysis. He 
(In^IiLrfs be c-oiiioti or n bfAltb>' rmnily. A ^tutt^rur IVoiii hix youUi. 
Cranium mirroc-ephalif (cf. hli itu.), I'silit-nt kuiih'wIihI imbtH^'ile. lie waa 
nei'er 8iK-i)itil4^, tirvi-r liml » m-xiuiI emotion. Tlio ni^lit of si vnman tiovvr 
b»I anytliitig r-iitiriiifr Inr blni. He never hml a. desire to nm.-iriirhate- 
Ervctioiis rrcquimt. but only on wiikitig in the moniiiig nitli a riill liliidder, 
anU witlioiit a Irnei- or si'\it:il feeliug;. PollutimiH very iiifW>tiiiuiit, — nliout 
oucc! a yonr. in sleep,— -an 'I U!<iiallj' while drenmiii^ llmt he ib eotK-eriifd 
with n female. The!«e dreiitUH, li'jWever, nt his drennis in geiiernl. nre not 
markedly erotic. He says the act of poIliiUon ii* not &c(-oui|iunied by any 
|>l«a)iurablu fk.-ni>ation. I':itieiit doet* not feel tJiis aUsenee of srximl fiensiii- 
tioos. He give^ tin- tiswiinLnt.v thnl, hl>* lirothcr, aged 34. is in exactly llie 
"HaniB Bexnul c-^indilion tut hiinwir, mid lie tnnkefl it tieem prolnlile that a 
filter, aged 21. io in :i tfimihir ittativ A yuun(;er brother, [ie i^ii^s, itt normal 
Eually. The exnmiuntiun of bis genit^d? revvidti nothing abnorniaJ 
be«idt<fl phimuftis. 

Hammond ("Scwual Impotence"), even with Jiis wide cx- 
periencef rcpoiU auly the folloMiiig thfcc rnses of aniustlicsia 
sexualis: — 

Case 5. Mr. W., aged 33 ; strong, henlthy, with normal genitals. He 
hail never ex|H-rieni-i>d IDiido. nnd had vainly unnght to awaken hin di- 
rective ticxnal inHtiriet by nieaiiK of oluiieenc t^tories and interconr^e with 
jinwititutcb. Oil the occasion of sHcb attirinpts lie exiK-rieiiLHid unly din- 
gust, with evfU a leeling of imii-^ea, and bctraiuc nervously and uieutally 
exhausted. Only once, when be fonrtrd the eituntion, did he lutve a tran- 
sitory erection. W. had never mfl.**lnrl>ated, and had had pollutions about 
once every two months from his seventeenth year. Important intei-esla 
demanded that lie marr}-. He had no horrur /eiiiin«, and loiigwl for a 
liome and a wife, but felt that be was incapable of the sexual act. He 
died, nuraarrie«l, in the Amerifnn civil war. 

Case fi. A., aged 27 ; genitals noriuid ; never felt libido. Mechanical 
or thermic Btimuli e-asity induced erection, but ini«t«ad of libido sexualis 
there was regularly a desire for alcoholic indul-teucc. Such excesses 
induciMi cppctions. and he then sometime-* maAturlmtcd. He bad a tliit- 
incUnation for women and a liiulbing of coitnK. If, with an erection, be 
made an attemjit nt coitus, it diNup[>carod at oucc. Death in eoma during 
an attack of cerebral hyfieneinia. 

Cai*e 1. Mrs. 0., normaUy developed, benltby, mcnstnmted regu- 
larly; aged 35, tlfl^x'n years marrieil. 8he nev<;r exj»eriencefl libido, and 
never had any erotic excitement in sexual intercourse with her husband. 
Sbe waa not avcrtie to ctiitus, and sometimes seemed to ex|)erience pleaanro 
in it, but sbe nerer bad a wish for repetition of cobabilation. 



In connection with such pure cases of anaesthesia there 
should bo coiisidcn'd other cases in which the mi-ntal side of 
the vita sttxualis is a blank leaf in the lift- of llie individual, 
but wliere elementary sexual sensations mniiifest themselves at 
least in masturbation (comp. the trausitional Case 6). According 
to Magnan's ingenious classification, which, howevev, is not 
strictly correct and somewhat too dogmatic, in sucti cases the 
sexual life is so limited as to be designnttwl spinal. Possibly in 
some sucli cases then! exists virtually a mental side of the vita 
sexualis^ b\it it is very weak, and undermined by masturbation 
before it attains development These represent tlie transitional 
cases from the congenital to the acquired (psychical) antesthesia 
sexualis. This danger threatens many masturbators of vicious 
constitution. It is psychologically interesting that when the 
sexual element is early vitiated, then an ethical defect is mani- 

The two following cases, previously published by me in 
the Archiv fur Pst/cMatne, vii, are given here as illustrations 
worthy of consideration : — 

CaauS. P.J.,ago<l 1 fl, student ; mother was uervous, sister opUeptio. 
At the ajte of four, fifitt<» lirain affwrtioii, lii^ttiu^ two w«-k». An a chiH 
he was not alTefllioiiftte. nnil vrns cold towwril his pnreuts; as n student he 
vrtiH peciilinr, ri'tiriiig, pntottuiipleil wild Ht-lf, ami >;ivcn to much rifling. 
Well rndi^wed iiiontallj". MBslurlistioii IVom HlYecnth y«ir. Eeeentrie 
after |nibtrl.y. with cimtinuai altt-nmtiuu iM^twtiuii ruligious tntUusiasm and 
uuiteriatiHii), — now studyinp tlicoloj;,v. now imtiiml i^ciences. At the uui- 
vvrsity Ilia fpllow-studif-iits took liini for n fnoL IIi! read Jean Paul almrnst 
exchiaivtly, nnd wasted his time. Alisoliite nbsence of sexual feeling 
towartl tlic opiKwite s«x. Oiici! Iit^ indul^itl in inten'oiirst?, i^xpcripnced 
no Htfxunl feeliuj^ in tlic act, fouml coitus al>sunl, and did not n!|H'at it. 
Without any emotional muBe whatever, hu ofluu had a thoiiRlit of suicide. 
Ue uiadu it the snhjeet of a pLiilo'*o|jliicnl (Ii«^t.-rlntion, in whioli he con- 
tend«tl that it wax, like niaitturliatioii, a Jutttiliable act. After repeated ex- 
periments, which he made on himself with various poisons, he attempted 
snicidc with fifty-aevnn fcnuns of opium ; but he was saved, luid sent to aa 

Pstjunt is destitute of mornl and social feelings. His writings dis- 
close incroilible frivolity ami v«lji«rity. Hix kiiowliHl[ie is of a widu 
range, Imt bi« logic U peculiarly distorted. There is no trace of emotion- 
aUtf. He treatH everj'tbing (even the sublime) with tocompanible cyni- 



cimt and irony. He plLwU for the jiistlflcfttion of ntiicide with false 
philuttophical prcniiHes and conclusions, djkI, »s one would K|ieiil{ of thn 
uiotit iudttrurctiL atfuir, Ik; dei.'liin.% tluit liu iiitciidn to ncuotiipli^h It, Ua 
rcf^rcts ttiat lu» |ic*tikDifu has hwu tukuu from liiiti. ]rhu liud it hv would 
o^wii his veins an Senetu did, — iti tlie batb. A tibort time before a Ciueiid 
bnd gixen him, instesid of a poison *» he supposed, » ciilbartit.-. Int^Lcml 
of hiiring; )>ccti a mcanii to send him to the other world, it h-id sunt him 
lo the wntpr-closet. Only the Greikt 0|>emtor oould crndhrrtt* his foolish 
and fatal idea hy rRiuoving hiH flensi;ei^ vU: 

Thv patient has a lurge, rhombic, distorted skull, the k-ft hiilf of tlie 
fori'hea'^l lit-iny Halter than the ritfht. The o<'ciput is vi^ry «tnii|flit. Ears 
far bank, widely projecting, and the external niealu** form* a iiarruw slit. 
(Jcnitola vory lax ; testicles unusually ^oft and nmall. 

Now and then the patiunt situtTurs witb onoiniitoniania. Hu in com- 
pelled to think of the most useless problems and give up to iiu inter- 
minaUe di)ttre»sing and worrying thought; and ts so fati^ued alXcr it 
tbflt be is no longer cnpahle of any rational thought. After »onie months 
the patient was sent hurac unimproved. There he spent his time in 
rending itnd frivoliticfl, and busied himself with the tlioitght of founding 
a m-w Christianity, tiei^austi Clirisl had Iweii suhjuL't to gniiid delusions 
and had deceived the world witb wonders (Ij. After remaining at botne 
te years the sudden oecurrenee of a manineni unthreak brought bim 
lin to the asylum. lie presented a mixture of primoi-dial delirium of 
peraecution fdevil,ftnti-<-hrist, perflecntion, poisoning, pcrsceiitory voices) 
and delusions of grandeur (Christ, re<leraption of the world), with im- 
pnlflive, incoherent actions. After five months there was a remission of 
thla Intercurrent acute mental disease, and the patient returned to the 
level of bis original intelleetnal jiet-nlinrity and moral defuet. 

Case 9. K., aged 3(1, jounieyman-i»fiin|er, wjis nrrest^d while trying 
to cut off the scrotum of a boy he had caught in the woods. He gave aa 
a motive for tbiK ad that he wished to <'nt into it In order that the world 
ebould not multiply. Often In his youth, with like purpose, be hud out 
into bis own genitals. 

It IN impossible to learn anythinjr of hid ancestry. Prom his child- 
hood he was mentally abnormal, violent, never lively, very irritable, 
irasoible, selfish, and weak-mindt^l. Tie baled women, tored solitude, and 
read much. He sometimes laughed lo himself and did silly tUinga. Of 
[ate years his hatred of women had inereased, esjiecially of those that 
were preguaut, they being responsible for the misery of the world. He 
also hateil children, and rursed bis father. Ke i-ntertaine<l communistie 
Ideas, and berated the rich and the ministry, and God, who had allowed 
luro to come into the world so poor. He declared tlmt it wonlil he Iwtter 
to castrate nil cliildren than to allow others to eome into the world th»t 
could only be fated to endure poverty and miser}'. He bad always bad 
the inttnitioi, from his Afteenth year, to castrate himself, in order to have 



no part in inci-eRsinjj unhsppinesa and arlding to the number of men. He 
hated the female apx Iwcauso it was a means of procreation. Only twice 
in his life had be allowec] womeD to pmL-ticc manustupmtion on him, anil, 
with tite tiKceptiun of lliin, hu huil never htui aiiviliin^ to do with them. 
Otrwasiouttlly he had sexoal desire, but uever for u natural eatibfac-tioii of 
it. Wheo nature did not help h im , be ovcasioiiully helped himself by 
me«n» of masturbation. 

He is a powerftil, muscular mftn. Tbo. formation of the genitals pre- 
fients DO abniirmality. On the Horutnin anil pciiin iirc numcruuB scam, 
which retiulted frum his attumptt; at Ki'ir-enuiHcnlaUnn, but nhlrh, he 
SMierts, were not carried out od acoount of paiij. (ienu Talguiu or right 
lintb. No evidence of onanism uouUI be diwovered. 11^ is moody, 
deflaiit, irritable. Social feelinjfs are absohit<!l_v foreign to him. With 
the exception of itnpcrloct ulecp nod fhiqucnt hcadnchos, there arc no 
Ainctionul disturbanoes. 

From cases of this kind, depending on cerebral causes^ 
there must be distinguished others where the absence of func- 
tion arises from an absence or malformation of the generative 
organs, as in certain Uerniiipliroilites. idiots, and cretins. A 
case belonging here is found in Maschka's hand-book. 

Cose 10. Complainant pleads for divorce on ueuount of impotence 
of her husband, who hu» never h«il intci-coiirsc with lit-r. She is thirty- 
one ye^rs old, and a virgin. The huittiaml is somewhat wviik muutallv, 
physically strong; the frenitidiD well developed. He declnrcM that he has 
never had a i-ompleti* ereutinn or a flow of Hemen, and fwys that he la 
totally indilfcrtinl about intcrconrse with women. 

Ultzmann's' observations show that aneesthesia soxualis is 
not caused by aspcrmia simply. He slions that even in con- 
genital asjierinia the vita sexualis and sexual power may be 
entirely satisfyin'^ ; an additional ]>roof that defective libido ai> 
origine Ls to be sought fur in ecrehral rnndittnns. 

The naturce fi-igiiUin of Zacclijas are examples of a milder 
form of anesthesia. They are met more frequently among 
women than among men. The characteristic sigus of this 
anomaly are: sliglit iurliniitioii to sexual intercourse, or pro- 
nounced disinclination to coitus without sexual equivalent, and 

1 "UelKTmlnuUeheSwrillUli," Winner laed. Pn»«e, IST«, Nr. I. "Oeber PfitenU* 
gcncriLDill ct conmiili," Wli-m-i Kliulk, Is-SA, ncft 1, .'^. !l. Triui*liiU'<l un(]>er Uiu tlUc or 
a«ultoUrlaftt7 NeuroMS, etc. Ttio K. A. Dnvli CooijJiui^, I'UUwJdpbim. 



fftilure of corresponding psychical, pleasurable excitation during 
coitus, which is indulged in simply trom sense of duty. I have 
often had ocrasiun ti) liear cuniplaiiits from husbands about tills. 
In such cases the wives have always prov<;U to l>o neuropathic 
ab originc. Some were at the sunie time hysterical. 

S. Acquired Anmsthesia. 

Acquired diminution of sexual instinct, extending through 
all degrees lr> extinction, may depend on various c-auses. Tliese 
may be oi^auic and I'unctional, psychical! and somatic, central 
and periphenil. The diminution of libido, usage advances, and 
its tem{iurary disappearance arter the sexual act, ai-e ph)-flio- 
logical. The variations with reference to the duration of the 
sexual instinct are de(H;ndent upon individual factors. Educa- 
tion and mannjcr of life have a great influence upon the intensity 
of the vita sexuaLis. Intense mental activity (hard study), physi- 
cal exertion, emotioinil depression, and sexual continence de- 
cidedly diminish sexual inclination. Continenc-e at first induces 
incrc;, but sooner or later, according to constitutional condi- 
tions, the activity of the generative organs decreases, and with 
it libido. At all events, in. a person sexually mature, a close 
connection exists between the acti%-ity of the generative glands 
and the degree of libido. That this relation is not determinate 
is shown by the cases of sensual women, wlio, arter tlie climac- 
terium, continue to luive sexual intercourse, and may maui- 
fesl states of sexual excitement (cerebnU). Also iu euiinchs 
it is seen that libido may long outlast the production of 

On the other hand, however, experience teaches that libido 
is essentially conditioned by the function of tlie generative 
glands, and that tlie facts mentioned are exreptioniil manifesta- 
tions. As |)eripheral causes of diminution or extinction of libido, 
may be mentioned castration, degenemtion of the sexu;d glands, 
noarasmus, sexual excesses in the Form of coitus and masturba- 
tion, and alcoholism [cocainism]. In the same way, the disap- 
pearance of libido in general disturbances of nutrition (diabetes, 
morphinism, etc.) may be explained. Finally, tlie atrophy of 



the Icsticks should be remembertnl, which has M)metimes lieca 
observed to IbUow tbcal lesions of the braiu (cerebeU\im). 

A dimitiiitioii of the vita sextitilis, from defeneration of the 
tracts of tlie curd mid guiiito-spinai centre, urcurs in discuses of 
the spinal cord and brain. A centnil interference with the 
sexual instinct niuy be tirgaiiically induced by cortical dise-.use 
(dementia paralytica iii its advanced stages); functioually, by 
hysteria (central anajsthesia'?) and emotional insanity (melan- 
cholia, hyjtociiondria). 


Pathology has no easy task, in the sinf^le case, when it has 
to decide ivliether thc-impidse to sexual sHtisiaction has reached 
a ^Mithoiogicrtl degree. KmminghaiLs (" Psyt-lnjiMithologie," p. 
225) dcclart's that the iniiiiediiite re-awakeiiing of desire aft<T 
satislaction, witli its occupation of the entire attention, aud uo 
less the excitation of libido b) the sight of pertions and things 
which in themselves should have but an iudiffei-eut sexual 
effect, are decidedly abnormal. In general, scxmd instinct aud 
its corresponding needs are in proportion to physical strength 
and age. Sexual desire rapidly increases ailer puberty, until 
it reaches a marked degree ; is strongest from the twentieth to 
the fortieth year, aud then slowly decreastss. Married life seems 
to preserve and control the instinct. Sexual intercourse with 
many persons increases the desire. 

Since woman has less sexual need than man, a predorainat* 
ing s<?xual desire in her arouses a suspicion of its jHitlioIogical 
significance; and the more, when this tinds expression in desire 
for adornment, coquetry, or male society, which, passing Ijeyond 
the limits set by good breeding and manners, becomes quite 

The constitution, in both sexes, is of the greatest signifi* 
cance. An abnormally strong sexual instinct is frequently 
accompanied by a neuro]Hithic eunstitutiou ; and such individualfl 
pass a great purt of their lives heavily burdened witli the weight 
of this constitutional anomaly of their sexual life. The power 
of the sexual impulse in such cases may at times rise to the 



iin{)ortuncc of uii oi^iuc nece&sity, and really endanger the 
fcvedom of the wUl. The want of satbfactiou of thU impulsive 
desire may, under such conditions, induce u condition allied 
to iirtuiil nittiii^, or a |>sy(;hicid condition, Hccomptiiu<>d by 
emutiuus of fear, in which the individual gives up to the 
impulse, and responsibility Ijecomes doubtful. If the iadlvidutd 
dues uut g^ive up to hh powerful impulse, he h in danger, by 
reason of his enforced abstinence, of ruining his nervous system 
by inducing a neumsthcnia, or seriously incrt^ising such a con- 
dition if it be already |>resenl. In normiUly constituted indi- 
viduals, too, tlie sexual instinct is an incuustant quantity. 
Aside from the temporal^ indifference fallowing satisfaction, 
and the diminution of sexual desire in long-continued con- 
tinence after a certain reactionary stage of sexual desire is 
overcome, the manner of life has a great influence. Those 
living in lai^e cities, who are c»nstaiitly reminded of sexual 
things and incited to sexual enjoyment, certainly have more 
sexual desire than those living in tlie country. A dissipated. 
luxurious, sedentarj' manner of life, preponderance of auinial 
food, and the consumption of spirits, spices, etc., have a stimu- 
lating influence on the . sexual life. In woman the sexual 
mclination is |»o8t-menstruaI!y increased. At this time, in 
neuropathic women, the excitement may reach a pathological 

The great libido of consumptives is remarkable. Tlofmanu 
tells of a consumptive peasjmt who satisfied his wife sexually 
on the evening before his death. 

The sexual acts are coitus (eventually rape) and, /««/e 
de mietix^ masturbation ; and, with defective moral sense, 
pcderiLsty or bestiality. If sexual power is diminished or ex- 
tinct, with excessive sexual desire, all manner of perversity of 
sexual acts becomes possible. 

Kxcessive libido may Iw peripherally or centrally induced. 
The former manner of origin is the more infre<iuent. Pruritus 
and eczema of the genitals may cause it; and likewise certain 
sulistances. like cantharides, which powerfully stimulate sexual 
desire. Not infrequently, in women at the climacteric, sexual 


I'srcuoiMTniA rexttaus. 

excitement occurs, occtisionecl by pruritus; and also in cases 
where there; is uuuropalUtc taint. Maguan {Au?uilejt mSdico- 
juti/fJi4)i.y 1885, p. 157) reports the case of a lady who was 
afflicted mornings witli attacks oC frightful eretliismns genitalis, 
and the case of a man, aged 55, wlio was toimcnted at night 
by unbearable priapism. In each case there was a neurosis. 

The central origin of sexual excitement is of frequent 
occurrence' in i>enjons having neurotic taint or liystcria, and 
in conditions of j>sychical exaltation. Here, where the cortex 
and tlie psyclio- sexual centre are in a condition of hyperajs- 
tJiesia (abnormal excllabilit)' of the imuginution, increased ease 
of association), not oidy vistial and tactile impiiessions, but 
also auditory and olfactory stMisatiuns, may be sufKeient to call 
up lascivious concepts. 

Maj^nn (op. cit.) reports thft case of a yoiinc ■woman who had an 
increasinp nexual dosin? from puberty, and satisfied it by luaaturbation. 
Cradtinlly ^he ffrew to beuomti sexiiall.v cxt^it*?!! at tlie siglit of any umn 
plea.sin^ to her: and, a'mw hIiu wait unuhlo to coutrol htTM-H*. sliu vi-iiuld 
somutjiucs )4hi]t hi;rsell'up in ii roam until IheM^nu had jioHstKl. At hist 
she gave herspU" up to men uf her cljoiff, thai »hv uitglit get rest from 
her toriinfutiiijj dei'ire ; hut neither coittut nor ma^turliatioit brought relief, 
and Mh« went to au asylum. 

The case of a mother of fivpiihildren in addeil, wlin,in despair about 
her inonliiml^ wsiLiI iuipulst.-, j).tti.-niptv(l suIoi<]ef and then Miiif^ht Mt 
asylum. There her uunditiou impruved, but sb« Dover tnistul herself to 
leave it. 

There are several illustrative cases in men and women iu 
the author's article, " On Certiiin Anomalies of Sextial Instinct," 
Cases 6 and 1 (Arvhiv/ur /Vj/Mici/nV, vii, 2) ; Cases 3 and 5 are 
given here. 

■Id Indmduals In wliom Intenip acsuaI hrp^neslh^^in IkUAOclUcri wiLIi ■rqulrcd 
trrltable wcaknen uf Uiu tcxuikl iippuratuN, il U imwlblc tliat ritnpty al t)i« ntclit or a 
plnuliiC femal* flifurc, wlUiout piTi[j|jeral [ttIuiIud or the li'-eiIuiI*. not only thv mi-cbuitstn 
of erection, l>at bImi that of eJarLilntloa, mny tin ctcllril to acilon from the [M>yt:)iiv*rxual 
cmtrr. For ftucli 1ii<tlvtiliialii. all that l> li'M'r'ittary to Ituluri' orx**!!), or oven «<jM;ulHlbtn, la 
to Ituk^iie tliroiMrlTCR In a mxuhI Hlliiiitlon with s rtmule that alu op]NMi1t« lliem fii ruilwKy. 
coupi at ilrawriiie-fonni. Haromoiiil fop, ii(., p. in) (Iiwcrtbi'a iM-Ti-rol cn*^ of lliln kind 
tbmC cainf> to lilin for l«mtinpM for Impa1ciic« tliitt ruUowtMl: and Iw metitlouH thut. tIi<-»« 
Individuate ukU tiie t«rni " Mtmi coUuo " fur ttie net-. Dr. Moll, of UiTlIn, told mti of a 
■Imllar cam ; sod Iu thlR UmttUK-i! the; muiii: duigoallaii wiu cboseu for tli« icL 



Caae 11. On the afternoon or July T, 1874, C|eni«nH,ent^iieer, iKing 
on bis way, on burioeira, from Trieste to VientiEt. left tlie train at the lowu 
of Brack, ami, pacing through the town to tin* m'ichI»oriny viUniKe of 
St. Rnprer ht, attempted a raix; on an old wonuin, aj^t-rl lu, wliom lit- Pound 
alone in a house. Ue was seized by the neighbors and nrrt-st^'d by the 
local polioti. At bis bearing hn doclarvd tliat bu had tried to Ihid the 
pound, in order to satisfy bin m>xuiiI deitire with n bitch. lie Haid that bu 
often suffered with such mexuai exeitement. He did not deny bis aut, 
but 6xcu»ed it BS the rttiult of diseaae. The heat, the motion of the care, 
and anxiety about his family, to wbieb he wished to go, had ennriiHctl 
him and made him ill. Sbamu and n'niorKe were not shown, llitt coq> 
duct was open, bit* mien giiy ; eyex red ami bright, head hot, tongue coaled ; 
pulae full, soft, be»ting orer 100; fingers somewhat tremuloiw. The «tate- 
ntenta of the accutwd were preeiiWi, but hurried ; bin planci.' uncertain, and 
with an unmietaliftlik' cxpr«8«ion of huM.-iviou8ne9fl. To the medical rxjierl 
Aiuuiionccl to examine him, he gave the impression of one suffering with 
din*«»c, — as it" be were In the In^ginnlng of olcoholie iiisaiiity. 

0. is forty-five years old. uiarrit^l, fatbcr of tme child, lie does not 
know wbat difteaaes his jmrents or other members of his Inmih liave had. 
In childhood he was weak and neuropathic. At the age of five his bend 
was injured hy a hlow witli a hoe. A scar one-half cm. broiid by one cm. 
long, Hitunled on the right parietal and frontal Iiuubh, <biles from that 
ii^ury. The bone is here somewhat depressed. The overlyin'r skin i» 
united to the bone, FreBSura at this point cnuHeH {xiiu, which rndiateirt 
along the lower brauoh of the trigcniinuH. This spot is alw> rix*<iUL*ntly 
«|K>Utaneously painful. In his youth he had frequent attack.'* of " fAint- 
ing"; before puberty, pneumonia, rheumatism, and intestinal catarrh. 
At the age of ^evea WexjaTienced a peculiar h 
_Bi;<tr5ai_n nii^wrior. Whenever he saw this man 

In his heart; kiasetl the ground be walked on. ._ 

a certain deputy. Later he had uu enthusiasm for men, though it was / 
entirely platonic. He ttef^an to masturbate at the age of fourteen ; (irst | 
Intereonrse at ftevent*<'n. Then the L-arlier manifestation s of conlrary 
aexual feeling disap|a-ured entirely. At that time he paased through a 
peculiar acute pf<,vchoiNithle condition, which he deHcril>e<l as a kind of 
clairvoyance. From QflL-en, hiemorrhoidK, with fymploms of plelboni 
ab^loininalia. Wtien he had profuse liuunorrhoidal litviiiorrbage, wbicli 
occurred nsually every three or four weeks, he wai* letter. At other 
times he was constant)}' in a condition of painfnl aexunl exeiteinent, which 
be satisfied partly by means of ouauism and partly by coitus. Every 
woman he met excited him; even when he was among reuiaie rektives he 
wa« im;>eUe4l to make indecent proposals. Sometiiue* it wus iwssihle for 
him to master his dcaire; Bometirne!* he wan driven to indecent acts. If, 
after these, be wa^ kicked out^f-doors, it seemed perfectly right to Mm ; 
for he thought that ne needed such correction and supiiort against his 

tism, and intestinal catarrh. — i 
' inclination for men, — i.e., for / j^*- 
man he had a [H'culiar fiM?ling I ^^i/ 
n. A t ten he fell in love with I V 



powerful iiii|)ul»«. u-liic-ti vrnn x burdeu to bixo. No periodicity Iii this 
sexiul exc-iteiiu>iit was r«co^izable. 

Until IHf>] ho coinniitUHl exceKHett in veiiery hikI waa several UmeA. 
mfectetl vtHU gritiiirrb(ua uud L'huucmh. In t^til, marriage He was 
t)uxtiBll,v HutmHod, but Iwcnum a. bunWn tt> bid wirt* uu iiv(x>imt ul' h'u great 
sensiialitv. In 1^04 hv [i!u<-iti>tt ttirou|rh »u attnrk of tuniiia in tlie Eio^pitiil 
at Fiumu, niul in th<.- ttami^ year h(^ a^iin foil ill, anil wba takon to the 
Insane aajium at Yblia, wbcro lit- n?main«(l until iStiT. Tliore he suH'crod 
with reenrrcTit mania actrompank-il by greiit nexiial ext:it«inont. He says 
Clint inti'HLinal cabirrh aiiil auxiuty wcru tbc cau^u of lii» UIul-kh ut tliat 

Therenfter he was well, but be sufTcred mucb on account of bis 
exccMivc HoxuftI desire. If he were ahftent from hi« wife hut a nhort time, 
thi> impuUo bc-camo 8f> powerful tbnt man or nninnil wa» inditferont t^ him 
for tho aatisfaction of his hisl. In »nninior Utvtuj impuitiuu w»>ri' niiifh 
Btrortgnr, nnil were nlwaya aceom]»uiit'd by abdomiuol plethora. Some- 
tbiug that be remembered in medical reodinir, made bim think that iu big 
case the gnnglioniL- dystem was more powerful thnn the cerebral. In 
October, lH7a. on ncconnt of businewi, he had to leave hijf wife. From 
that time until EaKtcr, with the exception of occasional masturbation, 
tborc was no sexual indulgence. Aft*r that he made u.-^e of women and 
bitchen. From the iiiiildle of June until July 7, lu; liud no opportunity 
for sexual indulgence. He felt nervou.nLy exL'ited, ri'lnxed, and ns if be 
were going emzy. Uf late he had ttlvpt ImiUy. A lougiug for bin wife, 
who lived in Vienna, drove him to leave bis hiininei^fi. He obtained leave 
of absence. The beat and the noise of the train confu^ied him, and be 
could no longer hold out agaiu.Ht his sexual excitement and the pressure 
of blood in his alulomen. Kverj'thing dan<u'd before his eye^. He left 
the car at Bruck, and was ab!^ohlt41ly coiif'useil, not knowiu); whorc he 
weut ; and for u moment the thought eauie to him to throw himnelf in the 
water ; all was like a mint l^efore his eyes. Ttien he saw a woman, e\|>oi*ed 
hiei ge.nitald, and tried to embrace bur. She eried for help, and thus he 
was arrested. 

After tbc attempt it suddenly became elear to him wimt he had 
done. He oEKduly eunfeseied hJs eritiie, which lie remembered in all Its 
details, but which seemed to him to be i^itmething nhnonnul. lie could 
not help it. For novae dayn after thiK, C. sutt'en^ with headache and 
congestions, and was now and then excited and. restless, and slept badly. 
His mental functions are undt»iLiirl>Ml, hut he ih, neveit.heless, a con- 
gunitally peculiar man, with a chantcter weak and devoid of energy. The 
hc\ai expression has something lascivious and peculiar about it. He 
sulfors with Iwmorrhoids. The genitals present nothing ahnonual. 
The omnium ia narrow and retreating at the forehead. Body largo and 
well nourished. With the exception of di»rrhci>a, there is no dUturhasec 
of the vegetative fUnctioos. 



Cane 12. Mr*. B., agvd 47. Uncle od fattier's 8id« wns iiuane; 
father WAA aanfraine, and pfivenlo exoewi in venery. P»tient'« brother 
died of an acute c*rehral affection. Patient fpom childhood lias been ner- 
vQUh, wcentru'. and roniantic, ntid while liltle imirv tljari a iJiild nmiii- 
fcstcd excoesivo sexual de^iro, urid at tcu tiogau fcxunl indulgence. At 
nineteen, marriage. tJuUnppy miirried life; her hiiulmnd, who was normal, 
did not oatiftfy lior, mid until recent ymrs she congl-Autly had other frieiuU 
besides her huslKind. She was well aware of the immoralitx' of her life, 
but felt her powcrteasnesa against her insatiahlc desire, which kHc nought 
to keep, at lea«t outwnnlly, a HefTret. Later nhe llioii^lit that Hh« bad 
suObred with a "luaiiiu for men." Patioiit li.-is Ituriic hix ebiUireii. Six 
7«Br8 ago she was thrown from a wagon and received a severe cerebral 
concussion. Following thi» th«re was melancholia, with delusions of 
[ferseciitirtn , which sent her to the asylnm. She is approflching the 
climacterium, and of hitc the roenaes liavc l>ecn profnuo and too frec)ueiit. 
Since this |H5rio<l she is pleased to note tlmt the prevtouBl)' iKjwerful 
Httxunl ImpulHO ha» declined. Pro[>er behavior. Slight decree of 
descentiue uteri and prolapsus ani. 

Hy perse stbesia sexualU may be continuously present with 
exacerbations, or it may be interraittcut or jwriodic In the 
latter case it is a cerebral ntnirosis per ee {vitle "S|>ecial 
Pathology"), or an acfou)|)ftiiying symptom of a condition of 
gcnnml psycliiral excitement (mania ; episodically in dementia 
parahtini, dementia senilis, etc.). 

Lentz has publislied a remarkahle ease of intermittent 
satyriasis (Jiulletin de la itocUti de mSd. iSgalc de Bctgiqtie, 
Nr. 21):— 

Caiic 18. For thr(* ycara the generally respected farmer D., luarried, 
3.S, han manifested states of sexual excitement, with inpreasing fta- 
queticy and m'verily, whicti, during the pa«t year, have iM'conin true 
paroxysms of Hatyriaeix. It was im])ospible to discover here«lttnry or 
other orjcaiiiti cnuoc. D. was eom]>elled, at timei; when hiH ttexual ex- 
cit^ment was exces«ive, to i)erform the nexunl act from ten to fifteen 
times in twenty-four hours, without derivinjr any feeling of satis&ction. 
Grkdnalty he developed a condition of jjcneml nervouB hyi)er-irritnbnity 
{irf.thitime. y£nerat) with incrt'ttsed emotional irritahility to the ext«itt of 
pntholo|;icR) oathreaks of an^er, and impulse to orer-induigence in aloo- 
hnl, which induced Kymptoms of alcoholi-Hm. ilis uttncks of vatyriaKiH 
Iwcarae »o violent that consciouiitne:^^ wn« iuterfere<l with, and the patient 
raged alwrnt in blind impulse to ncxual anta. He demanded that hlfl wife 
give herself to other men or to animals in his presence; that she allow 
copulation with him ^ jyreneniibus jUiabue, because this wonUI atford faim 



greater eiijo,viQ<^t. Mt^uiory for tlie events Ht the height of the**e attficlu, 
in which the extreme irritabiHty even led to outhreAks of inariiaf-al rage, 
wait entirely wanting. U. himsell' thought tlint he must hflve bad moment** 
in which he iiu Ioniser hud control of hiH setiHt'x, Hitd without isntiBfoction 
(Vum hiii wife would have been eoniiHiUed to seize the uext l>e8t female. 
Alter on attack of violent emotion, tbeue attacks of sexual excitement 
suddenly disa(i[>eared entirely. 

The two following cases show how powerfiJ, dangerous, 
aud painful sexual hyperesthesia may become io those afflicted 
with Utis anomaly : — 

Case 14. liyi-^ranthetia Btzualia — Delirium Acutumex Abgiiiientia. 
— On May 39, 1H83, F., j^eti 29, single, shoemaker, wait received at the 
clinic. Pftthcr was of pas^^ionate tt^mpcf; mother nt-urojiathic, and had 
an fnttanc brother. I*ntLcnt had never been serioUBly ill previously, and 
was not a drinker, but Inul always been sexnally very imssionate. Five 
ilnys bi'furi!, he WHH taken ac-titely Ul luentully. He made two attempts 
at r:ii>e in broad diiyliglit, before witnee^ws, and when arrested talked 
in delirium only of obscene things, and inatfturbated withouV stint, and 
for three day* bad lieen raving mad. On admission he presented the 
pictnre of a severe acute delirium, with violent motor symptoms of irri- 
tation, and fever. Under treatment with ergotin a cure wna etfected. 

On January 5, 1888, Heeond adniisKion, in a tttate of violent mania. 
On January i,\ic had t^ecome morose, irritable, whining, and sleepless; 
and then, after vain astiauLts on women, had manifested s^nnptomH of 
increasing uugry excitement. 

On January ij, progress of the condition to severe acute delirium 
(great disturbance of conBeiousness, jactation, grinding of the teeth, 
grimacing, and other motor symptoms of irrilHtitiii ; temperature as high 
as 40.7" (J.) ; impulsive masturbation. Recovery was complete by January 
11, nndcr energetic treatment with ergotin. 

After bis recovery the i»Uiuut givvs an interesting account of the 
cause of his illness. Always very passionate nexually ; lirst coitus ut 
the age of sixteen. Continence cnnsed hfadachc, great psychical irrita- 
bility, lassituile, great toss of pleasure in work, and sleeplessnL-ss. Since 
he had few opportunities in the country to satisiy his detiire, he had 
recourse to masturbation. It was necessary for him to masturbate once 
or twice daily. No coitus in two months. Increasing sexual excitement; 
could think of nothing sa%'e means for the gratification of his impulse. 
Masturbation was not sutflcient to banish the constantly increasing 
torment ex abstinentia. During the last four days violent impulse to 
coitos; inereaning sleeplcBsness and irritability. There was only a sum- 
mary recollection of the height of the liluess. Patient recovered in 



Pecemti^r. A very rv«[)ectjiM« man : he oon^idera his tnordinate desire 
(lecid«<))y pathological, nnd is anxioii!) nboot hifl future. 

CaMc l.i. On July II, 1WS4. R., nfred 33,»ervant, wa« ndmiUM oulfer- 
ing ffitli piimnom |H-rmH;uti}rm uixt iiisurnKllicnin r«i'XimlJs. Mother wad 
ii(nin>{iathic; f&tber died of apiiial ilittca^c. From ctiililli<HMl lie had an 
intense sexual dwiry, of which he hfcaiue c<?iiM:iou» as early an his sixth 
year. From lliis age, masliirhation ; from lirtw^iitli yvar. fanii; dt mievx, 
[MMliTasty ; ocrnsionally, fw^lomitic iudiilj^i^nccs. l^ntt^r. aImisiis coitus in 
mnn-iagc emn uxore. Now and llicn even pervorsc imjiuUc to commit 
cunuilin^us ami to administer cauiluridfH to his wife. Itceuiiso her libido 
did not equal hiu own, His wife died t\.t\vv n sliort iKTiml of nmrriwl life. 
Patient's circumstaaves bec'aiiip ftmightencd, aud he had m> uieans to 
indul};e biniKelf ^'xually. TXwn maftturlmliou again; employment of 
lingiui t-nnii* to induce ejaculation. At tinu^, priapism :ind ecmditkina 
appmAc-liinjo' nalyriiwit*. iU- waji tlieii driven to mast.urlKite, in order not 
to ticcome ittuporous. Ueneliciat diniiiiutlou of the Uhido nimia, with the 
lually prefhimiiiatin^ Ke.\ual iieuraHtliuniiL and hyjxMihoudim. 

The following case, vahmhlc for an understand itig of 
ay Mrssjiliiijis. somf of wlioin are liisloricaHy ci'lrbrfitrd, is a 
rical examijlf of pure hyperiEsUicsia scxmiUs, nliioli 1 take 
from Trelat's " Folic lucide":— 

CawJ 18. Mrs. V. lias Hntfpred with a pnsfiion for men since her 
earliwrt youth. Of good family, well bred, of pleasant diApoaition, ex* 
cee^lingly m«>*lest. she whh, oh a little jrirl. a terror to her rninily, because 
ehe could Hcarc«'ly lu- alom- with a i)er>Mrti of the opiK>Klte mw, no matter 
whether it was with child or man of miy bk«, without exposing herself 
immediately and deuuinditiiCMiti.xliictioii for ber sex mil pii««iou,vven going 
90 far as to lay liuM of bim. An :itienipt waw nuide to riire bt-r by 
marrisge. Sh« loved her hiisl)aiii| pa^sioruttely, but oven with him she 
eouhi THit beep (W>ru demnmiin^ coitus of every one with whom she could 
1m> alotiv. no matter whether it was servant, inli4>rer, or schnol-boy. 

Nothing could cure her of this impulsie. Kven when ehe became a 
gmndmother. she was ttliU a Me«BaliDH. One day she Itx-'ketl a twetve-year- 
oki boy in her room ivnd tried to seduce him. The boy defended himself 
and escap*"*!. She waa severely punished by his brother. Ail was in vain, 
tihe waa put in A cloister. There slie was an example of morality, and 
ive not the alif^it^At raune forhlamv. Inum-iUiLtely alter her return the 
ncandal bt^fi;an ii^To-in. The fnuiily bani.'^hed her. luid !<>et aside money tn 
support her. She eaniixl by her own hnixl-work enough to buy herself 
lovers, Any one seeing this ivenlly di-esHed matron, of good manners and 
amiable disposition, wouht never suspect how reoklesiily pasaiouate she 
atiU was at the age of sixty-tive. On January I, 1864, her family, in 



ur at new 8<randaU, pineed licr iti nn aftvlum. She livp<l th^'m until 
May, 1858, when hIic died of upo|)lexui rerebrl, in hor spvonty-tliird yc«r. 
II<*r conihipl in the aaytum whr cxemplnrv. Left, to hersoll', ntul uncli»r 
rnronibk' coniliUoiis, li(>r sexuiil itnitiilneb iiiiuiUVt^U'i) llh'uim'lvi;s tibortly 
Iwroru her dustii. With tbu exccptiou of Uiib, during au obsen'ation of 
four yeaix hy pliyHictniut of thi; tuiyluiQ, sbe never showed h sign of 
mental abuunuality. 

D. PAE«sTiresiA OP Sexual Pkbuno (pKRVitHsiny op thk SbxhaIi 


In tliis condition there is ^wiverse emotional coloring of 
the sexual idc^as. Itleas physiologically and i>sj-cholagi<;ally ao 
companied by feelings of disgust, give rise to pleasurable sexual 
feelings ; and the abnormnl association finds expression in 
passionate, lui controllable emotion. The pmctical results are 
perverse acts ([>ervevsion of the sexim! instinct). This is mure 
easily the case if the pleasurable feelings, increased to passionate 
intensity, inhibit any opposing ideas with corresponding feelings 
of disgust ; or the iniliieiice of such op|H>sitig concepts may be 
impossible on account of tlie absence or loss of all ideas of 
morality, (esthetics, and law. This loss, however, is only too 
frequently lound where tiie spring of ethical ideas and feelings 
(a normal sexual instinct) has been poisoned from the begin- 

With opportunity for the natural satisfaction of the sexual 
instinct, every expression of it that does not correspond with the 
purpose of nature, — *".«., projiagntion, — must be ix-garded as jjcr- 
verse. Thi; perverse sexual acts resulting from |Minesthcsia are 
of tlie greatest im|>ortance clinically, socially, and foirnsically; 
and, therefore, they must here receive careful considei-ation; all 
Gcsthetic and polite disgust must be overcome. 

Perversion of the sexual instinct, as will be seen from what 
follows, is not to be confoundt^d with perversity in the sexual 
act; since the latter may be induced by conditions which arc 
not psychopath ology. The concrete perverse act, monstrous as 
it may be, is not decisive. In order to differentiate between 
disease (perversion) and vice (perversity), one must investigate 
the whole personality oi'the individual and the original impulse 



leading to the perverse act. Therein will be found the key of 
diagnosis (v. »r/ra). 

Paresthesia may occur in comhinntioii with li\']>ertestiiesia. 
This association seems to be frequent ciinically. .Srxual acts 
arc then confidently to be expected. The perverse direction of 
sexual activity may be toward sexual satisfaction witli ttie 
opposite or the same sex. Thus two great gniu|>s of pervei^ 
siona of the sexual life may be diatinguished. 

/. Sexual IneUnaiion ioward Persons of Ihe Opposite 8es, with Perverse 
Acitvitt/ of the Instinct. 

1. AsfOfdation of Active CrueHy and Violence with Lns^ — 
Sadism.* — That lust and cruelty frequently occur together is 
a Diet that has long been rccoj^ized aud not infrequently 
observed. Writers of all kinds have called attention to this 
phenomenon.' The not infrequent cases wliere individuals of 
very excitable sexual natures bite or scratch the companion in 
intercourse fall within physiological limits.' Tlie older authors 
have called attention to the relation between lust and cruelty. 

RIiimriMfir (" Uebcr IrrescSn," Leijtzig, 1836, p. 51) saw a man who 
hod BCTpml wounds liitton into the jHK-tonU must-li!, whirli a woman, in 
great tiexiuil exc-ltviufnt, hud tfiven him ftt the ncuiv of luKtfui fevling 
4uriii|$ coitus. Blumrodnr (" Ueber Lust iind Sehmerz," Priedreich's 
Magazin fur Seelfnt-ttnfte, 1830, ji, 5} calls especial attention to tlie \t»y- 
ehologlcfll connection iK'tween liiMt and tiiurdt-r. In ri'Intioii to this, lie 
efi|)«K.-tRn^- refers to tlic Indian myttiH of Siva and Durga (Death and 
Lust) : to huraiui Paeriflw with evnamil niysterk-B ; and to sexual inntnict 
at pulxfrty with u liittlfid irii|>iil>*e lu stiic-idi', with whippini;, pliKliiiiy. uud 
pricking of the f^eiiitalft, in the blind impalfie to gatii^ry Ht^iinl it«sire. 
Loinbro»o(" Verzonie Agnoletti," Rome.lS14) nlnociteit numerous exam- 
plee of the o(M:urrence of a desire to murder with greatly inureaiwd luat. 

■ So o»ned rnim Itir nnloriouit Marqnb dr Smie, wkow olxcmr novcb trcateal of 
ta»t wmI cnMlty. In FriRni*li Ilter«lui« thoerpreMlaa **B«df«n"lu« tiem appllnd inUiU 

■ V. A. Novklb. lu bis " FraKinenu " : GArm, " ClirUUIcUo MjnUk," Bd. Itl, p. 4n. 
* Comp. alto Alfrv4 drMuMi'i'H fatnDU* voTtif to t1)« Andiituiilnn ^H : — 

" Qu'elte iwt nuiM^rlK! vii ■•m tl£»ijrilrr— ((uaiid i-lle tointw 1i-a »riu» nu**— 
Qti'on U vriH, lif'«ntF. •)■ tnrdrc — dftiM un bkiaor dc rage «t nofdr»— 
Ba hm-laoldMinouliicoDiiiur' 



On the other hand, when mnnk^rotis hist 1ms been t'xcited, 
lust its<'lf olhni Ibllows. Lombroso (op. cit.) aiUnlps to thr fact, 
mentioned by I^Lintcgazaa, that, with fear of beinj? plundered 
by bandits, tliere was always a dread of brutal lust.' These 
examples form tmusitions to the pronounced pathological coses. 

The esmnpli's of the iU'{!:«MivriiU! (.'H'sarK (Ni-ro, Tiberius) are nlso 
iiistruL-tire. Tbpy ttH>k duligUt iu luivinji youths lunl luaittvns slaujihU-ivd 
before their eyes. Not less so is the history of monster, MarachAUs 
(iillcs *!e KayM (Jacoli. •■ C'iiriosil'^8 (to I'histoire d« Fraiicp," Pflria, 1858), 
w|i» wnn oxecut<Hl in Mid, on acoouiit of imitihitioii ami niunkr, wliieh bo 
h«(l itrnfticod for sight years on more thsn eight htitnlrcd I'liildn'Ji. As 
rlir monatt'r uoiiffssecl it, it won fniui rea-lint; Sut-tonius aiid the dest'riii- 
lioiiH of Ihi' (inri™ of Tiln-rius, ('ariu*alla, etc.. tliat the idesi wns ^nine*! 
of lucking uLildrei] iu bis castk's, toitnriuK them, aud iht-u killing them. 
This iuhiininn nn-ti'li roufexMei) Ihiit in the romnii^sion of thcAc aotn he 
enjoyed inoxprfasiUle ph'naiire. Up Imd two nssi^tantn. Tho bodies of 
the imfortunnle ehildn-n were hiimnl, nnd only a uiimhcr ol" lieads of 
IMirti^tidsrly iKuititifiil vhildrvTi wt-rc prewrved — im memormls. 

In an attempt to explain tlie a.<wociation of lust and onielty, 
it is nccossaiT to return to a consideration of the quasi-physio- 
logical cases, in which, at the moment of most intense lust, very 
excitable individuals, who are othern'ise normal, commit such 
nets lis biting and scratrdiiiig, whicli are usually the result of 
anpT. It mu^t further be reniembored thiit love and anger are 
not only tlie most intense emotions, but also tlie only two forms 
of netivo (sthenic) emotion. Both seek their object, tr)' to 
possess themselves «f it, and tuitnrally exhaust themselves in a 
physical effect on it; bntli throw the psycli«-moti>r sphere into 
the most intiMise exeitemetit, and thus, by tneaiiK of tins excita- 
tion, reach their normal expression. 

From this stand-point it is clear how lust im^wla to acts 
that otlierwise are expressive of anger.' The one, like the 

* Dnrlnic the exrlUmcut nf butUe Uie ld«R at hint Toreen its wnj Into iMjiiirioutinMM. 
Comp. itae dpecriptlon of & bnnlc by a eoldler, b>- Grlllparwr :— 

" Aud M Itic alEmnl nuif out, Itio amilfit iiivi, lirc-«Al tn bna>t — last of tho Er'«)> t — 
hen, there, the mntdcroua iitel iinjn i-ncmy, filenil. GlTon and ulcon— dealb and llftr— 
wlUi ttavrinin; rbntitro— *'II'1It ^'ttt^'^lt in ttruty." 

* SchuU (Wk-iiif Mcil. W»L'1iriiHi'lirin , N<i. 411, 1800} reporlit a nmarkKbte cu« of » 
insn, nged Sri, wlio (.-tnilil it^lnnn Lottun wltli lib wife only ntbct working himicif Into as 
•rtUkl&l III of anger. 



other, i« a state of exaltation, an intense excitation of the whole 
psycho-motur s^iliere. Thus theiv arises au impulse to react 
on tlie object that induces the stimulus, in every possible way, 
id with the greatest intensity. Just as maniacal exaltation 
»ily passes to fiiribund dcstructiveness, exaltation of the 
sexual emotion ollen induces an impidse to exj>cnd itself in 
senseless and ap^Hirently liarmfiil U4;ts. To a certain extent 
Uiese ate psychical accompaniments; but it is not simply an 
nnconscions excitation of iTuiervation of muscles (which also 
sometimes occurs as blind violence); it is a true hy}KTbulia, a 
desire to exert the most intense effect on the individual giving 
rise to the stimidus. The most intense means, however, is the 
inflictinn of (uiin. 

Tbrouph such cases of infliction of pain, during; the most 
intense emotion of lust, \\k approach tlie cjiscs in whii'h a 
real injury, wound, or deatli, is inflicted on the victim.' In thesw 
cases, the impulse to cruelty, which may accompany the emotion 
of Inst, l)ocomc» nnbovmded in a psycfiopathic individual; and, 
at the same time, owing to defe<;t of moral feeling, nil normal 
inhibitory ideas are absent or weakened. Such monstrous, 
sadistic acts have, however, in men, in whom they are much 
more fretjnent than in women, another source m physiological 
conditions. In the intercourse of the sexes, the active or aggres- 
sive r6/e belongs to man ; woman remains passive, defensive.' 
It affords a man great pleasure to win a woman, to conquer 
her; and in the ars aimmdiy the mo<lesty of a woman who 
keepA herself on the defensive until the moment of surrender, 
is an element of great i>sycliological significance and im- 
portance. Under normal conditions a man meets obstacles 
which it is his part to overcome, and for which nature has 
given him an aggressive character. This aggressive cliar- 
acter, however, under pathological conditions, may likewise 
be excessively developed, and express itself in an impulse 

* GonccrDtiq^ nnalogout ftcu tti rutrjcs; ■tiitnol*, i4d« Lombroao, " Tbe Criminal." 
■ AmonK DUiniKl* It b alway* tbe mitio wb" |<unuvs Itic femile wftli itroffors of lovf. 

VUtjtiiX pr M'Uia) lllgbt of tbu fi^aiBlc Is cint irifntjuriiUy oliwrrrril ; aod Uivu Uie relaUoi) b 

UIu UwL botwcm the boul uf jirvj Bud lli« vicUm. 




to subdue absolutely the object of de^re, even to destroy or 
kill it.' = 

If both these constituent elements occur tagctlier, — the 
abuoriiially inleiisified impulse to a violent reac^tion toward the 
object of the stimiihiK. nnd the abnormally intcuRified desire to 
conquer tlic woman, — tlieii the most violent outbreaks of sadism 

Sadism is thus nothing else than an excessive and mon- 
Rtrons pntholng^ical i n ten si ti ration of phenomena, — possible, 
torj, in nnrinal eomlitions in rudimentsil forms, — whielt a(M;om- 
pany the psycliical vita sexuali.s, particularly in males. It is, 
of com'se, not at all necessary, and not even the nJe. tJiat the 
sadistic Individual should be conscious of his instinct. What 
he fivls is, as a rule, only the impulse to cruel and violent 
treatment of tlie opposite sex. and the coloring of the itiea of 
such acts with lustful feelings. Thus arises a powerful impulse 
to commit tlie imagined deeds. Wlien thn actual motive of 
this instinct is not comprehended by the judividxial, the sadistic 
acts have the character of impulsive deeds. 

When the association of lust nnd cruelty is present, not 
only does the lustful emotion awaken the impulse to rrnclty, 
but vice versd ; cruel ideas and acta cause sexual excitement, 
and in this way are used by perverse individuals.^ 

' TUe conqupbt of woman tAkiTs p1«c? Co-day In ilie eocia) form of courtluj;. In Wfdttc!- 
tloii KD'l ilccnptlon. Frutii tin' libtury \t\' rivHUhlttiii hikI aiilliiitpnli^ np ktiuvr Uiat tb«re 
Ji»»« h^nx UnMM, sm Uioie art- •asuifu* livitiiy Uiat prw^tii-e \i, whrni bruLnl furvp, rnbln-ry, 
rit «VPii tilows llint msdi.- » nroninn (inweHc-iiA, vti-n^ in«c)c w^ oT to obt«lu love's tlmlro- II 
I* p>w*lhl[^ Ihnl T^nilcnclr« ti) twb natlirMkA of Milbm nre AtAvhtlc. 

' In the 'rnhrbflctii-r f&r PercliuUfrl**. «• P> 138, Si^hlircr (Jens) n'fora to the Teporta 
>ar IWD ewe* l>j A. Pi>>'er lu lliu Am cuv Btntve of firt-ul u-xuftt (.-xciu-inE-ui wctu iuduci-d 
\ty the ■Iglil "f I'hHIpw or of pttlni.liigii ff iIictti : In Ihp wi-niul, hy rrii"! lorturliiK of tniuW 
animals (pUh Caiui !M). U b aildi't] : "Tli'C pit-aaure of batLU ati'l iiiurdnr U on prtiiloinl- 
iiantly ail atlrll'UUtuf Llic: ntalvi aix ttinnu-ljuut Ihc animal kingdom, Uiat then can ba no 
qn»tluti atont tlic cloac rrlittK<n cxjullii^ ticlKcc-u this «l(l<' of thti inaM'iilliic clianrlcr 
Btivl main orxnallly. I ti«ll«V(>, too, that l>y nn(in>Jndl<N«d obacrvaUon I rui «hon- Uiat, 
In niori whn ore alwolQi«ly normal incnmlly and physkally, Uic flrsi tudediilte and Incom- 
ptcIxMieiblo prrcunnr* of »cxual i>xi:l(em<.>ul may hv Itiduvtxl b; rrndliiE vxt^ltlne eceocc 
of llic rlioM.- *ad war,— *.«,, ihsy k'**' H«t in tinconerlniiB looglucs for a kludof Mtikfttctloii 
lio warlike KBince (wipMIIiie), fa wbUti, nlMi, tbe fundsinriital Rpximl Impnlw ui tbp nitmt 
p^rrtrtanil liitpiiw I'lHilacl wll.h a i-ninpaRlniii Is CKprnanl. wllti the mure or latu pluarly 
ilcllnnl aecondao' 'boushl nf oonmimt," 

* It aotnetlmM happens ttiat an ai'otdeiilAl sight of blood, otc., fa nrhat Itrat cxcIIm 
tbe pntarau^ pecrcblcal tnwltauiam ol Lbe mdlaUe todlTttlual, aad awahma the hutinct. 



A diitercntiadon of original and ai;quired ca»es of sadism 
is scarcely |K>ssible. Many individuals, tuinied aborirflne^ for a 
Inn*; time do everylliin^ to ruTiqucr tlie perverse instinct. If 
they arc iiott^nt, at iirst iLey ait^ able to lead a normal vita 
s<'\nulis, oHen with llie assistaiu-e of subjective idoius of a \n'r- 
verse uuture. Later, alter tbc op|josiiig motives of an etliicul 
and esthetic kind liave been gradually overcome, and ailer tlic 
constantly rc])ciitt?d experience that the natural act does not 
bring complete fiatisfactiuii, the abnormal instinct bursts fortli. 
Owlnj; to this late expression, in acts» of an orif»iriaJly perverse 
dift|>osition, tlie ap}>earauce5 are tbos*; of an artpiiiTtl perversion. 
As a rule, it may be safely assumed that this psychopathic stale 
exists ab origine. 

Sadistic acts vary in moiistmnsncss with variation in 
the power of the j>erverse instinct over tlie individual !ifllicte<l, 
and with variation in the strength of opposing ideas that may be 
present, winch almost always are more or less weakened by 
orisrinal etliirrtl defect, hereditary degeneracy, or moiul inwiiiity. 
Thus there arises a long scries of forms which begins with 
capital crime and ends with siJly acts which afford the perverse 
desires of the sadistic iudividnal merely symbolic satisfaction. 

Sadistic acts may be fni-ther differrntinled with irfci-euce 
to their nature : either m they are indulged in afler consum- 
mated coitus by which the libido nimia remains unsatisfied; 
or, with diminished virilitj-, as they arc used to stimulate the 
diminished power ; or. finally, wliere virility is absolutely want- 
ing, as they become an e<iuivalent for tlie impossible coitus, for 
the induction of cjnc^dati(^n. In the bist two aises, notwith- 
standing the impotence, tliere is still intense libido; or there 
was, at least, intense libido in the individual at the time when 
the sadistic acts became habitual. Sexual hypcrojslhesia is 
always to be regarded as the basis of sadistic iiicliiiatious. The 
imi>otence which occurs so frecpn-ntly in the psychopathic and 
neuropathic individiuils here considered, as a result of excesses 
indulged m from early youth, is usually dependent upon spinal 
weakness. Often, too. there is a kind of psychical impotence, 
induced by concentration of thought ou the perverse act with 



simiilUineuus liuling of the idea of normal satisfaction. No 
uiaLtt.'!- what tlie extenml form of tlie net may hv, ihe mentally 
pi^rversc predisposition and instinct of tbe individual are 
essential to an understanding of it. 

(a) LuM-Munier'^ {Lutit Potentiated as Cnulti/, JHurd^i'Otu 
Lwt Extcnxlifty to Anthropopfuigy). — The most horrible ex- 
ample, and one which most jjointcdly show^f the connection 
between lust and a desire to kill, is the case of Andreas Bichcl, 
which Feuerlmch published in his ''^aktcnmassige Darstellung 
merkwiirdigcr Verbrecheu.'* 

B. puollft!) fttiipnitas necavit el dissoeuit, Witli roft'rence to one of 
his victims, at Mia exitmi nation be txpresmyl himself as foUun-A : " I o|iened 
liur brMLHl ami with a koifu cat tbrough tbo tltv^by pnrts of Uie body. 
Tiiuu I arranged the boUv at) a butcher does a hvmt, and liackvd it witb an 
axe into pieces of a size to tit the bote wbicb I bad prejwred up in the 
inounLaiii for burying it. I may *^y tb»t irhile opening the Ixxly 1 was 
80 greedy that I trembled, and couir) bare cut out n piece and eaten it.'' 

Lombroso, too (■' iJeaoblechtatrieb uiid Verbrccbcn in ihren gegen- 
Bdiigeii Bexiebungun.'' (folulSimuieKH Arvhiv, Bd. xxx), mentions caftes 
fkllinf; in tbe snme cntegory. A ecrtniu rblllipu iottulgod m choking 
pru»litiit«<», post-aetuui. and said : " I am fomi of women, but it is s|iort 
for me to cliotce tbern atVr having enjoyed them/* 

A eertaiu Cira^i (Lombroito, op. I'U., p. IS) waH one night «eiced 
with Hexua) denire for a relative. lrritat4Kl by her renionstrnnee, he 
stabbed bcr acvera) times in the al)fhim<>n with a knife, and tdmn KtAblteil 
ber father uud unele who attempted to hold hini )>nek. Immediately 
LhereAlter he ha«l'eued to visit a prostitntv iu urder to eool hits sex.ual 
pa^rtion in ber armn. Hut thiw was not suDicieuU He then murdered his 
Aither and slniighterod several oxl-h in the slablo. 

It cannot be doubt«?d, from wliat has gone liefore, that a 
great number of so-called lust-murders deiietid upon a combi- 
nation of hypenesthcsift and |>ara>sthosia sexunlis. As a result 
of this (jerverse coloring of tlic Iwlings, furtlier acts of 
besUality witli tlic body may result,— «.</., cutting it up and 
wallowing iu the intestines. The case of Bichel |)oints to tliis 

A modem example is that of Menesclou (Annala 

■Ctimii. Meiifvt'* gtt. AnuMiw., hcniMgCgeben ran It^mrr, p. .US; KIdn'a An- 
Dkkn, X. p. iTtt, XTIII, p. :ill: llclDmili, Sjslam 6ar p^di. ger. Med., p. S70; Neuer 
Fluval, 1855, 23. Tli. (FbU Blvtte PcrrageJ. 



iVfit/glhte puhli<iue\ wlio was c?uimincd by Lascpue, Rrouardel, 
ami Motet, declared to be mcittaJly sound, aud executed. 

f'a«c IT. A four-,v«ar-old f^rl was inUsing Trom \\*!T parents' home, 
April 15, 1880. On April IBth, MtMiosrloii, one of tin' oecujiHtitfl of the 
liouse, was arreeti'd. Tbt? forirjirm of tbe thild was found in hiH jiooket, 
aud the bcud and «iitrnil»,iii a hair-burnvd cotidittoii, were takeu fVom the 
stove, i'arts of the body w«ru found iii the watfr-c-loKiil. TUt; (^eiiilnlB 
could not be found. M., «Len atikciL their wbtrtii bouts, livcanie embar- 
rasBed. The circurnsiancw, jm wW a»t au obsHjene ]>ofni found on his 
person, left no (loidtt that he had violnUKi the child and tht>n ninnWced 
her. M. exprfssed no remon**, OBsertinjc that his dw;d wan an accideuL 
I,liR iutc)li)fcnL-c U hiiiitvd. lie presents no aimttnnical signs of d^en- 
eratioD ; is somewhat d<:af. atid sctoIXiIouh. 

M., aged 20 ; convulsions at the age of oiae months. Lstvr, he wuf- 
rwl from poor 8l<>ep (oniirosi* noclurna) ; Tras nKrvous, and *h'velo|M.'d 
irdily aud imperfectly. From the time of puVrty he was irritahhf, 
sboTTL'd evil iiicliiuitions; was lazy ; could nut he taught, and in all trades 
proved to be of no use. He jrrew no better even In the llnuBe of ('or- 
rec'tiou. He was made a marine, but there, too, he proved useless. When 
be returned home he stole rroiii his parctitB, and sE>eut his time in bad 
coni|uiny. He did not run after women, Nut khvc himself up passion a t4rly 
to mastnrliation, anil occasionally indulffed iu sodomy with bitches. Ilis 
mother sulfcre<1 with mania mcnstnialis pcriodicA. An unele was insane, 
ukI another an Inehriat^^. The examination of M.'a brain showed morbid 
clMUlges of the fVoiital lobcH, of the first and second temporal convolutions, 
and fA a [wrt of the occipital couvolutlous. 

Cas« 18. Alton, a clerk in En;j:land, ^oe» not of town for a w.-ilk. 
He lures a child into a thicket, and rctunis after a time to his office, wb»*re 
he makes this entry in hisnotc-liook: " Ktlle<l tontay nyoun^ inrl ; it was 
fine ami hot." The chihl was missed, Htsm-hed for, and found cut into 
pl«oM. Many parts, and among them the genitals, could not he found. 
A. did not phnw the sllplilest trace of emotion, and gave no explanation 
of the motive or cireiiuii*tjiiiee!* of hi;* horrllite rltM*d. He was u p»yuho* 
IMithic individual, and occasionally sultjcct to states of depression with 
tiedium \itn^. Hi^ Ihthcr had had one attack of aeutc mania. \ near 
relativti itutrered fVom mania with tn>miei<hil impulses. A. was execuUxl. 

In such cases it may even happen titat appetite for tlie flosli 
of the murdered victim uriscs, and, in consequence of tliis per- 
verse coloring of tlie idea, parts of the body may be eaten. 

Casp 19. Leger. vinc^dresser, aged 24. From youth moody, silent, 

aby of people. He stjirts out in search ofa situation. He wauders iiUjut 
eight days in the forest, there catches a girl twelve years old, violates her, 



mutilates her Keiiitnltt, ietnH out her heart, e»t» of it, drinks the blood,, 
autl buries the reiuaius. Am«tocl, at tirst he lied, but finally conresM 
Ilia *:r\nn- witli ryiiicMl colil-MinKU-dimsH. He liHU'iiml l<i liis senUtricf of 
•Jiralli Willi iuditU-TL'iioc. :iud was exwiutwl. At tin; iJosl-uiurt*'iii uvHirti- 
nntioti, lilsquirol found morl>id »dlK>Hi(m» botweoii the cerebrnl iiit-iii branch 
mid the hrftiii ((Jorjiet, " ItftTstelUing cler Prozesac Lt-ger, Keldlomuu," 
etc.^ Pfti-matiiilt, 1«27). 

Case 20. Tirach, hosiiitnl beiii-firiRry of Pmg, ajirpd 55, always allciit, 
peculiar, coariH', vi'ry irritulili!, grurulUJug, rtvi'ii^fful, was K(>iitt;ii(;eil to 
twuuty years' iiui'visoniueut, on aceuuut of violating a girl iva yearn ulJ. 
Uc luwi iittrnct^d attention on :ie<-'Ount of ofiUiiiretM of jtn^jer I'idui int<tg'- 
nifltatit eftU9e*,and also on aet-ount of tH-iiiiini vitie. In IHtU, on att'ouiit 
of tlie refusia] of an olfcr of marriage wliieh he made to a widow, he dcvel- 
oped ft hatred toward wonieti, and on July »lh In- wuiit about with the 
intention uf kiltiu^ one of ttiis hate<.l sex. Vetulaui oivureutem in hilvani 
alluxit, coituiu poposcit, renitvntt^m pro!<tnivlt, JugnUim Temiiiic (.'omi>i'cssic 
"furore caplua."' Cadaver vir^ra lielula* de«ecta verherare vohnt rie«juc 
Uunen id i»erfecit, <iiiia con9*-icntin sna ha'c fi«^ri retuit, cultello fiiitmiuwi 
et genitalia dtjsecta domi ooctfl prosUnis diebus com globis comodlt. On 
September 1 2lli, when lie wan arrcsti-d, the remaiuH oftliis meal wure found. 
Hu gave HH the niiitivi) of this act " luuvr ini|mUe." He hitimelf wihhi-d to 
be executed IxK-ause be had always beeD persecuted. In couHneuient 
there were great emotiouiil irritability and oecasloual outbursts of fury, 
precwk-d by refusal of fiHTxl, whirh made isolation, l.■l^tiu^ several daya, 
nt'ces'fary. IL wsw authoritatively established that the most of hii^ earlier 
excesses were coincident with outbreaks of excitement and ftjry (.Maschka, 
Prager Vierteijahrsischrift, I88B, j, p. 79). 

TliR Wliitecliapcl murderer, who still eludes the vigilance 
of the pulicc, piotjably belongs iu this category of psyelio-scximl 
monsters.' The constant absence of uterus, ovaries, and labia, 
in the victims (ten) of this modern Bhicbcard, allows the pre- 
sumption tliat he seeks and finds still fbrtlier satisfaction iu 

In other cases of lust-murder, for physical and mental 
reasons (vide su^m)^ violation is omitted, and the sadistic crime 
alone bccomc3 the equivalent of coitus. The prototype of such 
cases is the following one of Veracni. The life of his \ictira 
bung ou the rapid or retarded occurrence of ejaculatiou. Since 


■ Comp. S[iltrkn, Tli« Jouriud of N<^rvnuii luiil M>-aUl DIsea«i;, DecciDtwr, 1888j 
Skniu, The Hc^i:^ SlADcUrd, Ni>r«Bib«r, Docember, IbDS. 



this remarkable case presents all the peculiarities wliich modem 
science knows conceniing the ii-lation of hist to lust-murder 
with anthropophagy, and especially since il was caR'fuUy studied^ 
it receives detailed description here : — 

Case 21. Vincenz Vorzt'iii. horn in 1849; since Jaiumry 11, lft72, 
in prixoti; is uct-useil (1) of tin ntteriipt to strangle tiis nurse MBriaonc, 
four years ago, wliUe she lay sick in bod; (2) of a i>lnittar attfiupl on 
irritrf womsii, Amiini, nged 2"; (3) of an attompt to strangle a 
rrierf woman, iJala, tiy gnwping hor lliruat while kneuling on hvT IxKly ; 
(4) DD suBpiciou of tbti rollowing murders : — 

la DiH,'«mlHtr a fourtot-n-year-old girl, .lolmnna Mottn, set out for a 
ntngtilHiriug village In-iwiH-n «cvfii ami eight o'clock in the morning. 
Sioct; sbc did not return, Ucr umstcr »ot out to find her, and diiioovered 
her l>ody uuar Hit- villajje, lying by n ]Mith in the fields. The eorpse was 
(yighlfnily mutilal-od with mimeroii» wouiidc. The intestineM rdiI geiiitalB 
had liccn torn from tlieo|>cnpd body, and were found near !>>'■ The uakeJ- 
no«» of tlte iHMly and cTOsionft on the thighs made !t BCiim prolwible that 
Hick hail beennn atteiiipl at rope; the mouth fdled with earth pointed to 
aulTocatioii. In the iiuigblxirhood o( the botly, under a ]nle of ntniw, 
were found a portion of Hcsh torn from the right call*, and pieces of 
clothing. The perpetrator of the deed remained undincovered. 

On August ^^. IS71, a married woiinm, Frigeiii, ayed 28, set out in 
the fields early in the morning. Since hIic did not return by eight o'clock, 
her hu-thand started out to fetch her. He found her a corpse, lying naked 
in the field, with tlip mark of a thong around her m-ck, with which ahc 
luuL Ix'en sl.ningled, and with numerous wounds. The alalomeu had beeji 
slit o|M>n, and the intestines were hanging ouU 

On August 29, at nooii, as Marin J're%itali,agcd 1!), went through a 
field, she was foltowetl l»y her cousin, Verzeni. lie (Iraggeil her into a 
field of grain, threw her to the gronnd, and Itegan to choke her. A* he let 
go of her for a moment to ascertain whether there were any one near, the 
girl got up and, tiy her supptieating entreaty, induced Verzeni to let her 
go, after he bad pressed her hands together for Home time. 

Verze-aJ was brought before a court, ile is twtjuty-twu yeari> old. 
His cranium is of more than average size, but aaymmetric&I. The right 
rVonlal iMtne in narrower and lower than the lel^. the right f^-ontal promi- 
nence l>cing less develojicd, and the right ear smaller than the left (by 
1 centimetre in length and 3 eeDtimelrea In breadth) ; both ears are 
defective in the inferior half of the helix ; the right temporal artery is 
somewhat atheromatous. BuH-ueeltud ; euuriuous development of the 
zygomw and inferior maxilla; penis greatly developed, frsenuni wanting; 
Blight divergent atlenmting strobi*mus ( insiifficieucy of the iutertial rcetiuj 
muscle, and myopia}. Lombroso concludeti, from these signs ofdegenera- 



Uon, that there is a (-oiif^riitiil arnwL oT ik-vulopiDtiiit of the right fk'ontal 
lobe. As seemed probubk', Verzcai has a bad aaoestry, — two uncle* are 
cretins; a third, microcephntic, IJenrdleKo, one teHtlcli; wanting, the other 
atrophic The father shows traces of pellagrous degereration. and had an 
attack of hypochondria pellagrosa. A counin sulTcrcd tfom cerebral 
hypcnDmia; another ia a confirmed thief. 

Verzcui's Ciiaily is bigoted and low-minded. He himself baa ordi- 
nary intelligence; knowH how to defend himself well; seeks to prove an 
alibi and cast siwpicion on othersi. There is nothing in his past that 
points to mentftl diaease, hut hSa cbaraettr la peculiar. He is silent and 
tncIiQcd to be solitary. In prison he is (synioaL He mnaturbatee, and 
makes every effort to gain sijiht of women. 

Verzeiii finally confessod his deeds and their motive. The com- 
mission of ttiein j;.tve him an indMcrihably pleasant (hi«tful) feeling, 
which waa a(?com[«micd by ercetioii and ejaculalion. As soon as he had 
grasped his victim by the net^k, sexual Hciiwalions were e.\perieneod. It 
waa entirely the same to him, with ri'fcreueo to these sensations, whether 
the women were old. young, ugly, or beautiful. Usually, simply choking 
them had Mitixfled hiiu, ami lie then had allowed his victims to Uvo; in 
the two cases mentioned, the sexnni satisfaction was delayed, and he had 
continued to choke them nntil they died. His satisfaetlon in this garrot- 
ing was fn'cater thnn in ma^tnrlmtion. Tlic abrasions of the skin oit 

.'a thighs wc^n^ produced by his teeth, while t^nnkinj; her blood in 
it int^ense luRtfti! pleasure. He liaii toru out a pieec of flesh from her 
call' ami tnkeu it with him to roast at home; but on the way he hid it 
under the strnw-st:tek, for fear his mother would suspect him. Ho also 
carried pieces of the clothing and intt«tine« some distaiiee, ]>ccnuso it 
gave him great pleasure to smell and touch them. The strength which 
he possessed in these moments of intense lustful pie.-»siir«, was enormous. 
He had never Ihh'U a fool; while rymniitting his deeds he saw nothing; 
around him (.apparently as a result of intense sexual excitement, annihila. 
tiou of apperception — instinctive notion). A ftcr such acts he was always 
very happy, enjoying a feeling,' of great satisfaction. He had never had 
pangs of conscience. It had never occurred to him to touch the genitals 
of the martyred women, or to violate his victims. It had satisOed him 
to throttle them and suck their blood. These statements of this modem 
vampire »cem to rest on truth, yormnl sexual impulses seem to have 
remained foreign to him. Two MWeelhearts that he had, he was satisfied 
to look at; it was very strange to him that he had no inclinations to 
strangle them or press their baiidH : but he had not had the same pleasure 
with them aa with liis victims. There was no trace of moral sense, — 
remorse and the like. 

Verzeni said himself that it would be a good thing if he were to b« 
kept in prison, Wcbusc with freedom he could not resist his impulses. 
Verzcnl waa sentenced to imprisoumeut for life (Lombroso," Versteni e 



AKnoJetti." Rome, 1^)13). The confessions which Verzcni nuide after bia 
Hentence, are interesting s— 

*'I liad an iingiK-akable delight in ntningting woinien, expericnfing 
during cbc act vrections and real scxiutl jik-asure. It vthh even a pImBtire 
only to smell female clothing. Tbu feeliag of pleasure wbilc stniugling 
them w«R much greatt-r than that which I experience*! wliile mastur- 
bating. I took great delight in drinking Xottn'ft blood. It uino gave me 
the greatest picaaiire to pull the hair-pina out of the hair of my victims. 

" I took the clothing and inteHtincs, bet-atme of the pleasure it gave 
me to smell and touch them. At last my mother came to HURiiect mc, 
because she noticed apotn of semen on my ehirt after oneh luunler or 
attempt at one. I am not crazy, but lu the moment of cttrnnglin^ my 
TicCims I »nw nothing else. Af^r the connni«»iou of the deeda I wns 
Mtiflfied and felt well. It never oecunTd to me to touch or look Ht the 
genitals or such tilings. It satisfied me to seize the women by the neck 
and Buck their blo<Hi. T»i thiti very ilay I am ignorant of how a woman 
is formed. During the Ktrangtiug :iud af^er it, I |)n->iKed myself on the 
entire body without thitikiog of one part more than another." 

Verxeni arrived at his jjerverse acts entirely independently, alVcr 
having noticed, when he was twrlve years old, that he exix-rieneed a 
peculiar feeling of pleasure while wringing the necks of chickens. Alter 
this he hail oflen killed great numbers of them, and then said that a 
weaael had been in the hen-coop (Lombroao, tioltdammcr's Archiv, Bd. 
XXX, p. 13). 

Lombroso mentions ftn nna!oo:ou8 case (Goldtdammer*8 
Archie) wiiich occurred in Vittoria (Spain): — 

Case 23. A certain Qruyo. aged 41, with a blameless past lift, 
having been three timen married, strangled six women in the course of 
ten years. They were almost all public prostitutes and quite old. After 
the strangling he tore out tJieir inteMtint>« and kidneya jmt vagjnam. 
.Some tit hia victims he violated f>cforo killing, others, on account of the 
occnrrence of imiK>t«nce, he did not. He set about his horrible deeds 
with such care that he remained undetected for teu years. 

(b) Mvtiiatioti of Corpses. — Following tbe precedinjj bor- 
rible group of perversions of the sexual instinct, which arise 
from hyperaistticsia and partestlicsiia soxiialw with retained 
virility, come naturally tlie necrophiles ; for in tliese cases, 
just OS with lustful murderers and analn<Tous cases, an idea 
which in itwif awakens a feeling of liorror, and before which a 
healthy person would shudder, is accompanied by lustful feel- 



ings, and thus leads to the impulse to indul^ in acts of 

The cases of mutilation of bodies mentioned in literature 
seem to be ]mthological ; but, with the exception of tlie cele- 
brated one of Serpcant Bt^rtrand (r. infra), they come far from 
being described and observed with exactness. In eertiiin eases 
there may be notliing more than the possibility that unbridled 
desire sees in the idea of death no obstacle to its .satisfaction. 
The seventh case mentioned by Moreau is |>erlia]w such a one : — 

A niHU, R^vd 2'3, att^mptud lo mi^ n woman, ageil .'>3. Struggling, 
be killed her uiid ttioii vioUted hor, throw hvr in tlic vntor, and limbed lier 
out AgAin for rcnowwl vloIiitif>ii. The miircipivr wiis executed. The 
meningt-^t of the nnterior lobca wc-rt' thickened Jind ndlicrent to tbcoortcx. 

French wriWrH havy rccorli'<l inmn*miiB i'x;iin|>le8 of fiecrophilia. 
Two f»»c8 eonccrned mouks, where they were itcrronaiug the watdi Tor 
the dend. In » thin! c-asi.' th« •iiil.yeet w«s an idiot, who also futrered from 
pericxIieHl ni»iii», nnd aflor eoniniisi^ion of n-[ic vrsm gcot to an insane 
Aayliim, nnd there inntihti>d feiuale bodied in the mortuary. 

In other cases, however, there is undoubtedly diifct prefer- 
ence of a corjise to the lining woman. When no other net of 
cruelty — cutting- into pieces, etc. — is pmcticcd on the cadaver, 
it i-s probjible that the Ijleless condition itself forms the stimulus 
for the jierverse individual. It is possible that the corpse— a 
human form tibsolntely witliout will — satisfies an abnormal 
desire, in that the object of desire is seen to be cajiable of 
absolute subjugation, without possibility of resistance. 

Brierre de Boisniont {Qazefte rnedieale, 3u\y 21, 1859) relat'et* tli»; 
history of a corpse-violator who, aCt^r liriliing the wntebmnn, hnd gained 
entrance to the corpse of a girl of sixtoen, who lioloiigiHi tii a fiunily of 
high social position. At night a noise was heanl in the death-ebnialier, 
as if n piece of fumituru ha<t fiUK-u ever. Thv luulLer of the dead girl 
effected «u eiitraiice, and saw » man dressed in his iiight-*hirl springing 
from the bed where the body lay. It wa« at flrat thonglit that the man 
waa a thief, hnt the rcnl explanation wan soon discovered. It waa after, 
ward ascertained that the (;iilprit, a nian of gixtd family, hiul often violated 
the bodiea of yuuug women. He was sentenced to impritioTiment for life. 

Tlie stoi-y of a prelate, reported by Taxil ("La prostitution 
contemporaiue/' p. 171), is of ^eat interest as an example of 



necrophilia. Fmm timn to time he would visit houses of prosti- 
tution ill Paris and order a prostitute, dressed in whit* like u 
itoqwc, to be laid out on a bed. At the }ip[K)juted hour he would 
ap[>ear in the room, which, in the meaiitiuu', had been elaborately 
piepured as a room of mourning ; thou lie would act as if read- 
ing a mass for the soul, luul fiiiiilly throw himself on the girl, 
who, during the whole time, was compelled to play the rSle of a 

The rases in which the ]X?rpetrator injures and cuts up the 
corjwe are clearer. Such cases come next to those of lust- 
miirder, in that, in these individuals, cruelt)", or at least an 
impulse to altjick the feniiile body, is connected with lust. It is 
(Kissihle that a renuiant of moml sense deters from the cruel act 
on a living woman, and possibly the fancy jHiJises U'Vond lust- 
murder and rests on iu result, the corpse. Here, also, it is 
jWAsible that the idea of defeuselessness of the body plays a 

Case 23. Sor^uunt Bvrtrimi|,.i man of delicnte physical constitution 
and «r peculiar clinrncter; rroin rhilf1li<>«)d silc-nt ftiid ini-linwl to solitude. 

The dftaila of the bL-nlth of his tkmily arc not (tfttisf:i<-t(nilj' known ; 
hut the occurrence of mental dia«is«3 iu liU flucestry is a-wertaincd. It is 
Haid ttml while tifi was a rhihl \w was afft^ctecl with (ict^tnictivc hi)]iiiliies, 
irhti'h he biins«1f oiuild not (-x|)Inin. tic would brenlf \vlinli.-vnr wuh nt 
tiand. Iu early rhiUlhood, without Ivaeliini^, lie lenmnl to umsturliutc. 
At niu<' tie began tu Tvul ineliuations towan.1 persouit of tbe oppotiitv sex. 
At thirteen the ini|«MlHe toNexiial intercom r^e l>ecHiite |>on'pi'tutly nwakened 
in him. lie now ninsturljflUKl exeeasively- When he did this his lancy 
always ri*e«t^d a room filled with women. Me would iinogine that he 
earried out l,he wtxus! net with<l tlu-n killt*il tlieni. Inmiedlatoly 
thoreaflcr ho would think u( thein ns c-orpt^es. ami of how he deliled tlieni. 
Occ-asionnlly , in euob aUAiations, the thought of carrying out a similar act 
with male corjiaes would come up, but it wn* alw-tys attended with a 
feelityj of disgust. 

In time he felt the impulse to rarry out rnieh nets with actual corpses. 
For want of hnman liodiett, he olitnined thntw- of anitnaU. He would cut 
open tlie alKlomen, tear out the entrails, and ma«tnrljate during the act. 
lie declunui tlutt in this wa}' he experienced tnexpresiiible pleaiiure. Id 

* Silman {Crimm et Wilt*, ji. "SOU) nwntfona nn cxperiraw of Lacajnyne'*, U> wtion 
a ra{iMta)ili* Html aald tliat Lc km never iuUrmwly cxiltni arZUitUv vxtcpt wbi^n aftprct«Uir 
•ta futwnl. 



1846 tbeM* bodies no lont;er ftfttisfied him. Tie now killed dogs, and pro- 
ceeded with them as before. Toward tbc end of 1846 be first felt the 
desire to make use of biimaii iKHliet^. At fimt he had a hurror of it. lu 
1847, being by nct-iilent iu a graro-^urd, he ran across tbo grave of a nowly- 
buried corpse. Then this impulse, with headache and palpitation of the 
heart, became so powerful that, :ilthi>tij;h theru wt-re p*o|>lo near hy, and 
he was in dan^r of di'tc^-tion, hp dii^ up tbp l«Kiy. In the absence of a 
convenient inHrnment for cutting it up, be satisfied himself by hacking tt 
with a shovel. 

In l!<47Bnd 1848, daring two weeks, as re]»orted, the impulse, aocom- 
panted )iy violent hiadaclK-, to commit brutalities on corpses, actuated 
him. Amidst the greatetft dangers and difficulties, he satisfied this im< 
pulse some firteen timen. lie dug up the ttodies with bia hands, in nowise 
sensible, in his excitement, lo the injnrie-.* he thus intlietwl on himself. 
When he hml obtained tbc lindy, he cut it up with a sword or pocket-knife, 
tore out the entrails, and then mastnrbatcd. The sex of the bodteH is said 
to ]>8vc iH'cn a msttt^r of indirl'erenci* to him, though it was ascertained that 
this moderu vamplnt bad du^ u|> more femalo than male corpses. During 
these acta he declares himself to have been in an indescribablt* state of 
sexual vxeitemeut. Aflier having cut them up, b« had sometimes re- 
intcrre<i the Itodiea. 

In 'luly, 1848, he accidentally came across the body of a girl of 
nxteen. Then, for the first time, be experienced a desire to carry out 
Ooitns on n cadaver. '' I covered it with kiKsen and presuul it wildly to 
my heart. A\l that one coidd enjoy with a living woiUEm is nothing in 
comparison with the pleasure I experienced. After I had enjoyed it for 
aI>out a quarter of an hour, I cut the iHxly up, aii usiwl, and tore out the 
entrails. Thim I buried the cadaver again.'* Only alter this, as B. de- 
clares, tuul he felt the impulse to use the bodies sexually before cutting 
ihem up, and thereafter he Iia*l done it in three instances. The actual 
motive of the exhuming of the bodies, however, wan then, as before, to 
cut thuui up ; lutd the enjoyment in ifo doing wns greater than In using 
the bodies sexually. TIte latter act had always been nothing more than 
an episode of the prim*f])ftl one, and had never quiettni Lis desires ; there- 
fore, he had alwny.s cut up the body afterward or mutilated another body. 
The medico-logal examiners gave an opinion of "monomania." Court- 
martial sentence to one year's Impriaonment. (M ioh^a. Union mid., 1 849 ; 
Lunier, .;Iir««/. vie^.-peychtjl., 1849, p. 153; TiirtUcu, "Attentats aux 
moeurg," 1878, p. 114 ; L^raud, " La folic devant les tribuQ.,'* p. &34.) 

(c) Injury of Women {Stalih'mg, FhgeUaiton^ etc). — Fol- 
lowing lust-murder and violation of corpses, come cases closely 
allied to the former, in which injury of the victim of lust and 
sight of the victim's blood are a delight and pleasure fur degener- 



ate men. Th e notoriou s Marquis do Sade,* Hrtor whom the com- 
bination of lust and cruelly has been name^, was surh a monster. 
Coitus only excited him when he could prick the object of his 
desire until the blood came. His yieatest pleasure was to in- 
jure prostitutes and tlieu bind tlieir wounds. 

Here also belongs tlie case of a captain mentioned by 
Bricrre de Boismont, who always compelled the object of his 
affection to phu-e leeches ad pudenda iH^fore coitus, which was 
very frequent. Finally this woman became very anaemic and, 
as a result of this, insane. 

The following case, borrowed from my own clientele, very 
clearly shows the connection between lust and cruelty, with 
desire to shed and sec blood : — 

Case 24. Mr. X., ngc*! 25: father syphilitic, died of {Miretic de- 
mentia: mother li_VHterif»l and lu-urastlieriic. He ih a veak iinUvidiiHl, 
(xjustitutioaiilly ueuro)>alhic, nud preM^uts several anstoinlcat signs of 
degeneration. Wlicn a (.-bild, liypochondria and impemtive convepttoiw ; 
lat«r, cuntitiiiit altcriiHtioii of exultation nnij <lepre«^ion. Whik- yet a 
child of ten, the patient felt a peenlinr liistfiil desire to see blood 
flow from liirt flnt;er8. Tlion-allor ho often cnt or pricked himself in 
the flnj^crs, and took ^eat delifrht in it. Very early, ereetions were 
addiKl to this, and altto if he Kaw the liltHKl of othem ; for example, when 
he saw a servant-girl eut her tinker it gave him an iiitensi: lustful feel- 
ing. From this time his vita sexualis became more mid more powerful. 
Without any leuehiriy; he be(;an Lo m:i*<t(irtiute, and hIwuvk during the 
act there wert^ memory -pictures of bleeding girls. It now no louder 
nulliced bim to aee his own blood flow; he longed to see the lilood of 
young females, os|»eeially tbojv that were attnielive to him. Often he 
conid Hi-areely overeome the impuiKe lo injnrit two c-onaitiH and a certain 
sen'ont. liut also young women that were in themselves not nttmetive 
induced this impuls*; when they excited him by some |ieculiurity of dre»« 
or itdorumeut, eBjjecially eond jewelry. It was net-eswiry for him to 

* Tasll (dp. eO.) f^ie* more dri«tled nfcounU af ttaia aexual mnnalcr, wbtch naiut 
hkve iMtfrn k cmte oX linbUuiil snlrrio^In, &«coiri|>BiilHl by pcrvffM bciual luflllnct. Kckde 
was BO ejrnlrsl liiit hr Actually sought to lik-allxt- his cnicl lutlvlousiii-M, and iH^conic Oie 
Kpnil)«<»f R tli4.t>r>- liBM-O upuu It. Ho bccaiiifw.' bad fainonK oUi«r Uilii);» ti« tnaile an lii- 
*llr4 ponipauy of Iwllua and gmitlrDivn omtic by caiulng' Kib<> Bprved ui thmn tliovolaU) buu- 
Iioo* wlilcli rnalaliiPtl miitliartdcK] thut he niui roiiimlttn! to thn liinane avyltim at Ohar- 
etibiu. Durlnf^ thv rvvoluUou of ITIJO, he esiraiwd. Tbi'o lit^ wroti- oIibcodc uuvela Ailed 
with lUMt, eratXly, aiiil tlui mMt AbMi'iie •c«nc». Wliin Ikiiiapartc l>rrainc Conaul, Sade 
mada hint a pmcikt of b\A ddtoIs mainil>ic«ntty bound. The Cod«d1 bnd thn worka de- 
atroyvd, and Ibu auUiur cunuulltcd lu Clianutun a^aln, wbore lie diud, al Uib t^ at alztj- 



overcome tbcae dcMrea; but in \i\» iiniiginntion bloody tbougbU were 
csonKliiiitly pri-seiit, ami iiuhiced lustftil pxciteineiit. There wan an inm-r 
rclHtiou ejtisthig between l>otli tboiights and fefliiijin. Olten there 
were otht>r cruel fanfies. He imagined himself in Ihe r&le vf a tyrnot 
who had the people shot in crowds with gmpe-ahot. He was compelled 
to fflnoy a sctne as it would hi- if enpmirft were to take a city and 
mutilate, torturt), kill, and rape the youii)T women. In times of quit^t this 
patient, who hud a mild di»p(»<ition and wnH not niornlly defeirtivc, waa 
shamed and horrified by such cruiil, lustful fancies, and they alwayn 
liecame immediately Intent as soon as Ui9 nexual excitement had been 
autisfied by ina»t«irbation. 

After a few years the patient became neurasthenic. Then HimpLc 
inuig:ln&ry representation of blood and scenes of lilooi! was ^utllcient 
to induce ttjaeulation. In order to fret; liinmelf from Im vice and Iuh 
cruel imagiuiitiou, be began to Lodulge in »cxual intercoutse with reiualeft. 
Coitus was possible, but only when the patient called up the idea tiiat 
the girl'H fingers wery bleeding. Without Ibc assistance of this idea no 
erection was possible. The crnel thought of cutting was limited to tlie 
TODum's band. At tlmc^ of grontest ftexunl tixeltcincnt, simply the sight 
of the band of an nttraeiive woman was siillk'ient to induce violent erec- 
tion!!. Fri):litt'ue<l by llic puputur hturJes almiit t-lic injnriouH results of 
on&ttisu], be abstained am) fell into a condition of severe genernl netiros- 
tbenia, with bypocborulriacnl dystbymia and tttiiiium vilie. Careful ukI 
walchrul medical treatment lured the |iiitien; siller a fi-w inoittb:*. He has 
remained mcnUilty well three years ; but now. a« before, lie is very sensual, 
though it is very seldom that he is troubli-fl by his earlier bloody ideas. 
X. ttas given u]> masturbation entirely. He Ands satisfaction in tmtural 
sexual indulgence, is virile, and it is no longer Deocssary for him to call 
pp ideas of blood. 

Tlie following; case, reported by Tariiowsky (op. cit.^ p. 
61), shows that such histiul, cnicl impulses may be simply 
episodical, and occur in certain t'xct'ptional states of mind 
in neurotic Individuals: — 

Case 25. Z., pbysiclan; neuro[mthic constitution, reacting badly 
to alcoho]. Under ordinary eireuiaftances capable of nominl eoitne, as 
soon an be Uas indulgeit in wine lie finds that his increased libido in no 
longer satisfied by Himple roilufl. In this condition he is ooni|)HHed to 
prick Ibc nates pucUai or to maiic stabs with the kncet, to sec blood, 
and feci the entrance of the blade into the living body, in order to have 
ejacnlation and experience comjileto satiety of bis lust. 

Tlie majority of those afflicted with this form of the perver- 
sion seem insensible to tlie normal stimulus of woman. In the 



first case (24), the assistaacc* ol' tbc idea of tilood was necessary 
in order to obuin erection. Tlie following cnse is tliat of a man 
who, by masturbation, etc., in early youth, hud diminiisti(Hl liis 
power of erection so that the sadistic act took the place of coitus ; 

Cast' 26, The girl-Btabber of Bozen (rcporttHl I)_v Ileiiirne. '• Bneli 
iler VerltrvfliL'ii." ltd. ii, p. 341). In 1H29, H., iigvd 30, Holiiit-r, hecjime 
the subject of legal iovestigation. At diScront timet) and in diirereiit 
places, hd tuu] wounded girC^ witli li read-kit ir<*!< or povkut-knivcs, \>y stab- 
bing them in the ftlxlomen, prnliflhiy in tlie region of (liu genitals. He 
gave, OS a motive for thirst; acta, heightened ttexnal im))nlfic, increasing to 
the iotensily of ftiry, which found syitisfaction oiily in the thoiif^ht and 
act of stahlitug pentoUH uf the fenude kux. This impulse would pursue 
him for (hiys nt a time. lie would then pass into a i-onfitHed mental 
state, which wQuld clear away only when the impulse had been natisded 
by the deed. In tiie act of stabbiii>t he ha'I a natisfaction like that of 
completed coitus, which wa« increased by the Riftlit of the blood Ihiit ran 
trma the knife. In his tenth ycjir the sexual instinct Itpcame powerfully 
manifest A t ilret he gave himself up to mnsturliHtion. and felt physirally 
and mentally weakened l>y it. KiH'ore Ih> lH>i:nine a giri-sUihhcr he lintl 
satisfied hi» i^cxuul lust lu violalioii of iuumturc girls, hy euusing them 
to practice masturbation on him. nnd by sodomy. Orndually the thought 
came to him of how pleasunible it would W to bIjiI' a young and pretty 
girl in the region of tli« genitiilt*. ami take delight in the night of the 
blood running from the knife. . 

Among his etiects were found copies of objects of art and obscene 
pictnres, (minted hy htinsell', of .Mary's comrejitioii, uiid of the '* {-ongealed 
thought of God " io the lap of the Virgin. He was considered a iweullar, 
very irritable man. shy of |H.'ople, given to women, moody, ami glum. 
He was apj-nareiitly a. person' tlmt luiil lieconie inipotent tlinMigh earlier 
sexual e)icesm*s, and who wn« thus prL-disposc-d. Iiy the corttinuunce of 
mtcnse libido scxualis, and heredity, to perversion of the pexual life. 

Coae 37. In the "sixties" the inliabitantM of Leipzig were frightened 
by a man who was aoeustoraed to stlock young girl.-^ on the street and 
stab tliem in the up))er-arm with a dagger. l-'inaUy urreuted. he was 
TvcogniiHfd as a sadist, who, at the instant of stabbing, had an ejacula- 
tion, nn«l wit!) whom the w«tiin<Iing of the girls was an equivalent for 
coitus. (Whartou, "A TrcAtlsc on Mental TTn soundness," §63!3. Phila- 
delphia, 1873.)' 

> Conip, Kraiu>, Pii>'cb»lii|[le dea Vurbm-tienit, 1884, p. 188; Ih-. Hofbr, Abtulen 
4er Staataanndknndc, (( J*hrgaii£. Hen 8 ; 8«hmldt'» Jftbrlifii-hrr. Rd. Itx. p M. 

* ArcAfditiir to newipapiir k pons, in December, IHft), several eltnllar ktUckswere 
nuhle In Mal&K. A ynnn^ fellow briKoi^n founccn arJ «lxifi-u yean old prcMc^l ocAlDft 
«<Mftcn utd i^tii wd HUbtiMl tbetD lu the \.vk» with a MiurptMlnU'il Inilrutnecii. He wu 
•ireslml, uul •Nmnl to be lii»aii*^- Further lietaUi vf ihe vmc w not known. 



Impotence exists, likewise. In the next tliree cases. It 
may be itsyctiiLnI, liowcver, in tlmt tlie priiiciiml tone of the vita 
si^xunlis lies in the KU<listic inclination, and the normal elements 
are di^lorted ; — 

Owe 28. The girl-cutter of Augsburg (reported b,v Dpmmc, " Buch 
dcr Vcrbrec'lit'ii," vii, p. isl). IliirtU;, wirii.»iiiLT(itmiit. Hi- was Hiiliject 
to livi-l,v tiexiial exritvmout jiL iha Hgc of rourtccn, tbougb lU-ciduJIy 
oppcrtttKl to Its satisfnctioii by coitus, bis nvermion going su Tnr a» disgust 
Tor the feinal« kox. At thai time lit* nlpf«dy Lad tUo idea to cut girls, 
ami thus witisfy lii« 'teximl denire. Up rcrraiiied from it, howcv*?r, on 
iiccoiint. of lack of opportunity and courage. Ue pmcticwJ maaturbfttion, 
and now nivl Ibon had pollutions with iTolie dn-HmH of ^irls tluit had 
becD t'ut. At Mr* a^c of iiiii(>liH-ii hi^ first uut a giil. I'uriiig tiie iwit he 
had a Heraiiml umissiou, and cxpiTiciiucd inteuse pleasure. From that 
time the inipnlst- fK'<'iiine con*tJintly more powt-rful. IK* chose only 
young and pivtty girli*. and, sis a rnU', aaki-d Uioni before the det-d 
whftlitT thi"3' were fttiti Kinglet Tho cjaeiilfttion or sexual sAtiAfactiou 
oeciurrcd only when he was sure that lie had actutilly wounded the girk, 
After »ui'h an url he alwaytt i'elt tinnl and bad, and waa qIku troublc<1 
wll:li (pialnis ol' L'onsoienee. L'nlU thirty-two yesirs old he carrk-d on this 
|jroou)^8 of cutting', t)Ut rIwhvh with carv not to wound the girlB dan- 
gerously. From that time until his tUtrty-^Lvth year he was nble to 
ooniru) bis impulse. Tlicii ht? sought to satisfy himself by simply press- 
ing the girls OH the arm or neek; but ihis gave rise to en*ction» and uot 
to ejaculation. Then he aonght to attain his object by pricking thv girls 
with a knife in ittt slieath ; but this did not aultlw. Finally, lie stablKfd 
with the ojMjn knife aud liitd coniplete snceess, for he thought that a girl 
when stabbed bleil morv and had more pain than one that van merely 
cut. In hift thirty-seventh year liw was deti-t-ted and arrested. In hlM 
dwelling was found a collection of daggers, swortl-ennes, and knives. 
He said that the mere sight of these weapontt, and still more the grasping 
of them, gave him an intense feeling of sensual plcaMnre, with violent 
eseitemcnt. According to his eonfi-swion he hml injnn-d, in all, fifty girts. 
His ostemal appearance was riither plcjising. He lived in verj* good 
tiircumstauces, but was pveuliar and shy. 

Case 29. J. H., aged 25. in 1K83 eame for consultation concerning 
aevere nonrastlu-nia and hypoehondrin. I'ntieut coufe^ses that he haft 
praetice<l onanism since bis fourteenth year, infrequently up to hie 
eighteenth yetLr; hut since that time he hns been unabU- to resint the 
Impulse. Up to that time he had no (»ppnrtunity to approach females, 
for he had been anxiously eared for aud never left alone, on ni-truunt of 
bis iuvulidisui, Ue had had no run] desire for this unknown pleasure; 
but be accidentally learned what it was when one of bis mother's maitbi 



ODt her hand severely on a pane of g]n.»i she hud hmhen while wa-ihiag 
windows. While hi-l|>i»|; to tttop tbc blood he could not keep iVom Buck- 
ing up the hUxx] I hut flowetl frcitii the wound, mid in tlie iLCt he experi- 
enced extreme erotic exciteiueut, with complete; orgasm and ojacidatioii. 

From ibis time, in every jwssible way, be sought to see. and if 
possible to ta^te, the fresh blood of feimilo^. That of youtig gtria was 
preferred by him. lie spared no [viioA or i;xj>cufie to obtAJn tliis plejisuro. 
At flrst he availed himtieir of n youiig i«ervaia wbo nllowcd her tliiger to 
\)e pricked with a iitHMlle or lancet at liiK ruquk;tit. WJit'ii biH moMicr 
discovered tliis, she discbargcd the girL Then be was driven to prosti- 
tuteH as a 8ub«litu1«, with i»uccei«M fre<iueut1y enough, tboiigb with some 
difficulty. Id the intervftU he pmeticffl onanii^m And matiustiiginition 
per feminam, which, however, never afforded him complete Ratisfitction, 
but, on tlie conlmry, caused liHtles^netut nnd M'If-rep roach. On account 
of bia riorvoiit^ dillii-ultifa be visili^l many HHiiilariiiniH, ami be wok twice 
a voluutary {Kitient in institutions. He used bydrolbcra[)y, elc<^ric*ity, 
and !<trengtbeiiing cure*, without piirticular aucee«H. For n time it was 
jK>««ibIe, by meiirit* of cold sit7.-l>nt)Li«, inonobroniiite of t-ainphor, and 
bromidea, to diminish his sexual excitaUillty tinci onanistic impnlne. 
Howc^'er, when the patient felt himself free again, he would immediately 
fall into bis olil ])aiwionH anil spare no jniins or iii<mey in onler to satlafy 
JiIh aexual dei^irc in the abnormal maunvr deKcribc^l. 

Case 30 (commuuic-aled by Or- A. Moll, Berlin). L. T., aged 21; 
merrhaut in a Khenitth city. He belouga to a family in wbicli there are 
several non'ous and psychopathic members. A sister sulTcrs with hysteria 
and melancholia. 

Tbe patient was always of quiet dii>poi>itiQU and timid. At school 
be frequently kept apart IVom other pupUs, imrticuUrly when they 
talke<l atK>ut girlx. In the pre»«ence of ladies be thought every expres- 
sion he made was an offense against decency. Thus, for example, he 
thought it very improper, in tbe prenence of ladies, marrietl or unmar- 
ried, Co »pv»k of going to binl, rising, etc. In tbc elciiieiitary elassos tbe 
patient teamed well. Later he became mure indolent and did not make 
good progress. 

August Ii, 1890, the patient visited Dr. Moll on account of abnor- 
mal symptomn of a scxnal kind. He did tliia on tbe advice of a phy- 
sician, X., a relative, in whom he had previously conQded. The patient 
conveys tbe impression of being very apprdiensive and shy, and in 
answer to iiui'Ktiuus sitys that he is very liiuuruus, and that particularly 
in the pre>M-nce of otiiers nil his self-couhdence and assurance leave him. 
Dr. X- conHnoed this iit:itement. 

Tbe beginning of hia st-xuul life the patient was able to refer to 
bis seventh 3'ear. At that age lie freiiuently playet.1 with his genitals, 
and was often puniubvd for it. In this onanism, in which he said he had 
erection, he constantly thought of whipping a woman on tbe naked 



oat** with o roil vinlil tlw skin niist^l in vrenK "It clelighteil me," 
tiatd tliH patk'iit, " wbeu I tboiif,'bt thiit abc was a pnnul, iKamifnt latly, 
timl that 1 pertbrme<l the ac-t in tlie prcBenoe of otliiers, cspeuiftUy women, 
particularly with the idea tfial gfie might /eel the fHnmrr / had over her. 
For thift rcflson 1 oariy Honght rpadin^ ahont punislimont, e.g., about the 
flbuflf? of Roman slaves, llowi'ver, I Lad t'rectioiis only when tlic eon- 
ecived abuse consisti'd of Itloive deliver*.**! ini tlic back or iiattw. At first 
I thoii{;ht i\un kind of excitement would disappear in time, and said 
noibiui; about it to any one." 

MaRturhation, early indulged in, the patient continued to practice, 
and always with the aarac Ihouglit. After bia thirteenth or fourteenth 
year he had ejaeulntion with the net. Decimuin Hcptinuim annum n(;t-ns 
primum feniiimtn adiit coL'unili f-auHanec|t]i'< eoiluni perfiatrt' potiiit lihidiim 
et erectione defleicutibus. Mox autem iterum iipud alturaiii coEtum eona- 
tus oBt nullo succesu. Turn feniinam ]>er vim verberavit. Tanto|>erc crat 
eioitatiis ut ruiilierum dolore claniantem atqiie laineutanteni verberare 
nou deaierit. lie nt'ver thought of any legal punigjiment for hi« acts, 
and, in fact, oaea]>ed it. In this procedure erection, orj^a-^im, and 
ejiicuhktion o<i-urred. The {latient performecl the act in aueh a way that 
he took the woiiiuu betdveen bia kueen. with the |H>nis in eonlaet with 
her body, but without emiusio penis ia vagioam, which scewcd entirely 
superHuouH to him. 

But the [Kitient affccrwnrd experienced sneh a f«clIngof shame abouti 
the hentiTi^, and was overcome with such CTejLt depression, that be ofl«B i 
conteinplate«l siiiciido. In tho following three years he still visited 
women ocinKionally. Itut lie nev«r again aakctl one to allow hiiu to beAt 
her. He Kouyht (o ubtuiu erection by thinking of the beating; but thia 
waa without R-«iill,anil inminstupi-alion by the woman did not induce 
erection. PiuiUly, after an nnsueceftsnil attempt of this kind, the patient 
(leti^rmined to give hi;* confidence to a physician. 

The pnlient made several other statenientn concenilng hia vita 
ftcsualia. His abnormal sexual desire had troubled biui by ita intensity. 
Ue went to sleep with Hcxiial ttioTiijhU; they troubled him through tbe 
night anri werr atil! with him when ho awoke. He was never safe for any 
length of time from tbe itnpnlsion of the abnormal ideas thAt excited 
him; to which, indeed, he gavR himself up willingly, and from which he 
could free himself for a short time only by onanism. 

In resix>nse to mj' tjuesliun. tbe patient stateil that any other 
meana of piiniHbtnent of women than beating the ba(;k, and natee imrtieu- 
larly, had no chann for him. Neither binding them, walking on them, nor 
striking them, gives him tiuch pleasure. This is to Ih> emjibasixed the 
more, since the whipping given the woman aJfords him ttexual pleasnrca 
because its elfect on her i» ■' humiliating, mortifying," and because she, 
should " feel that she is (;on»pleteIy in hi» powt-r." Too, it would give' 
the patient no plc*aure to beat a woman on any other part of her bod^ 



than those meotioaed, or to cause ber pain in any other way timn by 
blowM. Multum minyrem ei affert volupUitem si nates »nx n muliere 
Terberantnr; tamen e» res sa^pe cJHoulationcm semiuiH etiecit, ot-^l bseo 
fieri putut crtttione doficicnti. Inter verbcra nntpin peniTn in vaginam 
immittemlo niilluni voliiptnU^m ac bnbcre rntua qiinlib4.'t ]>arto rorporis 
feminu! |M>iiti tactu Hetm-ii ejiLculaL JuiU an in beating the icomau his 
pieature laif in httmiiiatiny her, so with Ihe retationti revt-.reed he was 
xmuothj excited by the fact Ihat the beating humiliated him and he/eU 
hinwel/ to he comi/leiely in the tooman^s power. N'oollier pursuiin) buinUia- 
don than a beating on his nateH could excite hira. To allow bioueir to 
be bound or walked on by a woman is rc|)ugnant to liim. 

The pHlit-nt'in dr«am9, ns far as t}H'y were of an erotic nature, were 
directed iu the same way as his sexual iiicliiiatiouK while awake; actual 
ejaculation also often took place in dreams. Whether th<j per%'i;r«e sexual 
thougbts lirst occurred in drwimn or th« wakiiiji state, the patient is not 
able to Btat*", owing to the lin-t tlifit his tneniory ^oe** l>«ek so far, — to htB 
■CTcnth ye-ar. But he think.i that tln.'«c llionjihtfl first oct^urred to Iiim 
while awake. In bis dreams it frequently seemed to him that he was 
striking a man, which also cuutted ejiieulatimi. In the waking state it 
ceiit^l btiu but very little to think of striking a man. The nude I'urin of 
in bad noattraction whatever Tor biiii, wbil*; Lhi> uudelbrmof a woman 
had a decided charm fur him, thon^fh bi-i libido foumi it* r««l eati»faction 
only when the acts pre%'iou9lT described took place; and, as he states, b« 
feels no de»irc for coitua in va^inam. 

The crcalmontof th« patient is dii-ected to the attnbimonl of normal 
coitus with normal desire, wht-re jK>H»ibI(.*; fur it may be assumed that, 
with BuccesK in uuLkint; hi» tM^xual life normal, the patient's shyness and 
apprehi;nsivcnes«, which (^nuFit; him |^e»t annoyance, may \te much euiuer 
removed. The lr«»lmcnt followed by mc (Dr. Moll) during three months 
and a half was as follows: — 

1. The patient, who bad a great desire to Iu cared, was most 
•triolly forbidden to^ivu hirnsolf tip to the perverse thought*. Of course, 
I did not give him the foolish iidvice not to think of lilows at alt. The 
[latient <'ould not follow such advice, since the thoughts come to him 
without any act of his own, even when he nrcidentally reads £he word 
"hlow" (ftchlagen). I forlmde him only ever to voUuitarily give himself 
to such thoughts. 1 advised him more p«irtieularly to do evcr^'tbtng in 
order to turn his ideas in another dircctjou. 

2. I allowed him, comniiinded hira even, to think of nude women, 
because many nude females interested him, even though, as bethought, 
they ilid not excite him sexually. 

8. I sought, by menus of hypnosis — which was bard to Induoe — 
flOggsetioo, to fortify the pnticnt in tbiit as far as possible. All 
attempts at coitua were forbidden In order to save the patient from a 
diacooragmg result. * 



Within two moiitlu and a linlf this treatment l«d to the result that, 
OS the patient stated, tlie perveme idfas occurred much lees frt-iitieDtly 
and were constantly retreating to tlio bMek^roHnd ; indewl, aocordinfj to 
tlie p]itient*s .stjitcmcnt, ercctionn occurred with the thoughts of nude 
women, became more fVeqnont, and often induced bim to nuiHturlMt« with 
the thought of coitus without the ocvurn'nue of any idea of lilow«. 
Krotic druaniK occurred hut infriH^UfUtly. These were concerned some- 
tunes with normal coitus, sometimes with blows. 

After two months and b hnlf of thi* trwiiment I xdvised the patient 
to attempt coitus. Sinw tht-n he ha* tried four times. I advised him to 
choone always a woman who ple-nacd him, and sought to iucrosso his 
Bcxual excitement before coitus by means of tincture of cantliaridefl. 
The four at.t»!m])ts, the last of which took place on Novemtier 29, 1890, 
rcHullcd aa futlows: At the flrst, prolonged manipulation of the |>cnis by 
the woman was necessnrj' in order to induce erection. Then immisio in 
vagiuam and eJHCulation with orgasm took place. Purine tlie whole act 
there oc<>nrrcd no thought of beating the woman or iK-inpr tie.-tt^'n, hut the 
woman in herself excited him sufficiently for the perfonnanc«> of coitus. 
At the second attempt the result wns better and mure quickly attained ; 
munipnliititm nd genitniia by the woiiinn wuh not long reiiiiin>d. In the 
third aLtciupt eoltuii was attained only after the patient hud thought of 
bentiug for n long time, nud had tbns induced erection ; but beating was 
Hot indulged iu. At the fourth nttempt coitus was Httnint;d without 
any thought of beating otul without any maDipiUatiun ud genitalia. 

Of course, the case described cannot yet be regarded in any way as 
cured. Though the patient were able to perfonn coitus in a normal or 
nearly normal way, that does not uiean that he will always be able to 
doit in the future; moreover, the thought of lieating stfll aObrdii him 
groat pleasure, «ven though it occurs mueh less frequently than for- 
merly. Yet there is a possibility that the abnormal desire, whlcli 
has been weakened, will remain weakened in the fature, and perhaps 

This cftrefuUy observed f«.se is, for sw^veral n'asoiis, partioii- 
larly interestiug. It discloses clearly one of tlie hidden roots 
of sadism, — the impulse to complete subjugation of tlie woman^ 
*vliich here became consciously entertained. This is the more 
remarkable since it occurred in an individual decidedly timid, 
and in other res])ects modest and even appreliensive. The ease 
also shows clearly that powerful libido, which even impels tee 
indiWdual to overcome all obstacles, may be present, while at 
tlie same time coitus is not desired, because the principal inten- 
sity of feeling is, ab ortgtne, connected with the cruel part of 



the sadistic (lustful and cruel) circle of ideas. Tliia case also 
contains \veak elemeuts of masochism (y. infra). 

Cases are by no means infrequent in which men with 
pen'CTsc inclinations induct? prostitutes, by paying them high 
prices, to allow tlieniselves to be whipixnl and even wounded 
by them. Works on proKtitution contain reports of them {vide 
Coffigiion, " La Corruption k Paris," etc.). 

(d) DejUement of Wb7nen. — The per^'erse sadistic impulse, 
to injure women and put contempt and humiliation upon them, 
is also expri'Ksed in the desire to defiU> them with di.'^usting or, 
at least, foul ttiiii^. 

The following case, published by Amdt ( Vtei'teljuJirsschr, 
/. ger. Medic'm^ N. F. xvii, H. I), belongs here; — 

Caec 31. A., medical Mtudent ut (JreifMwnld, Acca»atus quod iterum 
it«nini(|uu [■iiplli<« tiont^tiA imroiitihtiN nnti-s in piihlico gonitalin i<tiA e 
tirncm depeiitlontia plATic niidntn qtiir niiti.i Mttmnio amic»io (owrc-uitt) 
tecta crant, ofltendorot. Xotinunqiinm pticllns l\i^icnto(t neeiittis enAqiic 
ad 8c nttmcLH-< iirinnoblivit. ila^i; luct' elum Tnctu Biitit; nunriuiin) nliquid 
liiec lacii'nH locutuH vst. 

A. is twenty-three years old, power(\iny built, neat In dresH, nnd 
decent in nuiuiiers. Imlicalioii ol* cniiiiniu projjvneum ; clironic pucu- 
rnonia ol' the itpex of tlio riglit lung ; emphyNHina. Piilite, 00 ; iu uxcitu- 
mcDt, not more than 70 to SO. Gonitnlii normal. Complaints of occti- 
siouAl diBturliancea of difteslion »nd Imnlness of the nbdomen, vertigo ; 
exoetutivo excitcmetit of tiie 8t:xiiiil du»ircM, nliicli onrly led U) onanism. 
Tbo sexiinl desire luts never Iwen directed townrd » natiirul iiiottiDd of 
SAtisikction. Couiplaints ofoucuQiounl utluekit of dfpreKsion.or tlinujflit^ 
of duprecntion of self, and of pervei-se impulses, for whieli he could Qnd 
no motive ; snoh as laughing at iw>rionA things, tbrowing his money in tbu 
water, and mnnin^ nlioiit in the |)otmn^ min. The father of ttic culprit 
is of A ncrvouH U>m|>iTnn]ent. ; liis mother in 8ubjeet to nervous headache. 
A brother sulTered with epileptic convulsions. 

From his youth the culprit presenteti a uer\*oas tcmporsment, 
inclined to convulsions und attacks of syncope, and when he was 
"severely scoldefl wonld fall inio a state i>f nmnM-nt-ary stiffness. In 1869 
he stiidie<l medicine in Berlin. In ISiO he went to the war as a hospital- 
assistant. His letters at this time betray a pcenlinr torpidity and weak- 
nestk On his return home, in 1S7I, his eniotioniil irritability was noticed 
by those nlK>ut him. Thtrealter fi-etpient eoiiiplainta of bodily ailments ; 
oapleasantness resulting from a love affair. In Noremtwr, ISTl, he 
porsueU his studies (lilijjently in Qreifs^wald. He was considered veir 



gcatlGmanty. tn confinemtint he is quiet, calm, and someiimes aelf* 
Hbsorbed. His acts be nttribatcs to painful sexual excitomeat, wbicb of 
lato bad Ijccomu exceHoive. Uv deulnred Lbal he had \>txn fully uonsciotis 
of bis peirerae acts, and bnd nttcrward bti^u asbamed of tbcm. He 
bad not cxperieoced actual wxual satisfaction id tbeir comniiiMtiuo. lie 
obtftined no correct insight into his jxisition. He conwderwl himself a 
kind of umrtyr, — fallou a victim to an evil power, rrcwumption of 
iireeponsiltility, as a result of absenue of free will. 

Tlie impulse to defile occurs also, parucluxiially, in the 
aged, when tliere is a re-appcavance of sexual instinct, which, 
under such circumstances, is so oilen expressed in perverse 
acts. Tims Taniowsky reports (p. 76) the foUoiviiig case: — 

Case 32. I knew such a patient, wbo had n woman dresBed in a 
dicolteti batl-drura lie down on a low sofa in a brigtitl^' li};bled room. I pwi 
upud jaiui.'im aliu« ciibiculi oliscumti uoiislitit adspicieiido aIit)uiLntuluiii 
teminani, ifxcitiiliis iu wim irmiluil vxcremunta in sinus ejus depcwuit. 
Htec faciens ejocnlationem qiiandam se sentire oonfcuums est. 

An officer of Vienna informs me that meit, by ineans of 
laxge sums of money, induce prostitutes to suffer ut illi viri iu 
ora eai'um spuerent et leeces et uiinas in ora explerent.' 

The fbllowing case by Dr. Pascal (" Igiene dell' araore ") 
seems also to belong here : — 

Case 33. A man bad tin inamorata. Wis relation with her was that 
be had ber allow bim to blackeu her hand;^ with coal or soot.jiud then she 
bad to sit Wfore a mirror in Rueh a way ttutt be could i^ee her h»nda 
tn it. While conversing with her, which was often for a long time, he 
looked conHtJintly at her min'r>red hands, and finally, after a time, he 
would take his leave, fully satlsSud. 

The following case, communicated by a physician, may be 
of interest in relation to this subject : — 

An ofUcer was known iu a brothel in K. onljf by the name of " Oil." 
" Oil " induced erection and cjacnlation only by having puoll. publ. nudam 
step into a tub filled with oU, while he rubbed the oil all over ber body. 

These acts lead to the presumption that certain cases 
of injury of females {e.g., sprinkling with sulphuric acid, ink. 

> Leu Tazll (Ln. Corruptluu, Pkrir, Sulrvt. p. 2*^3) malira ihe mbic kUtcmmU, 
Then uv sl»u men trtao dmiKoil lutroducUa llBgu* ni«reUlcJ« to aoum. 



etc.) depend upon a perverse sexutil impulse ; at least, here it is 
a kind of injury, and those injured are always Ic-mnlos, and the 
jjcrpetrators males. At least in the future, in crimes of this kind, 
pains should be taken to examine the vita sexualis uf the 

The case of Ilarhmann, given below, throws a rlear light 
ou the sexual nature of butli crimes; for, iu tliis case, the 
sexual motive in the deed is proven. 

(e) OUier AtUicka on Femulat — Stjwhotif: Stidiinn. — The 
foregoing groups do not exhaust tiiu forms iu wliioli tht* sadistic 
impulse toward women is expre.s.sed. If the im])ulsc is not 
overmastering, or there is yet sufficient moral resistauce, it 
may happen that the perverse inclination is satisfied by an act 
that is apiMirently quite sensclei^s and silly, but which has a 
»ymlx>lic meaning for the i>er|)ctrator. This seems to be the 
meaning of the two fuUowiug cases : — 

Case H4. {Dr. I'ascal,'' Igicnc dciraiuore.") A Dian wtis acctistoiui-tl 
to go, on H uertaioday onccaiuoutti, loan inaniorataariil cut ber"liaiig." 
Thi» gave hinj ttie gruutcst pleaMum. Ha made uo otUtir domaiKla on 
the girl. 

Cft'e 35. A man in Vienna regularly visita aoveral proalitutcs only 
to lather thoir fao&a and tlicn to rc-more Iho lather with a razor, ns if ho 
were shaving them. He never hurts l.lie girls, hut Ijccoinca (wxiially 
excited aod RJaouIati-a duriug the proctMlure. 

The significance of the following cases, in which a sadistic 
'comedy is played, is clearer : — 

Case ^(>. A man atTr»yi4 announces to a pndla pnblica his intended 
rJFiit». She muat stand at' the windnw, awaiting him, with livr liu;« done 
[|p, and. on his eulninee into the rootn, complain of »evcrc toatliachR. 
He is sorry ibr her, asks particularly ahnut the pnlii. \i\.V.e» the cloth off 
and puts it ou aguii) ; but hu uuvui Lbh coitus, ami tluUe bis (tatisfaution 
simply in ttiis act.' 

The following case, which, unfortnnntely, was not cai-cfully 
examined scientifically, is jx;culiar to itiself : — 

■ LeoTiixa(«i/». i-».,p. SiM) rrUU-8 tti*t In FkrialMi broUicU tnilrumoDt* are k^pt 
rc^lf vbldi look llkd kiiouU, hut wblofa ure merely tuhm HIImI wlt.1i >lr. *ui-li ■» clowiia 
iM4> In eltTHMW. 8«UflUc toon uio Uiein U> cre«le for ibenuclTM Uic llliutnn th&t tbrf uc 
wtupplng voDMtn. 



In nn cxiimtnntiou belore ii i.-riniiunl court in Vienna, the follow- 
ing facts were hroiight tu Ij^lil : Count N., AoconipaTkied by a .young 
)^rl, appeared in th? public gartlrii of an hotel, and, by his actions there, 
^avo public nfr4.-i)sc. lie demanded of his canijMnton thnt she kneel down 
IM-Ibrc him nnd implore him with Ibldt-d Imiulw. Tlieri nhe was (•(iniiwUed 
in lick his liouts. Finully, hu dunmiided of her, publicly, " an uohenrd- 
of thing " (oe^ciiluTu ad iiati»(, or the Hkt;), aud ouly desiHted after xlie hnd 
tiworn to do it nt home. 

In this case, the most romnrkable thing was the desire of 
the perverse iiidi%'i(lual to humiliate the woiiian before witnesses 
(comp. the fancies of sadists, Case 29); further, that the desire 
to humihate tlie woman came entin.-ly into the foref^^ronnd^ and 
acts of a purely symbolic nature were undertaken. Of course, 
with these, in this im^wrfettly-obscrved case» acts of cruelty 
were probable. 

(f) Sitfivtm with Other Ohjerfft — WItipping of Bot/H. — 
Besides tlie sadistic acts with females desciibed, others occur 
with otiier living, sensitive objects, — children and animals. 
There may be a full consciousness that the impulse is really 
directed toward women, and tkat only /ante de mieitx the next 
attainable objects (pupils) are abused. But the condition of the 
^»erpetralor maybe sucli that the impntse to cruel acts entera 
consciotisncss accompanied oidy by lustful excitement, while its 
real object (whicih alone can explain the lustfid coloring of such 
acts) remains in. the dark. 

The first alternative suffices as an explanation of the cases 
which J)r. Albert describes (Friedreich's Bliitier f. ger. Med,, 
p. 77, 1859), — cases in which lustful teachers whii)ped tlieir 
pupils on the naked nates without nause. We must think of 
the second alternative, the sadistic impulse witli uneonsciousness 
of its object, when boys are immediately excited sexually at the 
siyht of punishment of their comi>anions, and arc thus deter- 
mined in their later vita sexualis, as in tlie following cases : — 

Cftse 37. K., ogett 37, merchant, applied to me in the Tall of 1889 
for advice concerning »n !innm».1y of hia vita ^exiialiH, which miide liini 
fear iiivuHdiRin and iti]prxi»ibility of lliturt.' hiLppine!<fl in niarria|j:e. 

Patient oftnio of n ner%-ou» fnraily. As a child he was delicate, weak. 
and nervous. Healthy except fur uioaslos; bo later became strong. 




At the age of eight, while at school, be uav how the toicht^r pun- 
ithed the boys by taking tb«ir heads t>etwe«n bis thighs nnd spanldilg 
theru with h fcnile. This nifiht c»n»fd rlie patient lunirul excitement. 
" WithfiDt any idea of the danger and oimrraity of onnnism," he satisfied 
himself with it, and tt-oin that time often masturbated, during which he 
alwayb calle<| up the memory- pieturK of a lioy lieiug punished. 

Thus it continued uutil hi8 twetitiotb year. Then he leRrnetl the 
significance of onanism, was terribly lVightene<l, and tried to overcome 
his impuliw* to mairtiirl<ate ; bril lie fell Uito tlie pnictice of psychical 
onanism, wliich he regarde«l »s innocucMis and morally defensible, and 
for which he made u»c nf the memory-pieture* of hoya being whipped, 
previously mentioned. 

Patient now became ncuroathcnic, Bulfcrcd with jKillutionH, and 
tried to cure liimself by viKitinu brothels; but he could not induce erec- 
tion. Then he sought to obtain noniinl isi-ximl fei-liugs by tm>au!(of social 
intercourse with ladiea; but he recognized that he was entirely insensible 
to the charms of the fair wx. 

The patient is an intelligent man, normally developed, and of 
Sflthetic taste. There is no inclination to permmn of liia own m*x. My 
advicu (MiDKisted of uichus to combat the neurasthenia and iioltutiona: 
interdiction of peychicnl and mnnnal onaniura ; avoidanc-c vf nil sexual 
excitants; and, ixwsibly, hypnotic treatnieul to ultimately induce a return 
of the vita cexualis to its normal condition. 

Case 38. Al>ortivc »)di»tni. N., student, enme nn<ler obRcrvation 
in Decembor, 1890. He luid practiced mnMlurliation fWim early youth. 
According to his statcmcntii, he l)ecnme tiexually excited when he saw his 
fkther whip the uhUdren, and, later, when he saw the teacher whip his 
companions. When » spectator of such ncenes, he always experienced 
lustful feelingH. He could not say exactly when thin timt occurred, but 
it nukj have been at about the ngc of six. He could not tell exactly when 
be begsa to masturtintc, but lie Htnlcil with certainty iJuit hit) nexiial 
lnsHnct was (IrHt awakeni'd by the punii^hmenl of others, and thus he un- 
consciously came to practice onanism. The patient remembered clearly 
that from the age of four to the age of eight he wii» frequently spanked, 
and tliat this caused him |>ain, ni^ver luHtful iiU-asurf. 

8ince he did not always have opportunity to nee others whipi>eil, he 
began to imagine how others were punished. This excited bia tu^t, and 
he would then nuisturlmtc. Whenever he could, he mannged to sec others 
puniHhed at school. Xow and then he aUo felt desire to whip others. At 
the age of twelve he induced a comrade to allow him to whip him. He 
found great at^ual plcjisure in it. When, however, his companion beat 
him in return, he experienced nothing but pnin. 

The to In^t others was never very strong. The patient ex- 
perienced more satisAiction in Illliug his imagutattou with scenes of whip- 
ping, lie never indolged in any other sadistic acts, and never bad any 



desire to see blood, etc. CiitU bis flfle«ntli year bi« iiexiial indtdgeace 
conHinteil of otiflniAm, indulged in nfter Kiicb fnncies. After tbat (dnnc-iiig 
lesaonB, iissooifllioii with girlsj, tho early fiincics diaappearwl aJmrMrt en- 
tirely, nod W(?re ai%om|Minie(l by but wejik histftil tWlings; so tbat the 
paiieut gave Ibcm up eutinUy. In tliuir place caine ibuugbts of oiitus 
in tL natural way. without noytbing trndistic. 

Tbu jNttifiit indulged iu cottuii fur tbv fintt time "on account of 
bid lieallb/' He then tried to nlMtAin from onanism, but wna not 8ucc«a(»- 
fnl, tbougb Ue ottett indulged in coitus, and with more plmitur^ thnn he 
biul in onanism. Kc wished to Iw freeil ftvm onanism as ftumetbing 
vicious. Hi' Imd coitun oiiiw a muntb, but mastnrlmtcd once or twice 
evLtry night. He was normal tiesuaily, with the vxwptiou of tbu ooaoism. 
There wns no neurastheniR ; genitals nornuiL 

C'a»c 39. P., ag«.*d 15, of tilgh socin) position, cRmi?i of an liyititerical 
mother, whoae brother and father died in an a.<tylum. Two children of the 
family died, in early cbildhood, of convulttions. The patient is t^lcnt^^l, 
virtuous, and iiuiut ; but at iimva hv in wry disoWdieiit, stubborn, and 
[KLRKifinuli;. He has epilepsy, and practices onanism. Onu day it woa 
learned that P.. with money, induced a comrade of fourteeti. B., to allow 
faiuieeir to (m; pinched on tho arm. back, and lhi<£h. Wbeu IJ. cried, P. 
became excited and struck at B. with bis right tiand, while with bis left 
he made manipulations in the left pocket of his tronscrs. P. confesRc 
that to maltrpjLt bis friend, of wluini be wa.H very fond, gave bitn peculiar 
delight; and that cjiieutation while hurting bis friuiid )^ive biin much 
more pleasure than when be masturbated alone. (i>. Gyurkovechky, 
" Pathol, and Tberapte der manul. Impoteuz./' p. 80, 1889.) 

Tliat in all these cases of sadistic abuse of boys there can 
be no thought of a oombiiiation of siulism and contrary sexual 
insthict, as often occurs {v, in/ra) in individuals of contrary 
■exiiality, is shown — aside from the absence of all positive signs 
of it — by a study of the next group, where, in asK)ciatiou with 
the object of injury, — animals,- — the instinct for women is seen 
to appear repeatedly. 

(g) Sadistic Aria with Animals, — In mimerons cases, sadist- 
ically fierverse men that arc afraid of criminal acts with human 
beings, or that care only for the sight of the suffering of a sen- 
sitive being, make use of the sight of dying animals, or torture 
animals, to stimulate or excite their lust. 

The case of a niau iu yienua, which is reported by Ho&nann Id 
bis " Text-Uook of Legal Medicine,^' is noteworthy iu relation to thit 
According to the evidence of several prostitutes, before the sexual act he 



wa« accuHtomed to excite biiuseir by torturing cbickena and plgeona aad 
other birds, and, ttiereforc, ttsb callfxl " HcndltUBun " (chicken). 

For the ducidatiou of Bii(.'b ca84>& tlic observation of Lombroso Is 
of Talue, accordiiijr to whom two men li«d t>jac*ulatiou wltvo they killed 
chickens or pigeons, or wnmg their necks. 

The sarat; author, in bis " L'omo dolinqupnte," p. 20l, speaJcs of a 
poet of 84>me repnlatioi), who iHTamc poirerAilly fxcitcd sexually 
whenever be saw calveu alaugbt«red, and abu ai tbv sigbl of bloody 

According to Mant<*gaxxa [op.cU.,p. IH), among degenerate Cbina- 
inen, a horrible itport ron>«i»t« of runimtttuig sodomy with geeve, and 
cutting their ncoks off (tempore ^aeuialioniit ! 

Manti^gazza (" Fiaiolng'ia del piaccrc," 5th ed., pp. 394, 395) men* 
tioHB the caftu of a mam who ihiih- saw cliickenH ktltei]. nnd iVom that 
time bad a dusiru to wallow in their wurm, steauaiiig cutraila, beeaniK he 
experienced a Idling of lust while doing it. 

Thus, ill Iliese and similar eases, the vi(a seximlis is so 
constituted ab orhjiw tliat the sifjlit of blood, death, etc., excites 
lustful feeling. It is so in the luUuwing case: — 

Case 40. C. L., ag^vl 42, engineer, married, father of two children ; 

from a ncurnpathio family ; latbiT iraitf it>te, a drinker ; mother hystvrical, 

•ubjcot to tK-lnniptic attacks. The ]>aticnt rememlM-ra that In childliood 

fbe took |mrttcnlar pIniHiirc in wiluesHing tlie alaughtering of domestic 

' aiilnmlB, i«[H-cially Rwinc. He thua cx]>ericneed lustC^i pli-atiure and 

^oonlntion. Later be visile*:! slaiightcr-bouses, In order to delight in the 

[sight of flowing bluud tind thu death throes of the animals. Wbun he 

vould lind opportunity, lii.- killtd tlieanimidH himself, whieli always alfurded 

him a vu-arioufl feeling of s<-xnal (ileasure. 

At the time uf full tmiturity he lir^t nttninc-d tr> a knowledge of bia 

abnormality. The patieitt wait not usitetly oppitsed In iiicllnntion to 

women, but elose contact with them seemed to bun rejmgnunt. Ou the 

Iftdvice of a physieiau, at twenty-five be married a woman who pleased 

philQ, in the bo|»e of freeing liiniHelf of bis abnormal coiiilitiuu. Although 

h»e was very i>artial to his wifc^. it was only seldom, and after great trouble 

fwid exertion of his imnginatinn. that he could perform coitus with her; 

nevertbelcHS, he begat two ebiblren. Jii IM^ he waa in the war in 

Bohemia. RIs letters written at that time to his wife, were compoeed in 

an esjUted, enthusiastic tone. He was killed in the battle of EUniggriitx. 

IC in this case, the capability of normnl coitus was much 
imimiml by the [iredotniimnc-e of [tcrverse ideas, iu tlie next it 
leeins to have been entirely repressed :— 



Cwe 41. (Pr. Pascal, " Ijfiene dell' amow.") A gentleman \-uiited 
pro&titiitfs, limi thfin piirchnse a living fowl or i-ahlnt, nnd reqiiii-e«i them 
to turturo tht^ (inimal. lie had in mind the head and tearing out the 
eyes ami eiitmiis. If lie found a girl who would consent, and go about 
it right cruelly, he wax delighted, and paid her and wciit liia way without 
asking anything more or touchiitg ber. 

The last two sections show tliat tlio suffering of any living 
being may become n source of perverse sexual enjoyment to 
sadistically constituted persons, and t!mt there may be sadism 
with almost any [living] objc<:t. Hoxvcver, it would be errone- 
ous and an exaj^geration to try to explain by sadistic ixTversion 
all the remarkable and suqwising nets of cruelty that ocenr; 
and, in the innumerable cruelties, as they here and there occiir 
in history or in certain psycholofjtical manifestations among the 
people at the present time, it would be erroneous to assume 
sadism as a motive. 

Cruelty arises from various sources, and is natural to primi- 
tive man. Compassion, in contrast with it» is a secondary 
manifestation, and ae(pared late. The instinct to figl't and 
destroy, so important an endowment in prehistoric conditions, 
is long atterward operative; and, in the ideas engendered by 
civilization, like that of " the eriminal," it finds now objects, 
even tliou'jh its original object — "tlie enemy" — still exists. 
That not simply tin; death, but also torture, of the conquered is 
demandtii, is in jmrt ox]dained hy the sense of power, which 
.satisfies itself in tliis way; and in i>art by the insatiableness of 
the impulse of vengeance. Thus all cruelty and all historical 
enormities may he explained without i-ecoui-se to sadism (which 
may often have been in o]>erHtion, but which cannot be assumed^ 
since it is relatively an infrequent perversion). 

At the same time, there is still another powerful psychical 
element to take into consideration, which explains the attraction 
that is still exerted by executions, etc. ; and that is, the pleasure 
there is in intense and unusual impressions and rare sights, in 
contrast with which, in coarse and blunted beings, pity is silent. 

But undoubtedly there are individuals for whom, in spite 
of, or even by reason of, tlieir lively compassion, all that is con- 


nected with death and suffering has a mysterious attraction ; 
who, with inward opposition, and yet following a dark impulse, 
occupy themselves with such things, or at least with pictures and 
notices of them. Still, tltis is not sadism, as long as no sexual 
element enters Into conacio\isness ; and yet it is possihlc that, in 
unconscious life, slender tlireads connect such manifestations 
with the hidden depths of sadism. 

(li) Stif^iftm in Woman. — That sadism — a perversion, as 
we have seen, frequent in men — is much less fitrquent in women, 
is easily explained. In the first ])hicc, sadism, in which the 
need of suhjngntion of the opposite sex forms a ronstjtiient 
element, in arrordantt? with its natnn*, represents a pathoiogiral 
in teusiti cation of the masculine sexual character; in the second 
place, the obstacles wliinh oppose tiie expression of this mon- 
strous impulse are, of course, mucli greater for a woman than 
for a man. Yet sadism occurs in women : and it can only be 
explainefl by the primary nonstituent olemnnt,- — the general 
hy|jpr-<!xcitation of the motor sphere. Only two cases have thus 
far been scientilicAlly studied. 

. Cajie 42. A nuirried man preitcntod bimself with numerous iioars 
of PUtR on bis arms. lie told their origin a^ follcvs : When he viahed 
to nppronc'li his wifp, who ■was young and «on»'M-liat " nervous," Iih first 
had to make a cut in his ana. Then »ho iroiiUl auck the wouud, and 
daring the act become violently excitud iwxiuiUy. 

Tliis case recalls the wide-spread legend of the vampires, 
the origin of which may [wTlmps be referriMl to such sadistic 

In a second case of feminine sadism, for which I am 
indebted to Dr. Moll, of Berlin, by the side of tlie perverse im- 
pulse, as so frequently occurs, there is anoDstliesia for the nor- 
mal actiWties of the sexual life ; and here there arc also traces 
of masochism (r. in/i-a). 

1 The leceod Is evpwUlly sproful thmMglinnt Uw BkIIuu) penbisiilk. Amnn); 
(be Orrrk* It baa lu ariiifln In the mjrUi uT Ui<i lantia and mannolykm, — kktodsui-kitig 
womcu. Uoellitt made uae of tbla lii hta "Bride oT CitHnUi." Tlir rcrtrs rrfcirriDg lo 
vaniplriun, " txnk ihj li>>art'» binod," etc., can b« Uiaroufhlr ondentood onlj when 
cwapfcd vlih tlieir aucient uuicea. 



Case 43. Mrs. H., of H., aged 2«, comes or a nervoa« tVxnily, in 
which niTvoui* or mental diseaMS are said not to have occurred ; hut the 
tient berseir prcAents aigns of hrateria and neurasthenia. Although 
;ht years raarricd, and the mother of a child, Mrs. H. never had doaire 
Iterfonn ooitiis. Very strictly educated as a young girl, until her mar- 
she Teutained aluioKt inunccnt of any knowledge of sexual matters. 
She has menatruat^ regularly since her fifteenth year. There does not 
seem to be any essential abnormality of Die ^enitnli^. To the patient 
Doitas is not only not n plenHure, but even an unplenKant act ; and re- 
pugnance to it hai! oonstiintly increased. The patient cannot understand 
bow any ddc can cdll such an act the greatest delight of love, which, to 
ber, is Koniutliing far liij^lier and unoouuevted with such n Hen»ual imimUe. 
At tbe same time, it should be mentioned that the patient really loves her 
husband. In kiEwin^ him, too, tihe expt>rience« a decided pleasure, which 
hIh- ciinnot exactly describe. But she cannot conceive how the genitals 
can have anything to do with luve. In other respects Mrs. B. is a 
decidedly intelligent woman, of feminine chamctcr. 

Hi oHcirIa dat eonjugi, nuignum volupLiitem ]>ercipit in roordendo 

eum. Gratiasimum ci esset coigug«;m murderc co mudu ut sanguis duat. 

Contenta esBet, ai lot-o roitua morderetiir aconjuge iprinMfue eum mordere 

liocreU Tamen earn po^niteret, si morsu mugiuim dolorcm Enrervt. (Dr. 


In oUier rases of sadism whinli history and liU'mturR afford, 
we are coraiMrlled to think of a reversal of the fcmhiiue sex- 
ual character, — a partial viinginity, — iu order to explain the 
sadistic acts. 

In liistory there arc csamiilea of famous women who, 
to some extent, hud sadistic instincts. These Messalinas are 
irticularly characterized by their t)iirst for ]tower, Ixist, and 
'cruelty. Among them are Valeria Messalina herself, and 
CatiieriTic de Medici, the instigator of tlie Massacre of St. 
Bartholomew, whose greatest pleasure was found iu hanng the 
ladies of her court whipped before her eyes, etc. 

The gifted Henry von Kleist, who was undoubtedly ment- 
ally abnormal, "^ives a masterly portrayal of complete fi-niininc 
sadism in bis " I'enthesilca." In scene x.xii, Klcist describes his 
heroine with Achilles, whom she had been pursuing in the 6re 
of love, l>etrayed into her liands, as, overcome with Instliil, 
murderous fur)', shn tears him in pieces and sets lier dogs on 
him: "She strikes, tearing the armor fr(»m bis'body; they set 



their Iccth in his white hrejist, — she and her do^, the rivals, 
Oxus and Sphynx, — they on the right side, she on the lefl; and 
as I npproaclird hlnod dripped from }ier hands and mouth.*' 

I And later, uheu Feiithceilca becomes satiated : ■* Did 1 kiss him 
to deiithi No, Did I not kiss liim? Torn in pieces 'i Then 
St was a mistake; kissing rliymes with biting', and one wlio 
loves with the whole heart might easily mislnke the cue for tlie 

2. The AxtocuUion of Pa^sireJ*/ Endured Cruelty and 
Vtolettce, icifh Lufi — J/«.wp/(iVmi.' — Masochism is the opposite of 
sadism. WliUc tlic latter is the desire to muse jwin and use force, 
itlie former is the wish to suffer |Kiin and lie subjected to force. 
By masochism 1 iniderstand a peculiar jK-rversion of the 
>sychical vita seximlis, in wiiidi the iniliviihial affected, in 
^xual f(?eling and thought, is controlled by tlie idea of being 
[completely and imconditionnlly subject to the will of a person 
[of the opi>osite sex; of being Irealrd by this person as by a 
master, — humiliatwl and abused. This idea is i'nl(in'<l by lustful 
feeling; the individual affected lives in fancies, in which he create*s 
[situations of this kind, and olten attempts to rcali/^ them. By 
Ithis perversion bis sexual instinct is not infi'e4p]cntly made 
[more or less insensible to the normal stimulus of tlio opposite 
[sex. — incapable of a normal vita scxvialis, — psychically impo- 
it. But this psychical impotence does not in any way dcjwnd 
I upon VL horror Kexu8 aherius^ h\li upon the fact that this per- 
verse instinct finds an adequate sutisfartion differing from the 
["normal, — in woman, to be sure, but not in <:oitus. 

But cases also occur, in which, with the perverse impulse, 

tthere is also sensibility, in a measure, to normal stimuli, and 

[intercourse under normal conditions takes place. In other 

cases the impotence is not ]>urcly psychical, but physical, i'.«., 

spinal; for this pencr.'^inn, like almost all otlier jHTversions of 

[the sexual instinct, is developed only on the basis of a psycho- 

^Ja Um latest HlrrMnn wp And Uict matter tmUM, bnc partlmlarly fn Sacbdr- 
\iH BOnle, which arc bervant^r lo he allmlpd Ui, and In Enicat vnn Wlldenhrach's 
iMUc," BachlldeV " La Mantil»« "le SwIp," i-tL-. 
* liu nauM^ rrofii lh« writ4>t, Sau-lirr-MiiAorh, wliow ratnaocu aud Dorell bave at 
thilr parlicular (>t>J««l Uir deacriptluu •>( UiU peTvi^nion. 



pathic and, for the most part, hereditarily predisposed indi- 
viduality ; and, as a rule, such individuals give themselves up 
to excesses, particularly masturbation, to which the difficulty 
of attaining what their fancy creates, drives them again and 

The number of cases of undoubted masochism thus far 
observed is very lar^. AVliether masochism o(«;urs assocint<Hi 
with normal sexual iustiucts, or exclusively controls the indi- 
vidual ; whether, and to what extent, the individual subject to 
this [jerversion strives to realize his peculiar fancies or not; 
whether he has thus more or less diminished his virility or not, — 
dej>ends upon the degree of intensity of the perversion in the 
single case, and upon the strength of the 0])posing ethitul and 
aisthetic motives, as well as the relative power of the physical 
and mental organization, of the atTected individual. The essen- 
tial thing, from the psychopathic ^ioint of view, and the common 
element in all these cases, is Mc fuel that the ttexnal instinct w 
directed to ideas of mihjugati^i and ahuac ht/ ike opiiosite sex. 

What has been said with relercnce to the impulsive char* 
acter (indistinctness of motive) of the resulting acts, and with 
reference to the original (congenital) nature of the (Kirversion 
in siidism, is also true in masochism. 

In masochism there is also a gradation of the acts from the 
most repulsive and monstrous to the silliest, in accordance with 
the degree of intensity of the perverse institict, and the jrower of 
the remnants of moral and tcsthetic motives that oppose it. The 
idtimate consequences of masochism, howev<!r, aiie opposed by 
the instinct of self-preservation, and, therefore, murder and 
Berious injury, which may be committed in sadistic excitement, 
have here, as far as known, no passive equivalent in reality; but 
the perverse desires of masochistic individuals may, in imagina- 
tion, attain these extreme consequences (*i. infra. Case 54). 

Moreover, the acts to which masochists give themselves up, 
are performed in some cases in connection with coitus, i.«., as 
preparatory measures ; in others, as substitutes for coitus when 
that is impossible. Here, too, tliis depends only upon the con- 
dition of sexual power, which has been diminished for the most 



part physically luid mrntally by the activity of the sexual idenA 
iu the perverse direction, and not upon the nature of the act 

(a) 'lite Desire for Ahtme and Humifitition as a Means of 
Sexual Stttxnf action. — The following detailed autohiojirraphy of 
a masoehist, gives an exhaustive description of a typical case of 
this remarkable perversion : — 

Caae 44. I come of a neuroimthtc family, in wIiU-li, whh all kinilit 
of peculiarities of cliaractt-r and maimvi- of life, tlierv arw sovurul iitniur- 
malitiea of a (texual iiatuiv. My iinagiiiatlnn baa alwiiyw been very lively, 

■ and was vf ry early directed to sexual matttra. A8 far ai* I t-an remenilier, 
1 was mncb given to onanism long before piibertj'. Rvfn at that time my 
thoughts were, for hours nt a time, directod to iiitenroiirs*' with femal<'». 
But the relations in whitrli 1 plareci inynelf with the oppoBite sex vere 
entirely jHVuliur. I fauviird that I wa^ n prisoner and abHi>lntely \\\ tv 
woDua*» |>oner, and that this woman used her power to hurt and abuHU 
me 'va every way possible. In t]ii«. whipping ami IjIowm played nn im- 
portant |iar1 in luy tixiMry.nnd tliore were many othvr actti and Hituutiona 
which all exprcsnod the condition of vn<iHalage and anhjection. [ mw my- 
self contttantly kneeling before my ideal, tro*! upon, loaded with chaina, 
and imprisoned. Hevere piini^hnientH ofiiU klnd-i were indicted on me, to 
Veffd my obediem-e iintl pleuae my mistreaft. The more severely I was 

JmmiluLted aud ahuiietl, ihc more I indnl>;ed in these thoughts. (At tin* 
same time I develoju-d a great prefeienee for velvet and fur, which I 
liked to touch and smooth, and which Ultewise excited uie aexually.) 

I renipral>er well that wlicn a ehild I received many actual whip- 
pings at the hands* of females. They never caused me any other feeling 
than pain and i«Iiame; never have I thought to connect such realttiea 
with my fancier. A threat to punitth me severely and rorrift me agitated 
me |winl\jlly; but in my fancy I assumed a desire on the |«rt of my 
** mistress" tfl enjoy my Kufferiag and humiliation, which entranced nie. 
Too, I have never brought into relation with my funcieu the acta and 
orders of the femalea that have taken care of me. T waa early able to 
diacovcr the truth about the relation of the sexes; hut thla knowltdge 
made no impresHJon on me. The ideii of seni*ual plcannrc remained con- 
nected with the fancies with which it waH originally aAmHnat«d. 1 alno 
bad the dcisire to touch females, to emhrnce and kisa them, Imt 1 looked 
for the grtutem delight only in their maltreatment, and in situations in 
wtiich they would cause me to feel their power. 1 soou came to realize 
that I difTei't-d from other men, and jirefi^rred to be alone and iilworbed 
in my drc^ams. In my boyhood, r<<-al girts and women hod but little in- 
terest forme; for I anw nn pfwrtibility of having tbem act in the way I 

, desired. On lonely paths in the forest I whipped myself with branches 



that bad fftllen from tbe trees, and allowed my ima^iiifltton to pl&j in 
tbe hnNtnal n-ay. I revt'led iii tbe itigbt of pieturus of commaniiin^ 
women, partirulftrly if, like queens, they wore furs. T read everything 
rclatiMi to my eheriwhi'd ide^is. "Rousseau's ConfesBioTis.'' which then 
MI into my IiiuhIh, whs n great diseovery. I foimd a eotulition deticritied 
thst resembled mine in (rsHetttinlit. I wii» Htili more &t^toiii»ibed at the 
similarity of my idens to those t read of in the writing? of Sacber-Masoeh. 
t devoured Ui«?uj all with avidity, though the blood-eurdling wcnes oHen 
far outdid Tiiy imnni nation, imd then excited my aversion. Tiater, in 
order to mipiily nirw food for my faney, I began to write de(*eri|>tioti8 of 
erotic scenes to ray ta.'ttc, and to make drawings of eituatiouei whieb, itp 
to thit) tinit>, I hnd paitited oiiLy iii ttiiaKinatioti. ]ii thiti, reiiltty was 
eiiLirwIy an iudiilereut mailer to mf. lu the presenL-e of n woraKO 1 wae 
devoid of every sensual feeling; nt moet, at the sight of a feminine foot, 
there would ertme a. flerting wi«h to i>e trml upon by it. 

1'hiH iiiditreiTncf. hitwever, wuh (uily in riilaliuii to pure BentiualJty. 
lu late boyhood and ttirly youth I was subjtK-t to an enthusiastic par- 
tiality for young girlN of my aeipiaititanee, with all the extravaganeett 
(.■uiiiiiinn to tbig youlbful entbuHiNHm. Hut it never occurred to me to 
connect the world of my sensual thoughts with* these pure idealn. I 
never lind to overeoiueaueh a thought; one never came to me. This is 
the more remarkable, since to me my lustful faiieiea seemed very Ktmnge 
and uiiiituunable in reality, but in no wIkii vile or olmoxioa». This, too, 
WAS a kind of poetry with me; but it was divided into two worlds, — on 
tbe one band vsjs my heart, or, rutlier, my festhetieally excited fiuiey ; 
on tlif other, my sensually inflamed imagination. While my " elevated " 
ffi-ling alwjtys had a certain young girl for it* object, at othur times I 
sjiw myself at the feet of a mature woman, who treated me as prcvionaly 
descrilMil. I never plaireil any Inily of my ac<|nnintnni'(^ in IhiH r8te. 
In (Ircanis the two sjiheres of my eroLie idi-a« (Kvuirrcd alieniatcly, 
but never eombiucd. Only the Images of the sensual sphere induced 

In ni}' nineteenth year I alloired myself, with outward reluetance, 
but with inward desire, to he t^iken by friendH to vi>tit ])ro8titultfS. But 
there 1 experienced nothing but repugnance and aversion, nnd left us 
soon as possible, without having felt the faintest tniee of iseu*ual excite- 
ment. Later, on my own initiativw, I re|>eated the attempt, in order to 
convince myself as to whether I was impotent or not ; for I was much trou- 
bleil by my iinex|HM^ted failure In the first instance. The resnlt was 
always the same, — I felt no oxcltcnieut at all, and l»ul not the allghteai 
erection. In the Qrst place, it was nut possible for me to regard a real 
woman as an object of tsensual gratilteation ; and, furthurmore, I eould 
not renounce the conditions and sitnntions which were the principal things 
in nexuahhus for me, .ind .ilxmt which nothing could induce me to apeak 
a word. Imissiopenis — tlie act to be undertaken by me — seemed to me 



aheolutdy senseless and unolefin. Agnio, in the seoond plaou, tberc wiu 
rIso my repu^uauce for coiuiiiuti wuiiifn, aiKl feiir of iofiHitioii. 

In the iiiL'siitinit!, in set-ret, my seximl life went on in tUe old fashion. 
Whenever my old fancies ejime to mind, violent ei-eotion ot^curred, and I 
provoktKl ejntuktions almoAt <kily. I began to BUller with »11 kinds of 
ncrvDUB troubles, and now regarded myself as impotent, iik Hpite or)xiwi>r- 
ful ercetiouB and intentu; dcHiro wUen 1 wiih alouu. Ncvertbuless, ftom 
time to time 1 eontiuucd my experiments iritb prostitutes. Ln time I 
overcame my timidity, and in part my aventiou to ecu tact witb vommoa 
women ; but I remained absolutely cold. 

After I lind. with ndvancingr years, overcome to some extent my 
shyness and my ineliimtion to indulge in dreamtt, in my sexual tliutight 
there was an appi-oacb to the noj-mal, as I began to direct my int«i-eet tQ 
real yermnti. 1 wbm even ttuccessful in directing Hemiual thoiitflits to 
women of my acquainlanoe, witUout carrying over smy of my pec^uliar ideas 
from the otbt-r Hpherc. Thus I had Rome affairs with reapoetable girls. 
Embniuing and kissing oceurrcd; desire was exeited, luit not the power, 
— at looiit, it waH too weak to nltow me to tliink ibnt under normal einrum- 
stauccs I aliould U* virile. Of course, tbe attention I gave to tbe excita- 
tion vf my sexual power was not cAleulate^l to lavor tbia. Tlius, always 
gnAtly aabaioed, 1 broke utf thw i*elationH. 

With this, ray old hatiit continued. I was still a great onnnist.even 
though with IussciihI power. But my feney no lungur Batisfied iiie en- 
tirely. I now be^an to follow both respectable women and others on the 
street; in wintvr, particularly those wenriii^ velvet and furs. I olteu 
loUowed pro»litutv« tu their bcunes, and bud them perform niann*«tupm- 
tioa. I always tliongbt I Hhould find more real pleanure in that than in 
my ftncies; but ft wii« always ]e^*9. When the woman took off her 
garments, my interest ronowe<l them. The empty clothing liaji never 
attrmcted mn very strongly, but more than the nmle femnle. The real 
object of my interest was the attired woman. In this, velvet and tun 
play the moKt important |>art; but also all other Articles of attire 
attracted me, and pai-ticnhirly the form as brought out by liifing and 
padding. I had scarcely any other interest in the nude female form than 
an pQSthetic one. I have nlwnys had n very great intenTHt In the shoes 
of women, particularly in Hlippcrs with high heel^. which is always con- 
nected with the thought of being trod upon, or of submissively kissing 
the foot. 

At last I overcame the last vestige of mj' shynesft. and one day, to 
realize my dreams, hod myself whipped, trod upon, etc., by a lyostitnte. 
The result was a great dUappoiniment. What was done to me I felt to 
be rough, repugnant, and silly. Tbe blows caused me notliing but pain ; 
tbe situation, repugnance aud »lmme. Nevertheiess, 1 induced an ^aou- 
Ution meelmniotlly. with which, with the help of my imagination, I trans- 
formed the real nituntion into that for which I longed. This — the really 



desiivd Hituiition — (litfercd Trom Ihe actual essentially Jo thfit 1 creittcd 
in ImagiiiBttoD a >romaii who ahuitcil tut- witb tlm same plenfiura tbat I 
exp«rteiiced ill her maUn-titment of me. 

All my sexuni lanuicit were ercc;t«d on the oAftumption in llie woman 
of a t^'mnuiuAl, cruel di6|toaitioii, to wliicti I wished to be subjoct. Th« 
act espre«»ing tlie relation wuh u s*M!<>iMlrn-_v inatter to rae. After the 
&nt nltcuipt at an iiii]iut»iil)lu ruuliziiliuu, it was purreclly cluar to me 
toward wbnt my longing was directed. To be sure, in my lustful dniaius, 
1 had oltun pnctsed boyoiid all ideatt of abui4«, ami eoiictiivvd a cumnitind- 
iiig womnti, with an in)|>enoii8 luieii, a woitl of command, a ki^^ on the 
foot, etc ; but now I fully realized what it was that attracted mc, and 
that fiagollation ■vras only tlie e*trongGst means of ex [creasing the principle, 
anil in itst'lf sccuiulHry. 

In spite of tbiM diHa|>|>ointment, alXer the fii'vt »te|>, I did nob 
abandon my effort-* to ronlize ni\y erotic idens. I was vontident that, 
when onoe acciiRtomed to the new reality, my fancy would find food in it 
for mori) Intense activity. For my purpose I sought the most suitable 
women, nud instriictt'd them cjirefnlly In a coiuplicnted comedy. In tiiis 
I occaHiuniilly found tlinl the wiiy had been prepared for tue by prtwle- 
cessors of like disposition, Th« vaUiR of these comedies, for the etfect 
of my fancy on my ^vnitHNlity, ruinainetl problematical. What thesti acts 
and scenes did for me, in the way of intensifying the ntibsidiary circuui- 
atancen of the de^iired situntlon, cauAed a diminution ivf the intensity of 
the principftl element, which my nnnided fancy, without the conscioas- 
nees of planned, <M>nrsc deception, could more ensily bring up before 
me. My physical sensations, under the \'n.rioitK ptinishment^. were change- 
able. The more |)erfect llie fwlf-deueptton, the more perfectly the pain 
was felt as pleasure. 

Or, moi-e correctly, the punishment was then conceived aa a nym- 
bolic act. From thlo arose the illusion of the desired aitnntion, which 
was thi;n accompanied by an intense psychiesd feeling of pleasure. The 
lustful feeling then spi-eiul out over the whole body in lustTul physical 
sensations, and thus the perception of the painful qunlily or tlie punish- 
ment WHS overcome. The ]>rocc^s in the moral puniHhmeuts — the humili- 
ations to which I anbjected myself — was similar, but simpler; because it 
was confined to the mental sphere. These were also attended with 
pleasurable feeling when the self-deception suiAeedcd. It was seldom, 
'however, that it Bucceedetl well, and never perfectly; there always 
remained a disturbing element in oonsoiousuess. Therefore, fn the 
iiitcrvaU, 1 returned to solitary onanism. Moreover, in the other case, 
the conclusion of the act was uftiially an ejncuLation provoked by onanism; 
often an ejaculation without the aid of mechanical means. 

Thus I went on for miiny years, with diininislitng power, but with 
slightly diminished desire, and with the power of my pepulior sexual 
idea over me uncbang«d. And at present the condition of my vita sex- 



ualis is tbe same. Coitus. wUicb [ Uave never perrortued, still seems to 
me a strmuge and unclean nut. I learned about it from descriptioas of 
sexual dissipations. My own s«xu»l idca« gevm natural, and do not in 
tlie least offend my sensitive taste. Tbeir previoiisly men- 
tioned, for various reasons, leaves me unsatisfied. I am pleased with 
pretty girls and women o( retij>ectability, hnt for & long time I hare 
coaaod to uppnmuh tlium. I huvu uever uiLainud, not even partially, a 
direct, actual realization of my sexual fancy. As often as I Lavo come 
into olo»e relation witb females, I liave felt tbe woman's will to t>e 
beneatb mine, never vice tvrtid. I bave never met a woman uinniresUng 
a desire of mastery in sexual tbiugs. Women wbo wish to rule in tbe 
hoasehold and exercise petticoat sororeignty arc entirely different from 
my erotic ideals. 

My wbolu personality preiiiMits many almormnlitica besides tbe 
perversion of my vita sexualis; my neuropatbic condition is expresscil 
in many mental and pbysical symptoms. Besides, 1 tliiiilc I recognize 
in myself an original abnormality of rlinmcter in the nature of n re- 
semblance to tlie feminine type; at least. I regard as of tbtfi n.itnrc my 
great weakness of will, and my great Inck of courage in the presence of 
men and animals, wliicb is in contrast with my coolness in the face of 
peril. My e.xtt^ruat appearance is entirely mnsculiue. 

The author of this autobiography also made rae the 
followiug communication: — 

'* I alwayt) sought to find out whether the peculiar ideas that ruled 
me sexually were entertained by other men. Since the first stories 
)Ut it accidentally came to my ears, I bave sought everywhere to learn 
it. Since It la really a process of inner consciousness, it is, of course, 
not easy to identify it. and it cannot always Iw done with ocrtainty ; but 
I assume the exiet^nce of masochism where 1 tind perverse sexual acts 
that cnnnot l>e «xj>In.ined except by this dominating idea. 1 look u)x>n 
Ibis anomaly an wi<le-spr«ad. 

" I have heard numerous storlea about it from prostitutes here in 
Berlin, and in Vienna ; and I tbns lenrucd how numerous my felIow-6uf- 
ferers are. 1 am always carefhl not to describe my own experiences, 
or ask whether they knuw of such ; but I alluw these |>ersons to relate 
Iheir experiences just as they will, 

'* Siuiple flagellation ia so common that almost ererj' prostitute is 
familiar with it; hut cases of real masochism are very frequent. The 
men subject to this perversion submit tbemselvea to tbe most refined 
craelties. In this tli^y always act the same farce with tUc instructed 
prostitutes, — humiliating subjection of tbe man, treading upon him, com- 
mands, threau, and scoldiugs that have b«>en committed to memory ; 
then flagellation, blows on various portions of tbe body, and all kinds of 



punishment, pricking witli needles), vtc. Tbe scenes oil«n end with coitua7 
but more frequently witli eJacuUtion without it. Twice prostitutes buvn 
shown mc heiivy iron cbains with litindcud^, wbicli tlieir patrons bod 
■nude fur tlieiu to put on theui ; and tbe dritnl {»ea«, on whicb thev 
knooled ; tbe scHt set with needles, ou wbicb tUt-y sat m comiuniitl ; and 
many other similar thiuus. Often tbe perverted ui&u wishes tbe woman 
to tie bis peiii« so tightly as to c»ii«t^ pain ; to prick it with iteedliw, 
make cubt in it with a knife, or lieat it with a Rtick. Even Ibe act of 
hau^ng is indulgcil in, it l>cing cut ttbort at just the ri^ibt womeut 
Others have themselves BcniLebed witli a knife ur dagger, fcut in the acI 
the woman mast tbrenteii them with death. In all these thtng;9 the 
symbolism of subjection is the most im}>ortaot factor. Tbe woman is 
usually called ' miMtre!>»'; tbe iiiiin, ' slave.' 

"A man of high soci»L standing, dressed ana scrrnnt, ant on the 
box of a c»rria}ie and drove bin mistress alwtit. Ucre there niav have 
been a conncioun imitation of tbe * Vrniis in Furs,' It seems to me that 
the writings of Sachcr-Mnsocli bave done maeh to develop this perversion 
in thoHe pre«liH)>oKe(l. It is (lecutiar that the inexplicable enthusiasm for 
furs is HO freipiiMitly combined with this [K-rversion. It, as well as that 
for velvet, bas been peculiar to me from my earliest youth. 

" All the«e comedies with prostituteitare for masocbiets only trouble- 
some substitutes. Wlictber there is such a thing as a renltzntiou of 
masochistic dreams in love relations or not, I do not kiiow. If it occur, 
it is certainly very infrequent; for this tast« in women (sadism in women, 
as described by Saeher-Mnsoch) is very difficult to find; and, too, tbe 
expression of sexual abnormulitii^s fliids grt'ntjjr olmtndes in the modesty 
of women, etc., tlian in men. I myself bave never noticed tbe slightest 
indications of anything of this kiud,snd have uever been able to attempt 
an actual realization of my fancies. Once a man conlldingly told me of 
hia luasochislic pen-eraiou, and said ho had found his ideal."' 

The two following cases are similar to the foregoing: — 

Case 45. Mr. Z., aged 29, technicist, came for consultation because 
of a fear of tabes. Father was nervous and died tabetic. Father^s 
sister was insane. Several relativee are very nervous and peculiar. On 
closer examination the ])atient is found to have sfxmd.Npinnl,and cerebml 
asthenia. He presents no symptoms of tabes dorsalis, nor docs he give 
history of them. Questions conceniing abuse of tbe sexual oT^;aDB 
'^'bring out a confession of masturhstion practiced since youth. In theJ 
course of Uie examination the following interesting paycho-Aexiial anomi 
lie« came out: At the age of five the vita sexnalis began with tt 
fmpulse to whip himself, aa well as with tlie desire to sec others wliip|>ed; 
In this he never thought of individuals as of one sex or the other. Fauie\ 
He mieux he practiced flagellation on himself and, id time, this Induced 



ejacaUdon. Long betore t)ii» he had begun to satiArv himitetf with road- 
turbation, and ulwnvs duriug tlic uuL reveled in imaginary scenes of 
-whipping. After growing up bt> twice vieitvd bnillieln U> linvc liiniiteir 
(luggvd by i>ro«titute*. For this puriiosu bv chose Lhc pretlie«t, ^iri lie- 
could find i but lie was disApjjointed, :itid did not even bave an orailtun, 
to ftajr notbing o( oJacuUtion. lie rccognixed that t\iv (lagullation w.ik 
subsidiary, and tbat tlit; idea of subJccUon tu tlie woman's will wax the 
importAHl thing. Hv milized tlii» on the second trial. When he liiid 
thti '* thuugbt of subjcctioD," be was jwrfecUy succcflsful. In time, by 
straining bio itnagination with mnsochiatio ideas, be perrormed coitus 
without fiagfllalion ; but he fiMUnl little BatisfRC-tion in it; BO that ho pcr- 
forujud aexiisl inlerconrse in « ni««ocbi»tie way, Ue found pleasure in 
mniiochistic scenes, in the sense of bis original desire for flagellaLtion, 
only when he was fl«gelliitc<l ad podicem, or, at least, only when he cnllc^l 
Dp socb a Kitiiation in i magi nation. At times of great excitability it whs 
evciiBufilcientif B pretty girl told stories of such Hoenes. He woald thus 
littve an ot^asm, and usually ejaculation. 

A very effectual fi-tichistic idea was early associated with this. He 
llot1e«d that he was nltracted and satisfied only bv women wearing high 
heels and short jackets (" Hungarian fashion "). I!c does not know how 
he arrived at this fetichistic idea. Boys' legs with high hcols also 
pleoHed him, but this charm was purely scstUctic, without any sensual 
coloring; and be luiid be had never noticed anything homosexual in him- 
self. The jialiunt rel'erred bis felichism to his partiality for calves (legsj. 
U« is charmed by l.iilieR* c:»lve-* only when elegant shovs are on the 
feet. Nude legs— feminine nudity in genend — do not in the least sifect 
him scxmilly. A sulwrdinnte fctichistic idea for the patient is the ruat*- 
rulini' ear. U is a luairiii plwisun- f<ir him u> pot tliu ears of handsome 
mt-u, i.e., men having lieautiriil eari^. With men this pleasure is slight, 
but with women it gives him great enjoyment. 

He al«o baa a weakness for cats. He thinks them simiily beaulinil ; 
their movcmentn are very attractive to him. Tho sight of a cit can 
raise him n-om a feeling nf the deepest depression. Cats seem to him 
ared; ho sees somelhiug divine in thum ! Ul- dues not know the 
BOD for this idiosyncrasy. 

Of late he has alio frequently had »>ndiHtic idean altout punishing 
boys. In tliese imaginsry flagellations both men and women play a part, 
hut {larticularly the latter ; and then his enjoyment is much more intense. 

The patient llnds that, with that wlii(;h be recognizeH and feels 
as masochism, there Is something else which he prefers to designate 
■■ pagelsm." 

While his masocbintic fancies and acta are entirely of a coarse, 
sensual nsituro, his *' psgcifim " eonststa of the idea of being a page to a 
beautiful girl. He conceives her as perfectly cliaMte, but pitiuant ; his re- 
Uitlon to her, that of a slave, but perfectly uhiisCc, — a purely platonic 



BubmiBsioti. This reveling in tlic idcn of HOrving siicti n '* bcAuUful crea* 
turo " H8 a pagi!, is colored by u pleanunible foeliiig ; but th\n is in no v%y 
sexual. Uo vxpuriunced iu it nn exquisite feeling or moral satisrucUon, 
in contrast with the sensuiilly-colorecl inaHocluHDi ; utid, tLetefore, he 
could but regwrd it as something of a different nMiire. 

At first Higlit tlipfp WAS notliiiig rfinfirkabKr in thf patient's ap|M>Ar> 
ancc; but bis pelvis ie< .ibnormally broiid, tbe Ilia nre diU.aud tbe pelvis, 
ns a whole, tilted and iltiiidedly feiulEiinti. Kyes, nunnipHtliic. He also 
lueiitiotiK tbat Uc ofloii has ilcbin^ niitl lustful iriilntton ut tbo !viiUH,and 
ilittt there (" erogenous "' arvii), ope (hyiti, lie c«n satisfy htmseir. 

Tlie |Mitient is troubled about lii« future. Help would be |>08sible 
for hlin if he could but excite in bimself an Interest in women, but bis 
will and imAjrination wiM't; too ireuk for that. 

Wliat, tlio patient dt'signatea as " [jageism " does not differ 
in aiiy way from masochism, as may be soeu wheu it is com- 
pared with the following cases of symholic masochism, and 
others ; and, further, upon the consideration tliat in tliis per- 
version coitus is avoided as an inadequate act ; and from the 
fact that in such cases there is often a fantastic cxaitutioa of 
the perverse idt?al : — 

Case 46. X, writer, n^cd 98, predisposed. Sexually hyperaesthetie 
from ebildhnod. At the u^e of six he hjul dreamn of l)cint» whipped 
ad imtra by a. wonimi. After iheui he wouhl iiwake In iritriiae lustful 
excitement ; and tbuH tie came to prnctlce onnnism. When eight years 
old he ouee n*k«d the eook to wbip biiu. Fr^jin his tenth year, neu- 
ra'itbenin. Until bid tweiity-tifth year be had dream* of (lagullation, or 
vimilnr wiikinpr fancies, and indulged in onanism. Three years ayo U« 
had an impulse to have biroself whipped by a piiella. The p^itieut was 
iinileccived, for iicitln-r erection nor ejacuIfLtion i«;nurrcd. At twcntv- 
seven, another etibrt. with the thought to enforce erection and ejacula- 
tion. This was finally made possible by tbe fultowiiig nrtiHcc: While 
coitus was attempted, tbe pnelhi had to tell bini huw »lie had mtrcileasly 
flogged other impotent nn-n, and thrt-Men him with tiie Kiiuie. Uesideit 
thia, it was necessary for iiim to fancy that he was bound, entirely 
in tbe woman's power, helpless, and most painfully beaten by her. Oc- 
casionally, in order to become potent, it was necessary to have himself 
actually bound. Tims coitus was possible. Pollutions were acconi{)a- 
nied by lustful feeling only when he (infrequently) dreamed that be was 
al>iised, or that he lotiked on white a puella whipped others. He never 
had an intense, lustful pleasure in coitus. The only things in women that 
interest him arc the hands. Powerful women with big fists are hit 
preference. At the same time, his desire for flt^ollation is only ideal ; for 



with his grpAt cnUneoas senflitiTenenB, At ttie mont, n few strokes are 
Hiifllcient. Blows rroiB men wcru repugiiant to biu. He witsUes to 
marry. From the itnposHibility of asking n dfcent wonmn to [wrCurm 
flagellation, and tlie doubt about bving potent willi :«ucli a woiiiaD, 
spring liii« i'DilmrnMftment and desire to recover. 

In the foregoing three cases, for the most part, piis.sive 
flagellation senes the individual sulyi^ct to (his pcrviTsinn of 
masochism as an expression of the desired situation of suhjeetion 
to the woman. Tlie same means is needed by a large number 
of masochisU. But passive flagellation is a process which, as is 
known, has a tendency to induce erection reHcxly by imtatton 
of the nerves of the nates.' This rffert of fliigellntion is used 
by weakened debauchees to help their diminished power; and 
this per\'ersity — -not pcnersion — is very common. It is, there- 
fore, necessary to ascertain in what relation the ]»assive flagella- 
tion of the mitsochists stands to tlicsc disxipnted individuals who 
are not psychically perverse, but physically weakened. 

It is not difficult to show tlnit masnclnsm is something 
?ntially different from flagellation, and mure comprehensive; 
that flagellation is mlher a by-play, ^-one of the many means 
used for llui purpose of niasoeliistic gratificalion in tin; stmse of 
subjection to the woman. For the masoehist the principal 
thing is subjection to the womnn ; the punishment is only the 
expression of this relation, — the most intense effect of it he 
can bring upon himself For him the act has only a symholic 
value, and is a means to the end of mental satisf'artion of bis 
peculiar desires. The essential thing is tlie desire fur ill-tn'at- 
ment, as a sign of this subjection. Besides flagellation, and 
often withoxit it, there are many other things *vhich serve to 
express this subjection ; as is shown by tlie following series of 
cases. This (act establishes a presumption of the existence of 
an original anomaly of sexual feeling, — a panesthesia sexunlis. 
On the other band, the individual that is weakened and not a 
subject of masochism, and who has himself flagellated, desires 
only a mechanical irritation of his spinal centre. 

Whether, in a given case, it is simple (reflex) flagellation 

> Camp., tigjn, IntitxlacUoQ, p. S8> 



or masochism, is made clear by the indii-idual's statements, and 
oflcn by the secondary circumstances. The determiimtini) de- 
pends upon the foUomng facts ; — 

In the Jlrst place, the impuUe to passive flagellation exists 
<»6 origine in the raoJtochist. The desire is felt before there 
has been any experience of the reflex effect, often first in 
dreams ; as, for example, in Case 48. Secondly, with tlie maso- 
chist, as a rule, the flagellatiun is only one of many and various 
piniishments whicli come into his mind as fancies and are often 
i-ealized. In these other punislimeuts, and the frequent acts 
expressing purely symbolic humiliations, which occur by the 
side of flagellation, there can, of course, be no thought of a 
reflex physical irritative effect. Thini/t/, it is sigiiific-ant that, 
in the masochist, when the desired flai;elIation is carried out, it 
need have no aphrodisiac effect at all. Very often, indeed, 
there is a more or less perfect disappointment; in fact, always, 
if the masochist is not successful in liis desire to create, by 
means of the pre-arranged programme, the illusion of the desired 
situation (to be in the tvoman's |)ower), so tliat tlie woman 
ordered to carry out the act seems to be notliing more than the 
executive ageut of his own will. If one cannot tickle one's 
self, no more can one feel one's self subject to a woman 
directed by one's own will. In reference to this important point, 
compare the three foregoing cases and Case oO. 

Between and simple (reflex) flagellation, tliere 
is a relation somewhat analogous to that existing between con- 
trary sexual instinct and aoquin*d pederasty. It does nut lessen 
the value of this opinion that, in the masochist, the flagellation 
may also have the known reflex effect; or that a whipping 
received in childhood may have aroused lust for the first time, 
and thus simultaneously excited the latent masochistically-constt- 
tutod vita sexualis. In this event, the case must l>e characterised 
by the (X)ndilion8 mentioned above, under the heads of "■^secondly " 
and " thinUy" in order to be masochistic. If the details of the 
origin of the case are not known, other circumstances, such as 
those mentioned above under ^'seiMndly^* would make it clearly 
masochistic. This is illustrated in th<! two following cases: — 



Case 47, A imtient of Tftrni>W(«ky'« hml a person In'filp confidnnc*^ 
rent ft liouBe during Iiik attackH, iuiiI iiiHtrnot its persorin'S/ (tlire<^ pros- 
tituh>8) in wliat watt to bo done witli liirii. He wuiild cuinit tl'oi-e. and 
woB tberu iiii(lr«!«tMMl,mai>U8tiipiitted, and tlii]jcllat.fd,u9 uuioix-il. ' -iVv >)ie< 
tended to ufr«r rv«i8taiiuc>, and beg;;ed fur loercy ; tliuii, as ortlcved'.'he 
was allow«-d to eat and s!<-e|>. But. in spite of ]ntito«t lie watt k«pl 
there, and beaten if he did ttot »idimit. Tliii-t the affair would goon 
for some day». Wlien lUe attack was over, lie Tra^t di»tniKScd ; and lie re> 
turned tu b\» wifti and t-tiildruu, wlio had ni> ^URpicioii of his disease. 
The allaekif' occuirud oiicu or twiw u year. (Tarnowsky. «/j, ci/,) 

CaMe 48. X.. aged 34, greatly pr^diRpo^cd, siilfi^rs with cunLrnry 
Mxnal inatinct. For various reasons lie had no opportunity to astisry 
hiiDRcir with men. in spite of great aeximl desire. Oeeaaiomitly lie 
drcameil that s woman wliipi^ed him, anil then |]ad..n> pollfltion. 

Tliroiigli tbia dreniu he ctime to have prostitutes heat him aa aanb* 
atituto fur love wiLli nieii. Oeinuiioiiatly lie wuidd obtain ii prostitute, 
undress himself complulely (while nUv wits not to lake olf a thing), and 
have her trend itpnii liim, whip, and dent IjIdi. Qtin ru sumrtm lihidine 
artectus jtedein feminie lambtt qnud solum eum lihidinoNiim facere potest: 
turn cjiieiilfitioiiein atf^eqiiittir. Then disgti«t at the mo rally -iltrbatiiog 
liluation occurred, and he retired as qui<-kl}' an poaaihle. 

Casns orciir, however, in which passive fla-jcllation iilone 
constitutes tlie entire content of tlie mnsochis>tic fancies, with- 
out other ideas of Iminiliation, etc., and without any clear con- 
sciousness of the real nature of this espression of submission, 
Sucii rasi?s art; difficutt to difFeR-ntiate from those of simple 
reflex flagellation. A knowledge of the primary origin of the 
desire, h«?fore any px[>prience of reflex (stimuli (t*. supra^ under 
"^r»("), is the only thing that makes tlie diflercntial diagnosis 
certain; taken with the circumstance that genuine masocliists 
ai*c perverse in their youtli, and that the realization of their 
desires usually comes late, or undeceives them {v. mtpra^ under 
'^thirdly")', for the whole thing, for the most part, belongs to 
tlie sphere of the imagination. 

The following case is of this nature : — 

Case 49. Autobiography. — Tn January, 1891 , T received the folloving 
letter froni n gentleman in Hiingnry : " In dcpreision and despair of a 
life that shuta me out from atC that makes liiunnn lia|)piiieKH, I came to 
j'ou with the XoAi gleam of hope of rescue from a condition which, if it 
continue, cau end only trSigically. 


•■';-. 'tfifyCHOrATHIA SEX.CALIS, 

•*I aQi,f(^y years oM, and come of a motfivr wlio siiifored with 
periodifft! 'ip^nity. Ai* early a» my foiirtcpiitli yeni' abnormn.! sexual 
temkneyws wtTP noticoalile iti me. It always gave me a ceituin Iii«lful 
jjlvjiatfrfi to l)e wliippeii by boys of my own age, imrtiuiilarly when 1 wa» 
*lOk'i(> over tlie ktit^ am] K|miikeil. It partii: ii lurly i]uligliti:<.l uie when 
m\ •.**tlii» was dimo liy IiaiiUeouiu yuung jMsrsoiii* or boys liaviiiK Wfll funned 
legs and closeJy-fitting trousers. By meanH of (tuc-li ideas I aI«o cam© to 
matttirbiitv; and I prH<'tice<l onanism quit© frt.'qiiently, — almost daU]', 
and, in fact, in nl_>soUite ijjnorance of the terrible rnftult)* of tlie vice. 
Tliua it continued until my eigbteeutli year, wlieii, thus far alisolulely 
iinBtis|iecting, I wii» niiule aware or the vloIour rasultn of tlie practice. 

"■ Froui tliis time began tlie terrible struggle with tbe dealru to give 
it up, which I only too often abandoned. Tlie fancies niGiitioned did not 
leave in« ; 1 lotfged to be whipped by handsome young persomi aged fVoin 
twenty In twentj-.two year*, wearing tight trousers. My fancy was filled 
capcciiilly with young Holdiers and husnars. At times 1 wan able to ro- 
press my imagiimtioii and avoid oQaiiism ; but 1 tli«n Imd ]H>llulion9 witb 
dreams of tbu Hanic nature. 

" Afler my twentieth y«ar, to ray aatonisliment, the Reximl in- 
clination toward women, which ] bad noticed in comrades of my own 
age, and the occurrenf^c of which I cx]>ectcd iii myself, <lid not a|)iiear. 
I wa.'i cold toward women, and erabarrasHed in their presencu. At the 
same time, feminine nudity wits not unplea»iant; nn the eonlniry, there 
waa something attmctivo about it, but. my scnsLmlity was not excited, 

" I twiee attempted coitus ; I was not tronbh-d about being ill lied 
with the girl, but i-ather ki»«ed and embraced her with pleasiire.and even 
had traces of eret^-tion, but that was all. Since then I hnve bad no hope, 
nnd occasionally returned to onanism, wliicl) I lifld avnfded for some 
months previously. Nevertheless, I eultivatej social intercourse with 
ladies, and particularly young girls ; nud I was esteemed in ttoeiety, and 
lilted for my gmeeful dancing. 1 was always hoping that in this way 
my UTihappy tendency would be overcome aucCeflBfuUy, but iu vain ; it 
grew constiintly stronger. 'I'huti 1 have lived hours of wretchedness ; 
and the ghost of suicide has passed before me. I onire confided in a 
physiciiLu in Festh, but he hail only the usual rcmuilles for [lei-sons suf- 
fering with sexLiul weakiieria, — cold baths, quieting medicines, Intercourae 
with women, etc. 

" I tried everything in vain, until by accident a book on contrary 
sexnat instinct fell into my hands, and gave me the Inst ray of hope. I 
have a rcHpi-cted poBttion as a mendinnt, and appreciate thoroughly the 
joys of family life ; and 1 have an op|)orLiinity to marry, under the most 
favorable circumstances, a young girl whom 1 love, and who love» me. 
But I feel the cruel impoBsibility of this step. I suffer terribly in think- 
ing alHtiit these repulsive abnormalitieH. My only hope lies iu a cure bj 
means of hypuoais. May it not be in vain I " 



Pity and a scientific intere»t imlnoed tne to invite ttie writer of the 

linjj liucs to e«in« to «e« raf*. liarly in Februjiry Mr. 1). c»me. 
Waft diatingnisbeil, piiw-sing. and ma-tciiltne in appMtranoe, Bxam- 
iiiatiou or tbc cane showed it to he one of niRHOchism. Uc distinctly 
n^mtfitilHTed that, wbeii lie once saw fellow-pupils vbiiipcd by tlic tenctier, 
it gave liiiu u rveliiig of liiHlfiil plmHure. Hi^ oiitinot rt'ineinhtr that he 
wan ever wliippttl by a teacher. His luufiochisiu had been an obnoluteli/ 
primary mani/ft*(al\on, and incoinprehennible tt> him. Only gradually 
ii.ut\faute tie mivux had he vome V> pructivti unaniHui, during which ideas 
of llagellation, in which he played tlie passive rd/«, tilled his mind. He 
had never had denirf U> be wbipp^rd by the tenclior; he always wished to 
he lln<;gf>d by fellow-pupil>t and w(-ll>groivn yoting pcrsonK. Since ma- 
turity be bad never been able to induce bim.?clf to satisfy his mnsoobistio 

Ill iiit«rcourse with pucllis he bad repeatedly bad the tboiigbt to 
have himself wbip|>cd by them; but tttnce this wa« not accompanied by 
8eii8ua) feeling, it waa not canned out. The patient derlareA that bis in* 
t^linations toward persons of hia own sex are jiurely tnasochiBtic. In 
other rei^pectA he fintU nothing Interesting in men. Until his mghtecntb 
year the patient brid also sadiHtie tendciicieH. He was euthnctintttic iibotit 
the position of the pedagogue and wanted to be a teacher iu oitter to be 
able to (log boys. ThU ideal sadism inter dnapjieared entireh/. The 
patient complains that he fevU idunu in the world, like a p.irinh, and that 
lie is dllfcrent from other men. But bis libido toward women bad much 
diminished, ponsibly a-s a rcnult of his mnKtnrbatinn. Tli> had no erec- 
tion at tliu sight of feminine pbar»i>t, but the sight of ii ridinjr-whip or a 
cane excited bim ]>owerfully eexually. When he attempted coitus, uo 
nuisuchislic ideas occurred. Siieli idea» ;iro8u, however, whenever he 
aiiw altnietive joiing men. He lit-lievetl that if be were fieed from hia 
ideas of dagellatton, he wonid Iw helped ; fur his sensuality would then 
direct itself in a normal path. 

The potienl li:tt« neuropathic eyes, but is IVee from all degenerative 
signs. In the dii-eutlon of hereditary tajut, it is noteworthy that bin 
maleriial grnndfutber wai* peculiar, and Kbnt himself while in a [»>ycho- 
patbie cundition. The [Kitient feela well, save for alight i)e(ir.tHthenic 
troubles. Patellar reHex inereaKcd. The gcniLils are perfectly normal. 
Hia dreams with pollutions are exclnsirely about flagellation by young 
persona, particularly floldiers wttli tight trousers. 

The prineiplea of treutmeiiL laid down wore: 1. Removal of the 
aymptoniH of netim-'ttheuia. 2. Suggestive treatment looking to (a) 
avoidance of onanism; (6) itidiifcrance toward bis own sex and the 
disiippfiiranpe of Ibought'* of flaceltation, both while awake and asleep; 
f*;j libidd exclusively toward permm?! of the opposite sex, the ooeurrenee 
of erections at sight of beautiful women, complete power with women, 
and dreams of women exclusively. At tbu Drat aittiug, by means of 



Bernheim's TiieUioil, tlie patient jmsuvil quickly into a stato of deep 
It^ttmrgy- At the necoml Hittinp; (Febrniiry b) a cat^teptu^ condition 
or the muscluft wan Induced, f^ittingfi iLlinottt dnity. It. wiut seen tlml 
stroking the brow iinhiced diicper hypnosis with <jiil.iilep»y, which, how- 
ever, did not go beyouU deep Ictlmrgy. Siiggentiou w»h bugutt in ttie 
tbinl sitting. 

February 10. The patient ftiiy* thiit be ba« no longer any interest 
in mon, hut a growing interest in women. He begins to dream of 

February 18. He reels himself free IVom mnsochiHin during the 
dny, nnd ■.•n.nRfl and whipping do inib Inteivnt biin any more. At night \ie 
fitill [iti8 " wcuk " dreiim? uf flagellation concern in^j men. btit without 
lustful feeling or pnllutinn. A sbort time ngo lie b:i<l hud n dreiini timt 
WM entiixdy Htmnge, and without erotic coloring, lo the elTcct tlml he 
whipped himself. 

Febriinry 1&. The p.itieiit attempted coitus with a pnella plemting 
to him. Krection waa innnmplete, nnd ejaculation ilid not occnr; ao he 
gave up the stLempt. Tin; pntEent fiiulH that liitt libidu towiirtl women \s 
attll very Blight. Qc was not di»coumged by bis iailure. iind expected 
idtimnte siiceesH; for be felt free fmni bin abnormal tendencies, nnd like 
another man. On Fehru^ivy SO, iiiifortintntcly, the patieul bad to dis- 
continue treatment, being called borne by duties there. 

Tlic fnct that tracrs of sadism (v. infra) were simultaneously 
presc^nt, leiitls certainty to the diagnosis of this rudimentary case 
as one of masochism. The purely psychical character of tliis lat- 
ter perversion is unquestionable. At the same time, the case is 
combined with incompletely developed contrary sexual instinct, 
an association not infrequent in masnrlusts ami sadists. 

In contrast witli tliis case of rudimentary masochism, in 
which there is some difficulty of diii<^iosis, follows a typi<Mil 
case of masocliism, in wliioh the wliole circle of ideas jK-culiar 
to tiiis perversion nppoxrs completely developed. This case, iu 
which there is a detailed personal description of the whole psy- 
chical state, is different from Onsc 44 only in tliat here there is no 
thought of a realization of the perverse fannies; nnd that, not- 
withstanding; the pervereion of the vita sexuahs, normal stimuli 
are so far effectual that sexual intercourse is possible iLuder 
normal conditions. 

Omo 60. ] am Uiirty-nvo yt^rs old, mentally and phynicidly normnU 
Among nil my relatives, in tUedireot u well as in tbo lateral Hnc, I know 



of no CAM of menUl disease. My rnllier, who, at my birth, was thirty 
yeKn* old. %» fiir A* I know, had a (>referenc<^ for votnptiioun, large wntn«n. 

Even in my earl)' cliildhooil I loved to n>v(0 in Idoaa HlM>ur. the 
al>solut« niastfry of one mail over otliors. The tli'Miplit of slavery Iind 
iDm«thiiig exciting in it Tor me. nnd alike whetlier rrotn the stRucl-poini 
of master or servant, Tlint one man could iKiaseas, sell, or wbip another, 
caused me iiit4>iii>c^ excitement; and in reading '■ Uncle Tom's Oaliin '* 
(which I rend at about the beginning of puberty). I hm) creoLtons. Par- 
ticularly exciting lor me was the thought of a ronn'^ being hitcheil np 
before a wagon in vrhteh another man sat with a whi|), driving and whip* 
ping him. Until my twentieth year these idpii'< were purely objectiveand 
acxless.^ — i.e., the one in Kubjngiition in my fancy wnti nnottier (not 
myself), ami the master was not necessarily a woman. These idenfl were, 
thert^fore, without effet-t on my sexnal inslinrt, — i.e., on the way in wbioli 
It was cxprc«i*ed. Though these ideas caused eiTctions. yet I have never 
infistiir)mt«i1 in my life; and from my nineteenth year I had uoitnn witli< 
nut the lielji of these id«H» and wlMiuLit any reliition to tlium. I always 
had n groat preference for elderly, voluptuous, large women, thoniih I 
did not ticurn younger ones. 

Alter my twenty -llrftt yenr mj- idcnft became objective, and it 
liecame an e->BentiaI thing that the " mistress '' should be a woman over 
forty ycnra old, tail, and powerlnl. Frnm. this time I u'tix alwoys, in my 
fancie*, tlte mttfjeci ; the " inistrcsa *' was a rough woman, who made us« 
of mc in every way, also sexually ; who Lamesscil me before a carriage, 
nnd made me tuke her for a drive; whom I muHt follow like a dog; at 
whotte feet I mu^t lie naked, an<I be punished — i.*^., whijiiied — by her, 
ThiH was the constant element in my ideas, around which all others wcru 
grouped. In these fancie.s I always found endless plensure, wliirli cnuseil 
erection, but never ejaculation. As a rewult of the Inthiecd sexual ex- 
citement, 1 would immediately seek a woman, preferably one correspoiict' 
iiig exteriorly witli my ideal, and have coitus with her witliont nn^- actual 
imitation of my fancie!!, and aomctimes alan Without any thought of them 
during the act. At the same time, I also had incLination toward women 
of a different kind, and had coitUH with tliem wiUiont being Impelled to 
it by my fancy. 

Notwithstanding all this, my life wan not exceedingly nbiiorniid 
[Ually ; yet tbeae ideas were certuiu to occur period iciilly, and they have 
Bmained essentially unchanged. With growing sexiiftl desire, the inter- 
vals constuntly grew shorter. At the present time the come every 
two or three weeks. If I have bnd coitus, tlii^ occurrence of the fhneiea 
ia perhaps postponed. 1 have never attempted to realize my very deSuitc 
and oliaracteri.stic ideas, — i.e., to connect them with the objective world, 
— bub I have coutentcU myself with reveling iu the tbougllte ; because I 
wasounvinced that my ideal would not allow even an approach to realiza- 
UoiL. The thought of a comedy with paid prostitutes always seemed to 



me silly niul purpi^scleas ; for a person lilrwl by me Kotitd never talce the 
pliicc ill my iiiinrrinntion of n " cruel misirestt." I doiibl whether there 
am Hnditilii*ally coiiHtittitetl w<>tiu!n likt; Knrhi'r-MASoirh'H httruitiBS. Rnl, 
it' there were eiiuli women, timl I had the furLuiiu ( Ij Iki Ihid duo, alill, in a 
worM of reality, iiitercoiirse witli her would always »eein ouly like n 
farcf to ine. Iiuleed, I c«n say Lljat, wvre 1 to become tlie slave of n 
MesKulinft, I believe that, owini; to the otlitr necessary rennnoiations, 
my desired niaintcr of life would soon patl on me, &nd in my lucid 
intervnls I should trj' to ohLntti my freedom at all hazanls. 

Yet 1 linve found a wny in which to induce, in a ccrtJiin seose, a 
realizHtiOD. Aflvr toy sexual desire Iiila heen intensely excited by revel* 
ing in my fiuioy, I go to » prostilut* ami there cnll up before my tinnd'« 
eye, with great intensity, some seeno of the kind meEitioned, in which I 
play the priiicipiil r6le. After thinkin*; uf such a situntion for nbont 
half an hour. iritFi n constantly resulting en>i:Linn, I perform cuitus nitli 
increased lustful pleasure and stronj; ejaculation. After the iotter, the 
vi«icn fiules awHy. Anliiimed, I depart as i|uickly ns putt^ible, and try 
not to think of the nffnir. Then, for abont two weeks, 1 have no more 
anch ideas ; indeed, after a porticiiliirly satisfactory coitus, it mny happen 
thnt, until tlic nest attack, I have no sympatliy wlinti'vcr with masoehistie 
ideas. But the nest attack is auru to ccune snuiiur or later. 1 must, 
however, state that I also havft coitus without being prepared by Bucli 
ideas, especially, too, with woiueu that are acquainted with me and niy 
position, and in whose pret*ence I abhor such fancies. I'fidtr the laU«r 
eircumstances, howemr, I am not alieay* potent, white, with maiiochigtic 
ideati^ my virility ia perfect. It does not seem superfluous to add that 
otlierwise, in my thought aud feeling, [ am very lesthctic, and despise 
anything like miiltreatmeut of a liunmii being. Finally, 1 will not leave 
uuutentioned the fact that the form of address is of importance. In my 
fancies it in eseeutial that the " niistreirs " address me in tlio liecond per- 
son (yjTi), while I must ndilrews her io the tliird (Ste). Tliis oircum- 
atance of being thus familiarly luldressed (Du) by a person so inclined, 
as the expression of absolute mastery, has, ttom my youth, given me 
lustful pleasure, and does to>dny. 

I had the fortune to Qnd a wife who is in everything, but especially 
aexually, attractive to me ; though, as 1 scarcely need say, she iii no way 
resembles my masochistic ideal. She is gentle, but proud ; for without 
the latter chnracteristie I cannot conceive such a thing as sexual charm. 
The first few months of mftrncd life were normal sexually ; the mAao- 
chistie attacks did not occur, and I had almost lost all thought of maso- 
chism. Then came the Qrist conlluemcul and the necessary ubstineuce. 
Punctually, then, with the occurrenoe of libido, camo the mitsochistio 
fsncies sgain, which, in spite of my great love for my wife, neceHsitate<l 
coitus with another, with the accompaniment of masochistic ideas. It 
is here worthy of note that coitus maritatix, which was later resumed, 




did Dot prove sufficient to banish Ihv ninsocliistic iileiu). kb maflocliiattc 
coitus nlwn^'K (1<h*a. As Tor tite ettHeiitinI clcuieiit in ii)us*)ti)iieiii. I am 
uf UiH opinion timt Ibe idtfuit,— i.i'., llie mental element, — arc the. eiitl 
and aim. 

[f tlie renliKation <>r tlie niB»n(!liiHtic ideas (t.i^., jma^irc tlAgeltation, 
etc.) be tlie desimd cud, tUcu it Is iu oijpositiuii tvitli tlie tact that Uie 
majority of mnsocliists never attempt rcaliziitioti ; or, when this is 
att4-tttpt«d, great dii«appoiutmc'nt occurs, or nt leiist tbe desired satislkc- 
tion is not olitnined. 

Thus the reveling in iinaf;ination is the principal thing; and^ in Tact, 
this gires an unept'okablo dclijirht that takoa iCA Aiiliject l}e>-ond external 
Utingii, beyond nil troiibtcs and oiiixs. 

I It is an astonishiii<; Tiict that there is an author, who, insteiid of 

keeping them tu htaiself. as others do^ diHCloBvH his imHiriimry idenU to 
the world in novels and romances. In " Venus in Furn," wo firiil llituie 
that are like us in feeling, — wonl for irord, line for line, are expressed 
the fdeAA so faniilLir to ns, which we believe to be our own exclusive 

UnLil tlieii I did not think it |K>s^iIile that, ttic^re could be. in any 
otbur brain than mine, the lu^^tful thought of binng bamesKed to a plow 
and made to work like a drRught-borse. 

And the ill-temper of the niistrerts to be served at the toilet and 
bath; tbe imprisonment, — ah, huw f»uiiliar such ideas are to us from 
chitdb'KMl t 

Therffore, porliaps by reason of tdiFi open disclosure of things that 
abouid t>e FU^cret, tlio rcndin}! of lids lM>ok shocks mu<{ochists, undeceives 
them, and exerts a curative iiitlucnoo. 

Finally, I should mention that, according to my experience, the 
number of maeuchists, v8|H:ciaIly in large cities, st^eitis tu bu quite Inrjj^. 
Th« only sources of such information are — aince men do not reveal 
thinfR — words of prostitutes; and, »lnc<s they a^^ree on the casen- 
Ipoints, it nuiv he concluded that coitnin facts arc proved. 

Thus there is the fact that every experienced proHtitnte Is aociis- 
tomod to k<H!p some suitable iimtrumcut (iistially n whip) for llagelhition ; 
but it must be remembered that there are iiien who have themselves 
whipped Rimply to increase their sexual pleasure; who. in contnwtwitit 
uasocbiets, regani Ha^eltation as a menus to an end. 

On the other hand, almost all prontitiitcn agree that there are 
many men who like to play '* nlave," — i.e., like to be 6i> callnl, and have 
themselves scolded and trod upon and liealen. As bus been said, the 
Dumber of masochists is larger than has yet Iwen dreametl. 

As you can imagine, reading the "New Investigations"' made a 

1 Tbe author'*" Nnie Poractiiigiceii »vTA. Gclilctd. rejrIinpalhU ScxuilU." Slotk 
Kut. 1801, wlilehU, for tUt[na»t]i*rt,lBcoriion>l(yl iu tbteedlUoaof "PsTchopalUa Sax* 



great iinpivoiiofr on mp. I ^lidiild like to hn-ve fnitli in » euro, in n In^ioal 
cure, so to 3pp.ik, in juu-onlnnt-c witli the moUo : •• Tout c'Oiiii>reii(ire cVst 
tftiit f^ti^rlr." (To iindi^rtt-Fiiitl nil is to uiiri' nll.^ 

or course the wim-i) cure ia lu bu Lukvii with mmiv. liiiiiUliou, and 
Uiure must !»« n climiiictiitii niaile Uetwetii genfral ft-eliityH niiJ concrete 
ideas. The rormtir con never I>e overc<>me; tlie>' coiuw lil<« n »tr<jk« of 
lighlninp, «re there, ninl one dooa not know wlii-nee or how. 

But IhiM prnrtict- of iiinAiichi<im in im»gihAtion, hy riicnn» of con* 
creC«, ft-woeiate*! idoas, can Ijc nvoidetl, or nt Icnst pnstricted. 

Now the tiling is cliaiiyed. 1 wiy to inysfll': What! you busy your 
mind witli t)iin<;» wliicli not only Liii) u^stLii^tJi; svimu of others, hut also 
your <iwn, itiKa|>[ii()V4!!i? You rv-^ard thnt as bvnutiroi niid dc^imhle 
which, ill yoiir own jiidKincut. is nt once uiily, coarse, silly, and impo«- 
nilile r Yoii lon^f for a ftitnntion which in rtJility yon can novt-r obtain F 
This oppoxiii!; idra Uns nil imniiTliutc inhibitory and nndrf^'ivinj; elfect, 
anil tnkc^ the edge off the laticy. Too, since reading the " New In- 
vvsligation.s " (early tiiia year), I have nctimily not reveled lit my 
fftnuy once, thutigli the tnAHochistic teiideiiey lias oconrn^ with regu- 

I mnst nlw> confess that, in spite of its mnrked pathological char- 
■cter. m!V«i>(>liiKi[i ih tmt only inc'a]>!iblfe of d««tr«yinj; my pleiiKuru In life, 
but it does not ill T-lie leant attVct my outward life. Wlien not in n iiia«o- 
ebistic »t:ite, a.» far as feeling ami action are concerned, I am a perf*!Ctly 
normal man. Pnring lIii; activity of the masochifttie tendencies there i«, 
of course, a (ireat revolution itt uiy feeling, hut my oiitn'nrd m:uuier of 
llfcHiiircrtt no cliange ; 1 have a calling tliat niiiUcs it necessary for rae to 
move much in public, and I pursue tt in the maHochistic condition ns 
well »K ever. 

The author of the foregoing lines also sends me the foUow- 
iug notes : — 

I. Masochism, according to my experience, is, tinder all circum- 

Htancps, conjieuita), and never a(r([iur<Nl by the indirtdunK I hnow pn^i' 
tively that I was never a|)nnkcd; that my nirLiocUistic ideas wert- niaui- 
lestvd from my earliest yonth ; and that, as long aa I have been cjk|mble 
of tliinkiiig, I liavu liml siieb tlioughtn. If the origin ol' them had 
been the rewiilt of a |mrti('iilnr ett-nt, especiHliy of a beating, I should 
certginly not have forgotten iL It 18 clmractGiistie tliat the ideas were 
]>reseiit lM?forc tliere was any libido. At that time the ideas were nbao- 
hitely sexless. I n<nieinlicr that, whuit a buy, it nirpcted (not to say 
excited) me intensely wlieii nn older boy addressed mo in tlic second 
jwrson ( Dii), while I spoke to him in tlie third (•Si''). I would keep up n 
oonversntiou witii him, and have the exehaugtt of .address take place as 
often a.1 possible. Later, when I had become more mature aexually, such 



tUiniiCA afTecttxl mc only when iliey occurred witli a iDiu-netl wonim, und 
one relfttivety old. 

2. Fbysically and inentalty I am in all i-espoctK mn.sciiline. I bare 
a liuperubundiuit gruwtli oi' Ixiart), niid iny wliolv Imdy is very bairy- In 
my rclatioiis to the fenutle hbx tliat am nut niaKOvliiHlic, tbe duuiinaling 
po«ition of lb« man is uii iuiltHpvu&ililu coadiliun, and any altutu|il to 
cbaiige it would me«t with roy energetic opposition. I am cucrgeliu, if 
not over-courage<iUJi ; but Ibo waol o( couragu in not latinirext when iiiy 
pi-iilo i« iiijuted. I am not Aensitive to events tn nature (tbuuder-ittorms, 
storms at sea, utc.).' 

Tuo, my toaHochietic tendencies have nothing feminine or effemt- 
nnUi about thuin (7). To bu stire, in tliese the inoUnation to be sougltt and 
dtisiretl by the woman is dumiuant; but the ^ntral relation deaii-cd 
with her in not that in wliivh a nouian stands to a man, but that of tbe 
slave to tbe master, tlie donu'sUu animal to its owner. If one regards 
tbe altininte aim of maAocbiam witbotit prejudice, it must l« acknowl- 
edgoil that its ideal is tbe poailion of a dog or home. Both are owned 
by nia-sterH, and punished by them; and the masterK are reapunsible to no 
one. Just tills iinlimiteil power of life and deatli, as exercised ovor 
atavcH and daiiicntic animula, is tbe end and aim of all maHdchiftie idi>as. 

3. The foundation uf all mitsocbistie ideas is libido ; and tis ihi» ebbs 
•od flows, so do tbe masochistic fancies. On ttie otlier hiind. as soon a» 
tbe idea* are pretmnt, tbey ^ruatly iiitensiry the Libido. I am by uo 
means exce^Hively sensual iintiiri(Hy. lIowev»-r, when tht- niasofbintic 
ideas occur, I am impelled to coitus at any cost (fur the most part I am 
driven to the lowci^t women); and if these impulHeH arc not soon obeyed, 
libido ftoon iKircuines almost satyriasis. One is almost justified in look- 
iug upon this as a circulun vidos^iit. 

Li)>ido uccun» either in the cuurse of time, ur as the result of espe- 
cial excitement (also uf a kind that is not maHOehistic, — e.g., kissiit^). 
In spite of its manner of oripin, Ibis Mliido, by virtue of tbo mHS4)Cbi>itie 
bleas it engenders, is soon transformcil into a nioaocbistic and impure 

Moreorer, there is no doubt that external, accidental iniprcssions, 
particularly loitering in tbe streets of a large city, greatly intensify tbe 
desire. Tbe sight of lieauliful and imposing female forms, in nalurt m» 
well as in art, is exciting. For tlioae aulycct to maaocbixui, — at least 
during the attacks, — the whole oxteniMl world Lecomos masochistic. 
The box on the car admlnisteri'd by tbe teacher to tin- pupil and tbe crack 
of tbe driver's whip make deep impressions on tlio masocbist, while tbey 
leave him indilfercnt or anuov him wlieii he is not in tbe masochistic state. 

* Till* dUTrtvDce of cournffv U» llie fave uf ev«nW In na(ur«>. on tlio ouc luiiid, hm] 
In the Ikicv of pcraniuil cnnOlct, on lh>i nihcr, l» rprtnhily rftriirkithlo (oimp. Cue 41), «t«d 
Utougb It U the wily Indicatiou of cffciuluMtluu iu«iiLluiiriJ iu Uil> tutt. 



4. An eXRtnple of masoobistio idene foUowB: " SUe " it» a peasant 
woman, — a rough, tall, Urge-ltoiied woman or forty or fiHy years. She is 
lUe possessor of s. small, remote farm, which slie work« with the help of 
her slave alone. The work hegins liefore suurisc. At four o'clock in 
the morning she opens the shed where she has kept me shut up over 
iit^hb, aixl wakens mf,us I liu on Lbc ground, with a kiok ; then slie leads 
mo out ami hiirncsses me to » milk-cnrt bouiul lor town. She lewis me 
by a halter, and urgeM ine along. On the road she gvta on the heavily 
loaded wagon, and sleeps until the destination is reaclietl. There, in the 
0|>cn mnrket-plaee of the town, still linrncsBtHl tt» the wngon, I lie down 
on the hurc ground to rest. Those passing knock ngaiiist me or step on 
me, without giving nte any nttentinn. After the stock is Bihtd, wc stnrt 
hontewanl. After u short reftt the work begiua ogHtti^ always undur 
the direction of tUu mistress, who holds me hy the baiter and urges me 
ou. At seven or eight o'clock at night lam put up to rest, and sleep 
until the next morning, when the same thing begins again. Work and 
blow«, blows and work ; no plensure, no recreation, dny In tind day out! 

Another time I fancy myself in the rCle of a paid lover of an 
elderly female roue, who makes use of rae, Ri'xually, in the most reckless 
manner; and in thiH directluri makes the inoiit shuuieful denuitidn on me. 
If I do not submit to these willingly, 1 nm beaten and punished ; and, at 
the same time, she denpises me un»[>eakably ; gire» me the lowent house- 
work to do; and ou every occasion shows me how low an opiuiou sli« 
has of niy manhood. 

I cannot clothe the character of masochism in any better formula 
than the following : A real masoeliist, without reflection, prefers the 
kick of a low woman to the enibracc of n Venus. 

5. In reading Sacher-Maitoch , it «truck me that in masochists, now 
and then, there was also an tinderciirvent of •tinhstic fueling. Too, I 
h:»ve nuw ;i.nd then discovered in myself sporadic feelings of siidiitm. 
I must rem.ark, however, that the sadistic feelings are not so marked as 
the masoehisttc; and dial, aside from the tact that they are tnfreiiuenti}' 
accessory, llie sadistic fancies never leiive the sEthere of ahstract feeling, 
and, above all, never take the form of eiuieretc. connected ideas (like 
those above mentioned). The etTect on libido, however, is the same with 

If this case is rcnmrkable on account of the complete de- 
velopment of the p9y*"liical staU? tliat coostitutes, tlic 
following one is noteworthy hecuuse of the fjvent extravau^nce 
of the ants resulliii^ from the pervLTsioii. The iwse is also par- 
ticularly suited to make clear the reason for the subjection and 
humiliation at the hands of the woman, and the peculiar sexual 
coloring of the resulting situations : — 



Caae 61. Matochi»m. — Mr. Z., otncial, aged &0; tntl, ninsciitar, 
liealtbj'. He is said to coiue or henll-by parentage, but bis fatbur wna 
tbirty yost-H uldur tliari bis m<itlii>r. A HiKLer, two years olrler tbari Z., 
BUtTertf witb ili:lu8ioD)< of persiscution. Tberc iit uulblii^ retiiHrkable iu 
Z,'» external up pea ran ce. iSkelvUjn t;ntirely tonsculilie ; abiiuilnQt beiinl, 
but no hair on trunk. lie cbamcterizuK bimsvlf im h luiin of siin^uinu 
temperament, ivbom no one oad depr«tSA ; tbotigb irstscible and quick, 
temperetl, lie is quick to regret outburBts. 

Z. says be bas iievci' masturbated. From liin youth there liave been 
nightly pollutions, iu which girls piny a part ; but the sexual act, uevur. 
Lf or example, be dre:imx that a pleK8iiig woinnn li<.-s heavily on biui, or 
hat. as be lies sleeping on the grasA, slic pinj, fully walks up his back. 
Z. bad always been averse to coitus with a woman. This act seemed 
animal to him. NevertholeBs, be was drawn to women. It was only in 
the society of beautiful women and girls that he felt wcU and in bis place. 
He was very gallant without being forward. 

A volupltious woman of beautiful form, and particularly witb a 
pretty foot, wlicri sftjited, had the power to throw liim into iiiteuw ex- 
citement, lie was impelled to otfer bimnclf ait a chair, in order " lo 
offer so mncb devotion '* A kick, a box on the car from her, would be 
heaven to him. He hail a bormr at tbt thought of coitus with bcr. 
Hu felt the need to serve the woman. Ue thought liuw ladies liked to 
ride. He reveled it) the thought of how fine it would he to bv wuaried 
by the burdeu of a bvautirul wumiui, iu onler to give her jilcaHure. He 
painted the situation in all colors; tbuughtorihe beituliful foot armed 
with Bpurs, the l»oautifuI legs, and the Hoft, full thigha. Every l>eautilul 
mature woman, every pretty female foot, always excited bis imagina> 
tion; but he never liclroyctl the [wctiliar f«'Iinga that i»cemed to hiiu 
abnormal, and was able to control liini.tidr. But lie IVlt no ncwl to figlit 
against tlicm ; on the contmry. It would have hart him bad be bccti com- 
pelleil to give lip the fet-llngs ttiat had hecnme ho dear to liim. 

At the age of Ihirty-two '£■ hxppcned to make the Hcipiaintimee of 
an altmutive womau. age^l twenty-at-vcu, who had been scpitrnlctl friim 
lii-r buHlwind, and whom he found in need. Ue took ber^ and worked for 
bur. without any seltisii motive, for months. Om- evening she imjiatientiy 
drmande<1 aexim! Balittfaeti(»n from hiui, and almost used violence. Coitus 
■jR»ii Bucct-£srul. Z. took the woman, lived witb her. and indulged in 
eoitas moderately ; but coitus was more a buplwu tliau a pleasure; erec- 
tions became wuak, and be ctnild no longer satisfy tlie woman. She 
finally declared that she would nut have intercourse with bim. becau^ be 
oidy excited without srttishing her. TLough be loved the womau very 
much, he conid not give up bin peetdiar fancies. After this he lived 
with her only in fnemlly relations, and deeply regretted that be could 
not serve her in the way nhe de»ircd. 

Fwr of how Bbe would receive his propo«itioD3, and a feeling of 



shame, kept bim f^om confustting. llu romid n <iiibfttitutc in his dreflme. 
Tbns, for example, be dreameti tlint lie was a, proud, fiery steed, ridden 
by a. beautiful \a<\y. Ilu f»)l ficr weight, lliu hit he Iind in otiey, the precti^ 
UK of tlie tbiglis on bis Uuiilis; lie hcftrd bur'iil,Jciyuus vo'iaa. 
The exertion (brew liim into a perspiratioii ; the touch of tlte spurti 
did thu rest, ami ulwnyti indiit'cd pulliitiun vrilb ••real Itistftil pluisuix-. 
At otlii-r ttmeH he ilreaiiUH) ihnt he w.i<t u <tmnll. w<^ik hnrse. Then a. 
large, heavy womnii cnmc and mounted the horse, and act off on a long 
journey in the moiiiitiiiiiH. Recklessly, and without incroy, she allowed 
ibu iKior iiniuiii] to led bur tvuigbt; she luudu liunwll* coiMlbrLahlu 
on bis hnuk; while be threateiivJ to give out UDder her, she had the 
grvnteat enjoyment, atul with calm mind enjoyed the benuliful scenery. 
Under the influence of siicli dreams, seven yenn* &^o Z. overeanie hist 
relactiince, in order to expericnee such things in reulity. He wns Mic- 
ci-Hfifbl in creating »uitiil>le opportunity, tie simiikK of II aa followH : *' I 
knew how to arrange it so that ou nn occasiou she would, of her own 
will, Hetit herself on my lisck. Then I endeiivored to make thitf nituntiiMi 
A8 pleasant as possililt;. and easily tunde it so that on the next oociiTtion 
she Rflid, Kpontnnt'DUsIy : * Come, give mc a little ride I ' SwelHn^i; with 
pride, nnd with both hnndn hraced on a chair. I made my Imck horizontal, 
am! she mounted a^trldi', afler the manner of a man. I Lheu did the U^Ht 
1 could to iiultiite the moveueuts of a horse, and loved to have bcr treat 
Hic like a horse, without any thought of me. She could heat, prick, 
Hcold, or cairesK rut, ju!*t as she fell iu(.liin.i.l. 1 euuld esrry on my bsiek 
persons wei(»hinfl: from sixty to eifEhty kilos, for half or tlirfeH|n«rtert> of 
an hour, without interruption. At the end of this time I uaunlly asked 
for a rest. During this the intcreourae Iictween the mistress and me waa 
perfectly harmless and without any rehitinn to what bar) preceded. After 
about a (piart^r of an hour I w:is alwaya rt^stvd, ainl placeit luyHOlf at the 
dliiposal of the mistress again. When time and cireumstanees allowed it, I 
ilid thi.'i three or tonr times in siicccsKion, It some(inn'H hap|tened tliat 
I ppacti(*<l it both in the nioniirii; ami aflerfinon. AfVcr it 1 never felt 
weary or had any uaeomfortahlc feeling ; but on such days 1 had very little 
appetite. When possLtte^ I liked hcvt to Imre my trunk, that 1 might fuel 
the rider nion* perfW-tly. The nustre>*s bad to Iw d(-ci.'nt. 1 liked her 
hitst in pretty shoes and stoekings, with short, closed drawers, renehing 
to the knee ; with the upper portion of her person eompletely dressed, 
and with hat and'glovu!*." 

Mr. Z. iVulher sayH that ho ha* not performed coitus in seven ycar«; 
but he thinks he is potcuC. The rithng was n perfect atihstitute for that 
" animal act,*' even when ejueulation waa not induced. 

Pur eiE^ht months /. had dutermined to give up his miisochiittic play, 
and bnd kept bis determination. But he thought that if a woman only 
bslf'Way pretty were to addreita him directly, and say, *^ Come, 1 want 
to ride you/' he would not he strong enough to withstand the tempta* 



tion. Z, wishes to know whetlicr liis utinoriDftlity is curalilc; irhctiHT 
lie is iiuwortliy iia a. vidou» limit, or rii iiivtilid dtiSL-rviag pity. 

The ibUowiug case seems very similar: — 

Caae 63. A man ljnd» siitiMfar^tion in the folluwin^^ niAiiner: Occu- 
[■lonally bo goes to it pufllu laibltca. Hore he hojt a porcelain rtTig, like 
thost> Uii4ni ill liuii>;iiig t-iirtiuiisi, pitt on Iti.s penis. Tn'oironlttan; ftUaulied 
tu Uie riug uiiU ilninii li:ickw:inl Itulvreuii liis lejjH iiik.! ntLHobed to tijc 
bvd!»teiul. Ttifu Uu t«lls tliu wumuu to bunt liiiu tui-rcilussly with h whip 
und cry " whua " to liiiii oJiiKttuitly. hikI treut ami nl>uH« bim as if bo 
irrrc nil uiirtily liorsv. The iiiorv tbt- woman h))Ui-m Uim on Ut [iiill, witli 
Blioutii and btoWH, the greater liiH nexiial excitement becomes. Krection 
ticcurs (jirobiibly mechanicully favored by cuinpreM&iuii of tlio donwl 
vciD of the [)enis, wliiub, when ilie. curds Hre strnined, must be closed by 
tbe pretttiuru of tbu bard ring). With incrt'usiti^ urtictiun, the wliole 
member is uompriisscd by tUe rin^;, and Uiially eJaenUitioii occurs, with 
lustful feeling. 

Even in the foregoing series of cases, with other things, 
the act of bring walkcjd upon has played a role as a means of 
expressing tlie miusrirhistic sitiititiniis of IiumiHntion and pain. 
Tlie cxchisive and most extensive use of this means fur perverse 
excitation and satisfaction is shown in the following olassir-nl 
case of mnsorhiam, ^vliieli llanimond reports {op. n(., p. 28) 
from an ohs<Tvatioii by Dr. Cox,' of Colorado: — 

Ca&c> 5S. X.. It model biisbiiud, very mural, llie fiillier of several 
ellildren, bus times — i.e., attacks — in whicli be visits brothelH, elioones 
two or three of the iar;;eHt twirls, and shuts hiraselC up with tbem. He 
bnres the iip|>er {Xirtion of hift body, liet down on tlie Hoor, cm^Mes hi» 
bnndK on Iiin abdomen, closes his eyes, and then hiiii tbe girls walk over 
hi« naked breast, neck.ftnd face, urgiiijr them at every step to press hard 
on his flesh with tlie lieds of their shoes. Sotnetimes he wants h lieuvier 
girl, or some other net still more cruel than this procedure. Alter two 
or three boars he hns enough. lie pays tbe j^irls wilii wiijc and money, 
rubs bis blue brui«e«, dresses himself, pay* hia bill, and gn«3 back to his 
business, only to give himself tbe same strange pleasure again alVr a 
few weeks. 

Occasionally it happens that he has one of the girls stand on his 
cast; and tbe others then turn her arouud uulil his skin is torn and 
bleeding from the turning of tbe beets of her shoes. Frequently one of 

■ ThuuneUDDB of the Colorado Stsb) Medlc&l Sodcty, quoWil lu iha Alleultt ud 
Noorologtot, 1H83, p. SiS. 



tb« f^rU hfts to stand on liim in such a n&y tliitt on« nhue is over tbe 
eyes, with its hetl presBiog; on one eye, wliile Ibe otiier rcsta >cro«9 his 
neck. In tliia {mHitioti lie (>nUures ttie prcnftiire of a person weighing 
about one liunitn:<.l uiiJ tifly puunilH for fuur ur live iniiiuten. The author 
speaiit of dvzeiig of timilar caMtt thai arc known to htm. liaiuiuuiiil 
presumett, witb ruaauii, Ibat tliiit ttuiu liad b«cume iiii|ii>Wnt for inter- 
course with women; lliiit.iii tliift sti-nngc pr(»ct.-ihirv, hv roiint) ui c<iuiva- 
lent for coitus ; nnil that, when the hc<>ls drew blood, he hod plcit^niLt 
bciuhI feelings, accoinpanied by (giLcubitiou. 

Tlie ten cases of masochism thus fur described, and the 
numerous analogous cases mentioned by those who report them, 
form a couutcr[wrt to the pi-eviously described group *'tt" of 
sadism. Just us iu sadism men excite and siitisfy tlicmsclve-s by 
maltreatiu^ n'omen, so in masochism tlic same effect is sou^j^hl 
in the |>assive re<;eptiou of similar abus<!. Bui group "a" of the 
sadists, — that of hist-murder, — strange as it may seem, is not 
without it? cdMutcrpart in masochism. In its extreme conse- 
quences, masochism must lead to tlic desire to be killed by a 
person of the opposite aex, iu the same way that sadism has its 
acme iu active lustz-murdcr. But the instinct of self-preservation 
opposes such a n'sult ; so that the extreme is not actually car- 
ried out. When, however, the whole structure of masochi.stic 
ideas is purely psychical, iu the imagination of sucli individuals^ 
eren the extreme may be reached; as the following case 
shows : — 

Ciute 54. A miildle^nf^ed man, roiirried and tbe father of a family, , 
who baa always led a nomial vita scxiinli^. but who snys Ite comes of a 
ver^' nervoiiH fninily, makes the following er)mniniii<uition : In his enrty 
fontb he was powcrl^illy cxeited uextinlly at lliu sight of a woman 
sUughtering an nuiuinl with a knife. Prom ttiat Lime, for many years, 
he bad reveled in the Lu»tf(diy-<.*ulorud idea of bcin)^ stabbed and cut 
and even Itilled by women with knives, Luter, afler the bo^finniiig of 
normal aexnnl iitt«reourse, these ideas lost completely their i>erverftc 
stimulus for htm. 

This case slionld be compared with the statements made 
under Case 44, nerording to which mi^u find s(-xual pleasure in 
being liglitly pricked with knives tu tlio hands of womeu, who, 
at the same time, threaten them with death. 

Such fancies, [lerhaps, give the key to an understanding of 




the following strange case, for which I am indebted to a com- 
oiumcatiou from Dr. Korber, of Knnkau: — 

Case SS. A lady wakes me tUe foUowing Gommtinlcatloii : While 
Btill a youDg aud ini)o««nt girl, she was nuirrieil to a tnnn or nboiit Lliirly 
yean. On their w«tding-nigbt be forced a towel and ButLp iiiLn Iter 
bandfl, and, without any otliur expre»!tion of love, wfinted her to hitlier 
bU chin and neck (as if for Hhavin<:). The intxiwrieiiced young 
wife did it, and was not a tittle Astonished, during the fii-Mt weeks 
of marrieil life, Lo learn its wtTets in alMolutoly no other form. Her 
Uusband always told her thiit it gave liim tlic greatest delight to have 
Ilia face lathered hy her. Later, after she hud Koi)<'ht t!iL< advice of 
b-iends, she indnced her hualmnd to perform uoilus, and had three chil- 
dren in the course of liniL- (In- him, she slates with every nssiiianucj. The 
hiuhami i» industrious anil reliiible, but a moody man, with little perse- 
ventncti ; by occupatioD a merchant. 

It may bo inferred tliat this mnn conceived the act of l>eing 
sliaved (i.e., the lathering as a |)re{)aratorj' measure) as a nidl- 
mentary, symbolic realization of ideas of injury or death, or of 
fencios about knives; Hkc those the man previously mentioned 
had Iiad in his jonth, and by mean» of wliicli lie had lioen 
sexnally excited and satislied. The perfect sadistic counterpiirt 
to this case, looked upon in this light, is offered by Case 35, 
which is a (ase of synilMilic sadism. 

At any rate, tiiei*e is a whole group of masoehist^ who 
satisfy themselves with the symbolic representations of situations 
corresponding with their perversion ; a group that eorresjjonds 
with group "c" of ** symbolic" sadists, just as the previously 
mentioned eases of inasoehism correspond with the groups "e" 
and " « " of sadism. Thus, just as the |x?rverse longings of tlie 
masochist may, on the one hand, advance to "passive lust- 
murder" (to be sure, only in imagination); so, on the other 
hand, they may be satisfied with simple symholin representations 
of the desinxl situations, which otherwise are expressed iu acts 
of cruelty (t}»is, of course, taken objectively, go(?a much further 
than the idea of being munlewd, but in fact not so far, owing 
to tlie determining subjective conditions). 

"With Case 55. other similar cases should be hen.' described, 
in which the acts desired luid planned by the masochist have a 




putt'ly symbolic c:haractcr, and, to a w.Ttaiu extent, serve to indi- 
cate the desired situutiuu. 

Case &<>. (Paaual, " Igiciic dcir amore."') tlvcry tbreii dioqIIih n 
man of about foit.V'Qve yvB-m would visit n certxiii |]ru»tiliitu, aad imy 
ber ten riiiiic* for tli« folluwin^ net. TLiv piic-ll.-i litul to iiiidreKS biui, Uu 
Ills haiifU Slid fffl, ImiKlngo his eyp.R, ami timw rlii- curtains ol' the wia> 
dows. Tlien slie wouk] Imvc lier guest sit down ou a. softK, Aiid had to 
leave him tlipre nlonc. After half nn hour Hlie Imd to comu hiick niid ati> 
biiiil him. Thvii ihi; man wutiUI [tuy licr mid luuvu (lurfuuLi^' satibllud, to 
repeat his viaic in about three mouths. 

In tlie dark tliis man sooms to have extended tliissituatiini, 
of bL>iii<r helpiesK in the hniidH of a wojnaii, furtlier In itnH<;iii!i- 
tion. 'J'he following rase, in uliirli apiin a romplicratetl comedy, 
lit tlie sense of masoclustic desires, is played, is still more pecu- 
liar : — 

Cnse 5T. (Dr. pRScnl. ibid.) A fjentlemaii in Puris was nuoiistomed 
to call on eui'tain uvoniii},')^ :a a hotitiu where a wumun, tlic uwnur, aceedc<1 
to bis peculinr desire. lie eiiten-d the sahn in follKiress, ami she, 
likewi^win evening fuilettfr,]iiu\ to recei*'t' hi in with r very liHitgbty mnnEier. 
IJtf luldresseU her «s " Mnrquise," and she had to cull Itim "ttear Count." 
Then he spoke af bis good rortuiie in finding her ulone, ol* his love for 
ber, and of a lover's rendezvouH. At thin the lady hnd to feel insulted. 
The psetido-coniit grew bolder and bohler, and ivsked the pKeudo-mar- 
qui»e fur a kits oq her sbouhler. There lit an anj^ry soeiiu ; the l]ell Ib 
rung; a servant, prepared for tbe ouuasion, appears, and throws thci 
count out of the iiniisv. He deimrta well satisfied, and pa^-8 the actors 
in tbe farce handsomely. 

In connection with this case of symholic masocliism, two 
more are here given, in wiiicli the psyeliienl perversion was en- 
tirely confined Co the sphere of thought and imairiimtion, and nu 
realization was attempted. The first is tliat of an individual, 
mentally and pliysiejilly predisposed, bearing degenerative sigiu, 
in whom mental and physical impotence occuiTed early : — 

Case S8. Mr. Z., aged 83, single, was bronght to me by his fbtber 
for medical advice, because be was very nervous and apparently abnor^ 
mal sesnally. Mother and uiaternal gmndmother were insane. His 
father iivgnX him »l a lime when he w»9 sutreriny scvurely nervously. 

Patient is aaid to have been a very lively and talent«d child. At tbe 
Agt of sei-cn he was noticed to practice masturbation. After his cinth 



year be hccnme in»tteiitivo. foi^ctfut, anil did doI progress la bis Btndicft, 
coiislsntly requiring lielp and protection. Witb difficult}- be got tlirough 
tbeGyn)ii»«iuin, iind dtirin-j; bi« time of frMdoin lind attracted attention 
by his indolence, ahitent-niii)dediieH!i, and vanoiis Inolinli acts. 

Con«ultntion was oeuaaloned by an occurrence on the street, in 
whicb Z. bad forced hiaiHeiron a young girl iu n very iaipcttioim mnnner, 
and Id great exdcemcnt bail trteil to have a convei'Halinii wilb her. 

The [Mitieiit g:ivc as ii reason, tti»L. by conversiug witb n respeeUiblo 
girl, he wistied to excite bimtself bo that lie could be potent ia coitus with 
a ))ro»tittit« I 

His father characterizes him at a man of perfectly good disposition, 
mond, but lazy, and dissatittfted irith biniiteir; as one often in despair 
ftbout bis want of eucuess in life ; as indolent, and interested in nothing 
but music, for wliicb he possesses great talent. 

The patient's exterior — his plagioceidi^lic bead ; his large, promi- 
nentearA; the deficient innervation of the right fncinltR nbotit the inoiitb ; 
llie ntiinipalbie cxpressioQ of the eyes — indicates a degenerate, neuro- 
pathic individual, 

Z. 18 tall, of powerful fmme, Rnd, in all respecta, of masculine sp- 
peorance. Pelvis Jiuisculine; testicles well dev«loj»ed ; penis remarkably 
Urge ; mens venertJ! with abundant hair. The right testicle bangs much 
lower thnn the left ; the cremasteric reflex is weak on both sides. The 
patient Is below the average intellecUinlly. He fecU bis deficiency, 
eomplainn of bis indolence, and aske to have his trill strengthened. 
Hifl awkward, emlutrrant^ed mnnner, timid glnnces, nnd rcliixed attitude, 
point to masturbation. The imtieiit confesseB that fn>m his ><eveuth 
year, until n 3'ear and a hulf ago, hn prncticed it, years at a time, fironi 
eight to ten timea daily. Until a few yearn Hgo.wlien lie bei-iiiiie iiennui* 
llientc (ceplmlic pressure, loss of mental power, spinal irritJition, etc.), 
lie says be always found great sensuid plennurc in it. Since then this bnd 
bpen lost. And the deetire to masturbate bnd diHap[>eared. lie had con- 
stantly grown more iKiHliful nnd induluut, less energetic, and nioi'e 
cowardly and npprehcnsitv. lit; hml tif^t interest in evt-ry thing, niid did 
his business only from a sen"** of duLv, feeling very low-spirittd. lie 
bad never thought of coitiut, nnd, fVoni his stand-point ivi an onanist, he 
ooidd not understind how ntherH cnuld find pleasure in it. 

Invcsti(;ationB in the direction of contmry sexual instinct gave a 
negative residt. He says be never was drnwn lowani persona of bis 
own oex ; he rntlier thinkx th»t he has now and then had n weak inelina* 
tiou for fernsles. He assorts thnt he came to ma'«turbnte inde|>endeTit1y. 
Id his tbirteeotb year be first noticed ejaculations as a result of luastur- 
batio manipulations. 

It was only afler long persuasion tbat Z, consented to entirely 
nnreit his vita sexualis. As bin statements, which follow, show, be may 
be classified as a case of ideal masochism, with rudimentary Mdtsm. 



The ]>aLiciit tlistinctty rcmeiubei's that, iit the nge of six, without any 
CAUHC, he lifttl " itlenH of violence." Hf w:im compelled In i]nagiiie that a 
B«rv'uut-^ii'l Hpr*;iid hiM U'gs apart ni)d showed liis gtMiltiiU Ui itiiollier; 
IhAt she tried to Ihi-ow liiin into cold or hot wAter, in order to citiise hiin 
piifn. These " Ideas of violence " ircrc ntt«iiilcd witli lustriil reeling, mid 
bocAiuc the eaiie« of iDtuitiirbntic timiiiiuiliitioii.f. Lnter the iiHlienl. 
called them up vo(iiiit«ril_)-', in order to irieite himself to miisturbution, 
Tliey also ptayeil n port in his dreams ; but tboy never induced pollution, 
apparently IweHiine tlie patient inasturlmted excessively dtirini; the day. 

In linif;, to these m»)«oL-hii4tic*^ ideas of violence," otherMof a ssdiMtic 
natnrc! were added. At rtrat they were scenes in which boys forcibly 
in-arllpcd onanism on one aiiollicr, or cut off i\h\ genitals. ITe often 
ini.igined hiniF<elf snch iv lioy, now in an active, now in a passive, rSle. 
Later he bunied lilniself witli muntal pietnres of girlni and women that 
exhibited themselves to one nnolher. He reveled in the tliuu;^liL, for 
example, uf n. servaiit-^irl Mpreadiujf another ^firl's legs apHit and pulling 
the geiiitid liair; or in the tlioii;rht of boys treating girls cruelly, and 
prioltiiii; .ind pinching tlieir genitals. 

Such ideas also idwiiya induced Rcxiial excitement, btit lie never 
experienced any iui|Kdhe to carry them out. actively or to hnvo thL'ui 
|>erformed on himHetf passively. It satistled him to use them for maslur- 
bntioo. Since n year and n half as^o, with dimininhiuLT sexual imiigiimtion 
and lihiik*. these ideas and impiilsf« had become infrequent, but tiieir 
content remaiiieii nnchnnged. The masochistic " ideas of violence " pre- 
dominateil over the sadistic. Kow, when he ftees a la<ly, ho has the 
thouglit that slie han flcxunl iiloA-s like bis own. In tlnn way, in pnrt, he 
explniuFt Wis emimrnLM>tiiu'iiL in Hocial intercoiirFto. Owing to tlie fact 
that lie hail heard that he would get rid of his ImrdenHome aexual ideas, 
if he were to aeeii>itoni liimHslf to natural sexual indulgence, during the 
la«t year and n ImK lie luis twice coittis though he only 
experienced repuynanee, and waa not confident of success. On l>oth 
occa<)ionn the attempt was a fiasco. The second time he made the 
attempt, he felt flncli aversion that he pu!^hcd the girl away and fled. 

The second rase is the following one. placed at my dis^wsal 
by a colleague. Even tliough it ho aphoristic, it seems partiru- 
lariy suited to throw a clear light on the distinctive element of 
masochism, — the consciousness of subjection, in its peculiar 
psycho-sexual effect: — 

Case 69. Maaochtsm. — Z., a^red 2T, arti«t. He is powerfully built, 
of pleasing appearance, and' is said to be free from hcrediury taint. 
Healthy in youth, since bis twenty-third year he has been nervous and 
inclined to be hypochondriacal. Though inclined to indulgence sexually, 



be ie not rery Tirile. In eptte of a-iiXH^tutionfl with fonAlcs, bin relations 
will] tlium sre limited to iiiiiocenl attviilioDs. At thn Bame time, his 
de»irc lo devote Uittiselflo woiucti Itint are cold towarit litiu iu r«iiuLrk- 
nble. Since bis twenty-fiflli ymr he Iihh noticwt tbHt feniale!i, no matter 
Jiow ugly, alwuys cxcitt- him *exitnlly, whenever lie <:Hscaver8 nnj'tliing 
ilr>mino«ring in tli(.>ir rhArn<rtor. An niigry word from ttie lips of ttiich a 
woman is Hu01cieiit to give him the most violent ercotions. Thna, one 
day. be ftnt in a co/e and huni-d tliu (ti^jly) TemHle cattbier scold thu waltera 
in a loud voice. This tliruw liim into tlic Jiiost intense Rexnal exolte- 
m«ut, wbicb soon induced ejnoulntion. Z. requires the women, witb 
whom he i» to bare seximl intercoiirso, to repulse find annoy bim in 
vurious wnys. He tbiiik.s thiit only » womain like tbe buruiues of Sacber- 
MmocIiV romnncefi could charm lilm. 

Cases like this, in which the whole perversion of tlir> vita 
scxualis is rcinfiiiod to tlie sphore of tmajyiiiation. — to tlic inner 
world ol thouglit and instinct. — and only accidentally romes to 
the knowk-d^' of otJicrs, do not sfcm to be infrequent. Their 
practieai si^iiicanrc, like that i>f mnsorhism in general (which 
has not the great forensic importaiire of sadism), is confined to 
the psychical impotence to which such iuditiduals, as a rule, 
lieixime sul>je(i; and to the to solitary indul- 
gence, with adequate imaginary ideas, and its results. 

That masochism is a perversion of uncommonly frequent 
occurrence is sufficiently shown by the relatively large number 
of Cflscs that have tlitis far been studied scientifitally, as well a$ 
by the agreement of the various statements reported. 

The works concerning prostitution in large cities also con- 
(Aiii nnmrrous statements concerning this matter. 

Leo Taxil {op. rU,, p. 2'28) dn«fribes masochistic scenes in 
Parisian brothels. The man affected with this iK'rversion ia 
there nlso called *' slave.*' 

Coffignon (*' \jA corruption 5 Paris ") has a chapter in his 
lK>ok entitled " Les PassioneKs," which cnnUuns contributions to 
this subject. 

It is interesting and worthy of mention, that one of the 
most celebrated of men was subject to this perversion, and 
describes it in hisautobiograpliy (thongli somewhat erroneously). 
From "Jean Jacques Roussrnn's CJonfessions " it is evident that 
he was affectctl with nmsoehiKm. 



Rousseau, with reference to whose liTe mifl innUdy MShJiiB (" J. J. 
Roui48Caii'A KraTilc«iige»nhic1it«,*' I^cipzi^, IK89) Hiid Chatnlain (" La folte 
de J. J. Rousfieaii," Ncuelidtnl, 1890) inny be consulted, tells, in his " Con- 
fessions" (pnrt i, boob i), how Miss Lambcrcier, Hgcd thirty, gnrntly im> 
prcsBeil liiiu nlieii he wns utglit ycara old ainl lived with her brother as 
his puj>il. iler solicititdc, when he could not inimcd Lately answer a 
question, And her threHts to punish him if he did not learn well, made 
the doepeH inipre8»fion on him. WliCTi,one dfly, lie liad blows at her 
bnnd.4. with the foelin^j of jwiin nml shame, he also experienced ttcnsual 
pleasure that incited a groat desire to be whipped by her again. It was 
only for fear of disturbing the lady, tliat Koussean failed to make <itlier 
oppoi'tiiriilies to expi>rience this luttlfnl, sensual fttGling. One day. how- 
ever, Ue unintentionally gave cause for n whipping nt Misn Lnnil>ercier's 
hntids. This was the last; for Miss Lamltert-ier uio«t have noticed 
soTnethiu^ of the ]>eciiM«r elfect of the pnnistiment ; and from this time 
on she did not allow the eight-year-old boy to sleep in her room. From 
this time Rnn>ipienu felt a desire to have hiinr'clir punished by ladies 
pleasing to him. a la liiitnlmrcier; but he assertu rhut until his youth he 
knew nothing; of the rchiliua of the sexes to e:ich other. As is known, 
Rousseau wn9 firett introdneeU to the real mysteries of love in his 
thirtieth ye."«r, and lost bis innocence throutfh Madiime dc Warrens. 
Until that time ho had liftcl only feelini?« ami impuUns altmcting him to 
woman. In the nature of passive tlagcUation and other masuehistie ideas. 

Rotissean desciibrs, in exfen^o, how lie suffered, with his 
great 8*'xual desires, by reason of his jjeculiar Sfiisimlity, which 
had undoubtedly been awakened by Ins whippings; for he 
reveled in desire, and could not diseloso IiIk loiij^ings. It would 
be crroneitus. Imwever, to siippnse (hnt Kiiusspim wns cnncemed 
mm"ely with flHf;;eI!ation. FlafUflliitiim uidy awakened ideas of a 
masochistic nature. At least, in these ideas lies tlio pKycholo^teal 
nucleus of his interesting study of self. The essential element 
with Rousseau was the feeling of subjection to tiie woman. Thi* 
is clearly shown by the "(^Confessions," in wliieh he expressly 
empha.size.s that " Etrt; nux gcnoux iVww mailreme iinp6rir.tise, 
ohMr a urn ordre«^ avoir ties piiriloHH a lul demander^ — eUiietU 
pour moi de tr^ doiWfm jouissances.'* ' 

This passage proves that the ronsciousness of subjection and 
humiliation before the woman was the most important element. 

< " Tolw nl ihe fcetof an hnpovl'itut lulmrtiM ; to ubey Ikt onlcts ; (o becompelled 
to nte b«r for pardoa,— Uwao tbUigB »n my moat Lnt«nM dollgtit." 



To be sure, Rousseau was himself in error in 8U]>posing 
that this impul»c to be humilinted before a woman had arisen 
by as6tM:iatiou of ideas from the idea of flagellation : — 

" N'osant jamais declarer mon goAt, jc TamusaLS du moins 
par des rapports qui m'en conservaicnt I'idee." ' 

It 18 only in connection with the numerous cases of maso- 
chism, the existence of which has now been established, and 
among which there are so many that are in nowise connected 
with flagellation, showing the primary and pure psychical char- 
acter of this instinct of subjection, — it is only in connection with 
these cases that a complete insight into Rousseau's case is ob- 
tained, and the error detected into which he necessarily fell in 
the analysis of his own condition. 

Binet (/?er«« Anthropolnffir/ut;, xxiv, p. 2oG), who an- 
alyzes Rousseau's case in detail, also jtistly <;alls attention to its 
masochistic significance, when he says : "Ce qu'aime Rousseau 
dans les femmes, ce n'est pas seulcment !e sourcil fronc^, la 
main levee, le rt^rd severe, I'attiUide imperieuso, c'est aussi 
r^tat ^raotionnel, dont ces faits soiit la traduction ext^rieure ; 
i! aimc la fcmmn fierc, dcflaigneuse, I'ecrasant k ses picds du 
poids de sa royale colere."* 

The solution of this enigmatical psychological fact Binet 
finds in his assumption that it is an instance of fctichism, only 
with the difference that the object of the fctichism — i.e., the 
object of individual attracjion (fetich) — is not a portion of the 
body, like a fiand or foot, but a menial pcruliarity. This 
enthusiasm he calls " amour KfnrltunliMte" in contrast with 
" mnour phiAtitfur" as manifested in ordinarj' fetichism. 

This deduction is acute, but it gives only a word with 
which to designate a fact, not a solution of it. Whether an 
explanation is possible will lator occupy our attention. 

There wen; also elements of miLsucliism (and sadism) in the 

■ " Norer ibuini to expnm* in.r di-Mre, I at Ittact jpive tt rcdn under dreODUtiaBM 
thkt t^rved to preacrvp tn tat thr (ill's of It." 

« " What KrtOMWUi love* In wninen i« not nnly the ftoirntnf hmw, the tlin«t«n!tie 
imai, the ui^Ty gliirKv. the tmpcriouji aiUluiIc, bat ft is xleo ihc i.-niutlat)aJ HUte of wblch 
Umk an; llir i>l>)vrttre trMixIntloD ; lii' luves tbe fierce, dlsdaluftil voruu wtio cnuhM hint 
U btr re«C «rlUi the irvlgbt of bor rt^al dlapleoaun)." 



celebrated, or notorious. French writer, C. P. Baudelaire, who 
died in sane. 

Bntidelairc came of an insane and eccentric family. From bis yoiitli 
he was mcutnlly nbnormnl. His ritn scsimlis was ilcuidedly alniuntitil. 
Ilo had Iove-alIair« with ugly, rrjiiilsi^'P women, — negrcssus, dwarfs, 
giaotcssos. About a very lieautiTul wommi,lio cxiirossfd the wisli to see 
lier liung u]) liy Iter bantU, and to kios lier feet. This enthusiasm for the 
nnkcd foot also a])|>e»rs in one of Iiis f£luwiii<; poems as th« equivalent of 
<i«xn;il intltil^ence. He -<uiid women were animals who had Lo be ahutup, 
beaten, and fod well. Tho man iiis|tUying these inaaochistic and sadistic 
inclinations died of paretic Uemcntia. (Lombroso, "The Man uf 

In sRirntitic literature, thn conditions that constitute maso- 
cliism have not r«:eived attention until recently. All there is 
to mention is thnt Tarnowsky ('' die Kninkhatlcn Erscheinnngen 
dos Geschlixrhtssinns," Berlin, 1886) relates that he has kno^vn 
happily marrieil, inlellertual men, who from time to time felt an 
irresistible impulse to subject themselves to the coarsest, cynical 
treatment, — to scoldings or blows from passive or active jxMler- 
asts, or prostitutes. It is worthy of remark that, in Tamow- 
sky's observation, in certain cases blows, even when they draw 
blood, do not bring the result desired (virility, or at least ejac- 
ulation during flagrllation) by tliose g-iven to passive flagel- 
lation. "The individual must then be luidrc^^sed by force, hia 
bands tied, fastened to a Ijeneh, etc., iluring which he fancies 
that he makes opposition, scolds, and pn^teuds to resist Only 
under such eircumstances do the blows induce excitement that 
leads to ejaciUatiou." 

O. Zimmcrmann's work, " Die AVonne des Tjeids,*' I^ipzig, 
1885, also contributes much to this subject,' taken from the 
history and literature. 

Of late the subject has been given much attention. 

> Ui)W«Tcr. ihA dnmatn nl miMrM-htArn Hiiut lio stiBrpl; (IltTcn^nUati'it frnro the prln- 
dpal suhjFcl of that work, vhlrli U, ttitit love contains an fflrmrat of ouffcrlnc. Van- 
qancd liwe Iinii al^vayi b^n tlcwrlbcil an "i>w(H;t, Imt Dorrowail :" ami i)ocu L»rf iii«jk«!ii 
of '* bllMf^ pain " or " jialiifUl IiIIm." T)ii> mtut not, w It Is liy 7.., h<> cQufouaiietl wlUi 
Uw maul rwtaU mis i>t mii»0«ht»in, tinj mem t)iaD the rlinnu'UTl/jiilnn of an nnylnldhi^ 
lover a* "crnnt" kIiouIiI Im. It In n-markublu, liuircvvr, l)>at Ilnui.TlluK ('* Amur und 
Paj^cbe,"tT, Oeaanij) u»ca [icrfi^ct maiocbbUc pktares, flnfcllaUon, etc., U> cxprca* thlft 



A. Moll, in his work," DieC<jutrareSexualempfiiidung,"pp. 
1 S3 and 141 risc^., Berlin, 1891, gives a mimber of cases of com- 
plete masochism in individuals of contrary scxualit)-, and among 
them the case of a man 8uffcriiij< witli contrary wxual instinct, 
who sent written instructions, containing twenty para^nplis, to 
a man engaged for his purpusef who was to treat and abuse him 
like a slave. 

In June, 1891, Mr. Dimitri von Stcfanowsky, Deputy Gov- 
eraraent Attorney in Jaroslaw, Russia, informed me tlmt, about 
three years before, he had given liis atti'iiliou to the jjcrversiou 
of the vita sexualis, designated " masochism " by me, and called 
*' passivism " by him ; that a year and a lialf previously he bad 
preimrcd a |mi>er on the subject for Professor von Kowalcwsky 
for tlic Russian Arcfiifr:>i of Psyciiiotrn ; and that in Noicm- 
ber, 1888. he liad read a i)a]H»r on tliis subject, considered in 
its legal and psychological aspects, before the Legal Society of 
Moscow (printed in the Juridinchen fioien^ tlie organ of tlie 
society, in numbei-s 6 to 8). 

In later fiction the psycho-sexual perversion which forms 
the stibject of this stiidy has been treated by Sacher-Mnsoch. 
whose writings, already frwjuently alluded to, afford typical 
pictures of the jKrversc mciita] life of men of this kind. Many 
affected with this ]iervi;rsi()ii rofer dirtrtly to the writings of 
Sacher-Masoch, as is seen from the foregoing cases, as typical 
descriptions of their own psychical condition. 

In " Nana," Zola has a masochistic scene, and likewise in 
"Eugene Kougon." The latest *' decadent" liteniture of 
Prance and Germany is also largely concenie<l witli the themes 
of sadism and masocliism. According to von Stefanowsky's 
statement, the modern Russian novel frequently treats the sub- 
ject ; but the statements of the writer of travels, Johnnn Georg 
Forstcr (1754-179-1), show that tliia subject also played a rdleia. 
Russian folk- songs. 

(b) Fftni- ami Shoe- Fe.iirhiafu — Lor^mted Mosockiifm. — Fol- 
lowing the above-mentioned group of "symbolic" masochists, 
who do not exactly <lesirc abuse by women as the means of ex- 
pression of subjection, but all kinds of silly acts that can be 



iindcrstood only tftrougli an acquaintance with the masochistic 
circlf of ideas, ctimes llic very numerous <;las8 of foot- and shoe* 

By feticliists {i\ infra, 3) I understand individuals whow 
sexual interest is coufineJ exclusively to jmrts of the female body, 
or to certain portions of lomale attire. One of the most fre- 
quent forms of this fetiehism is that in whicli the female foot or 
shoe IB Ihc leticlu and becomes tlio exclusive object of sexual 
feeling and desire. It is highly ])robable, and shown by a cor- 
rect classitication of tlie observed <ases, tliat the majority — and 
perhaps all — of the cases of shoe-fetichism rest upon a basis of 
more or less conscious masocliistic desire for self-humiUation. 

lu Hammond's case (Case 53) the satisfaction of a maso- 
chist was found in being trod upon. In ('asea 44 and 4H, 
they also liiul tlioniselves trod upon ; in Case 51, eqmts erotimu!, 
ihe jirrson loved a woman's foot, etc. In tlie majority of (»ses 
of ma!<ochism, the act of being trod upon with feet plays a 
part' as an easily accessible means of expressing the relation 
of subjection. 

Of the numerous established cases of shoe-fetichIsm, the 
following one, rcpoi-tod hy Dr. A. Moll, of licrlin, which corre- 
sponds in many res|)ects with Hammond's case, hut whicli is 
deseribcil in more detail and more carefully observtnl, seems 
especially suited to show the couuectiou between masochism 
and shoofctichism: — 

Gft«e CO. O. L., nged 31, book-keeper in a city of Wurtemburg; 
comet) of n Itiinlcd fninily. 

Tlia pfit.ient is !v Inrire. itowprfiil mini, or rtirltly np|iRnrnncc. In 
general lie is of a iiuitl, lumptTutui-Mil, Lml may Iweome very violent on 
occniiioii ; lie tuiytt Iiiiiii<t-ir lluil Ue \» (jiinrieUoiiie tuul luelincd io uissert 
biniReir. L. in of tv kirHlly diHpositinn :in<l (;en«>ri>uH; eHitily tnnde to 
weep. At !ictiool lie ptissed for n tnleiitpd pu|>il, witli good powcni of 
com pre lien Hi on. Tlie patient n^. rimpH hns coiipe3tioii of the licnd. but ia 
(itlicrwiKe licnlthy. oxocpt tli»t ]ic is iniicli deprt'K^ed and melancholic as 
a result of Ills fteximl perversion. Iicre to be dct!cri1)ed. 

But little cnn be learned of nny lieretlitary taint. 

1 HtB dB*ti« to br tnit] npmi alMiociuara lu religiotu <;iilJiuala«U (cump. Targ«4}«W| 



Tlie rolloving facta concerning the derclopment of his sexusi lifo 
are gathered from tbe |ifttient*5 own statements: — 

111 Vi-ry early youtli^iii lUct, when lie was eight or nine ycflrs old — 
L. liad tliu desiru to lick hU li-aeUer's boots liku a ilo^. L. ihinku it pos- 
sible that this tbought vhh excited in liim l)y his ouce si-cing a dog 
avtiiaily do tlii«, but he cantiut state t)iii« with cc-rtainty; iirid it xeeios 
tnacb more cerUin to the t>atient that the tirst ideas of this kind came 
)u a waking statu, not in droatns. 

From hiH tenth to liis foiiitcenth >'eAr be constantly sought to 
toneb the HhoeH oT his rellow-piijiitH, niiil almj thoHc of little girls; bat 
for tliiii |>urL>usu iiu always uhu^ buys who had vri>althy lunl |rroiiiinent 
p«rcDts. One of these, tl»e son of a rich landed (>ro|metor, liad liUiiig- 
bDOt«; ID tbu boy's absence L. tvok these in hiR IihikIs, Htnick himself 
with thtfm, Aiiil pressed them n^nin^t his fiice. L. did tJie same thing witb 
the elegant Itoots of aii ofticer of <lnigooii<t. 

After the iHJginiiingorpulierty the desire WHS transferred exclusivelj 
[tbe boota of feniales. Thus, while skating, the |Kiliunl's attention wan 
tirely occupied witli putting on and taking oil* skates fur ladies ; but he 
always chase only such wumen us were rich and prominent aociaUy, wear- 
ing elegant Ixtots. In the atrcct and everywhere L. constantly looked for 
elegant boots. His lore for them went so far tlint be oHen put in liis 
purse, and even in his mouth, the sand and mud that bore their imprints. 
As a boy of fourteen L. visited brothels; and he often visited a cafe 
cAantant solely to excite himself witti the sight of elegant bnotKOow sboeii 
were less attractive). In his setiool-books mid on the walls uf closets, 
L. drew boots. In the theatre be saw nothing but the shocb of the hulies. 
For hours at a time, in tbe street and on buard steHm-bi>ats, L. would run 
after ladies wearing elegant boots; and lie tiioii<;lit with delt;;]itnf jiow 
he might get a chance to touch Che boots. Tlii» peculiar luve lor luota 
remains unchanged. The thought to kai>e himself trod upon bij ladiea in 
thffir hitotg,or lo kiM thf. hontu, ifiveii L. the mont t7J('n»« Hf.niiual defighL 
Before shoe-stores he will sinnd and t^tand, merely to look at the boots. 
He is particularly excited by tbeir elegance. 

The jmtieiit pref^^rs highbiittoned or laced boots with high heels; 
but less elegant boots, even with low heels, also excite bin), if their wearer 
js & wealthy, distinguished, and proud lady. 

At the a^ of twenty L. attempted coitus ; but. " in spite of tbe 
greatest efforts," as be believes, he was not successful. During the 
attempt the patient bad no tbought of shoes ; on the contrary, be bad 
first sought to excite himself sexually witb shoes, and be asserts that 
too great excitement was to blame for his want of success in coicn.i. Up 
to this time.lieing thirty -one years old, he has attempted coitus only four 
or five times, and alwayit in vain. 

On one occasion the patient, already much to be pitied od account 
of his disease, had the misfortune to contract syphilis. In reply to the 



question hk to what ha rrgnrxltid eih tliu most lutiLfiil act, the patient said i 
" It is >ny grtatext Jeliyht io tie naked on the Jloor and fiavit mi/set/trtfd 
vpon by girU \cvar\n<j eterfant bootg ; but, of coiirne, this is possible only 
in brotliels." Moreover, acconlinjj to the patient's stiitcmvuls, these 
mxurI perversions of men Are well known in many hous^ts of proRtitii- 
tfon, — a proof Ihtit these arc not bo very infrequent. The prostitutoa 
call tbeae men " bout-lover«." But the patient has only very infi'e- 
qiienllj' liad Itifj IiiHtful uut avtimlly purluroiecl, notwicbstandiiif; tliu fuut 
that it is most bcautil'iil and pleasant to hini. The patient has no 
thought* that in)]>cl to intvrt-onrse ; at le-aat. not in the Henae of im- 
tnissio penis in vagina,— an act that nflfords blm no pleasure whatever. 
Indeed, he has gradnally developed a fear of coitus, which may be 
siidlciently explained hy liis nuineruux untiueueKHl'nl attempts; fur tln>. 
patient aaya himself that his iimbiUty to cumpk>te coitus emburrasited 
him exceedingly. The patient has never i)meticed real ouanirim. With 
the exception of a few occasions on which the patient .tatialled his 
flexual desire by onaniam with boot-*i or in a ainiilar way, he id innocent 
of such Batlsfactioii ; for, In the excitement with boots, there is scarcely 
ever anything more than erection ; at moat, only a flight discharge of 
Htiid talti!H plauB tiluwly, which the patient takes to be semen. 

Simply A shoe, worn by no one, excites hiin when he scea it, but 
not nearly as intensely an when it ia worn hy a woman. New ahoed that 
have not been worn excite him much less than those that hare been 
used; but they must he fi-ec from wear and look an new as possible. 
Shoes of this hind excite him the most. As has been ttaid, ladles' boots 
excite him when they are not on the feet. Under such circnraalnnces, 
in fancy, L. ci-catca a lady for them; h« presses lliem to lii» lij^a and on 
his penis. Tie would " die with delight " if a proud, respectable lady 
were to tread upon him witli her ahoeo. 

Aside from the previonsly mentioned chamcteristica of tlic women 
(pride, wealth, social prominence), wliieli, in connection with the elegance 
of the lioot», conittittitu an esiwcial «timnlci», the |f»tient is by no means 
indilferent to the phyaical charms of the femnie oex. He is enthiisiasUc 
nlmut 1>e^:nitiful women without tliinkini; 'it boots, but this love is not 
directed to sexual satisfaction. Tiic bodily charms play a part even iu 
connection with the boots ; a homely old woman, even wearing the most 
elegant boots, cannot affect the patient. Tlie rest of the attire and other 
circum(«tHnce!t also ]>lny nn uss(;ntiMl rule, Vit is shown hy the fact that 
elegant boots worn liy proud, distinguished women especially excite the 
pntient. A common scrvant^glrl, in her working.4lrcsa, even in the most 
elegant shoes, would not excite him. Men's shoes and hoots no longer 
alfect the patient; and be n&ver in the altghtent degree feels himself 
attractcil tn men sexually. 

Yet the patient lias erections very easily. When lie taltes a obild 
in his lap, when he pats a dog or liorac for some time, when he travels 



on the cars, or irlieo he rides, — erec-tions occur. In the latter cK»e be 
thinks it is ilii« l'> the shaking, lie U»» erections every morning; and 
lie Clin indncL- erection in a very short linio hy tbinking of tlic act with 
Ijoola ihtit ia so pleasing tu biiu. Pollutions formerly occurred fre- 
qtieutly ml ni};lit — abuui every three or four weeks; now they are mora 
iiifrequeul, ueeurrint: ou«e ahuijt every lliiee nUMith». 

Ill his erotic (ii'eniu» the |mlienL i^ tUuiost iilwiiyit seximlly cxvitcd 
by the saute thouy;ht« Ihnt excite liini in the waking state. For nome 
time lie thinks lie li.a!4 felt t-jnciilntioti during erection ; Ijiit lie ilruws this 
coticlodiun only from feeling & little moisture aI tiie end of tlie penis. 
Books touching the sphere of the piiLient'» sexuni ide^is especlnlly excit« 
hitu. Thus, in reading: " Venus in Furs,"' by Sacliei'-Miisofli, he is so 
excited ''that the semen just ruiia away from him." Moivover, with 
L., this kind of ejnuiilation, while rending, is a decided siitisfuelioti of 
his sexual desire. My question, whether lilows received from n woman's 
iinnd would also excite him. the (tatienr Ihinki^ lie would have to answer 
in the alUrmatWe. The patient hiis never made nny »ucli trial, hut play- 
(bl taps hod, at any rtite. nlways heen very pleasing to him. 

It would ilfonl the patient a iKifticuhirly intense pleasure if he 
were to be kicked by a woman, even without mIiim«, and with Imre fei't. 
He does not think that the blows, as such, wuuid cause the e&cjteuient, 
bat rather the thought of being maltreated by a woman ; and tbiM might 
follow scolding as well as actual blows. Bi-sidt-n, blows mid cro** words 
had an exciting etl'ect only when they eamt? from a proud niul distin- 
gained lad}'. In general it is the /eettiig n/ humiliation and atavith 
tniya'ti^m that gives the psitU-nt Iin-tfiil jiU-aHuri'. " Were n lady," the 
patient tells me, "to comniaiid nie to wait ou her,cvcn with ditttant cold- 
ne«>8, 1 should. nevurthLde«tf. feel setiKunl pleusuru." 

To the iiuestion. whether with I.oo|h the feeling of humiliation came 
over hira. the patit-nt anawers : " I think th»t this geiu-ral pasHiim fur self- 
humiliation ban been conccntrateil es|«*cially on ladies' boots; for it is 
symbolic of uih-'a lieing * ntiworthy tu loonen the Iiilchet of another's 
shoe'; and. iKisidet^, a subject kneels." 

Women's 8t(»ckiiigs alst> have an exciting etlW't on the [Mttii'Dt, hut 
only to a aliglit extent, and perhaps only throtigb awMkeniug an ide* of 
boots. The ])atieiit*s jmwiion for Iniliea' bootit had constantly increased, 
but of late yenrs* he tlinnirht he had naticwl a diminution of il, lie 
seldom viaits pubiic women, and in also more mpaiilc of self-rcHtmint. 
Yet this passion still rules him absolutely, and every other pleoaure is 
spoiled by it. A pretty female boot could attract his glance from the 

* III ihU rfory thr wHler iIirwriLcB a muii wliwe gt^alMt plouurv 1I« In bclns 
IrrMUd llk« a tlt^re by a. brHiilfnil wmiinti, wbinn tm Invrs. Itciit>If« Doioorouft kc«i)i?s III 
wbti-h Dip mmn In whtiijinl by tin- wnitmii, there nie utiiont !n whk-li lio Ik trijj upim Ijy h«r. 
Il U ihU act lb«t fotn> Uir jiHiiflpAl n>i:aiw «>r oxcltcnifiil In Ifae c&ae above datcrlbcd. 



most boflutlftil lantlficAiH.-. At tht' prrtient timi- hr aften gnps almiit Ht 
night in the corrUlunt of ]iotels,< siH'king cti'^nt ]ndii'»»' ehoi's, which be 
kissee ami prt-JiHitH agiiinKl his fuci.- uiid ni^k, Imt |irim;i{uilly Hgniimt hiB 

The patient, who is very TreU-to-<lo, n short time ago went rolun* 
lariiy to ItalVt only with thi* tliou;;lit of Ixt^oiiiinj!; tiir !*vrv;itit of n rich 
anft <1u^ti»/|!uish(^cl Indy uttac'|uiunteil with him; liut ttie plftn [ailed. The 
patitmt, who camo onlf for consultatiou, bus not yet been treated 

Thu fore^roing history nmcbt-'s almost to tbu present tfn)e,uid in thu 
iatervul he Uilb nuide me eomniunicutionH by letter eoucuminij bU condi- 
tion. It does uot reipiire nii extuiiniive cuiiuiti'iil'itry. It :«vi-in>i lo nie to 
be one of the best i'A»i-» to ilhistmt^' the i-f-littionship l>etween shoc- 
fctichism and masochiam, a» set forth by vou Krarlt-IOlilng.' The princi|>al 
(rharin for the [>atient, am hi-, witbont leiulin<; iiuei^tion.i, nlwayt^ em- 
|>hnsize8, Ih his Hubjt^tkin to a woman, who, In pride and poKiliuu, uiusl, 
be aH far above him. as possible. 

Such caseSf in which, within a fully-developed circle of 
masochistic idtsis, the foot and the shoe or boot of a woman, con- 
ceived as a m<!ans of humiliation, have b(?come the oI)jecta of 
esjH^eial sexual interest, are numerous. Tliroui^h numerous de- 
grees that are easily discriminated, tliey form the demon«trable 
transition to other cases in which the masochistic incliuatious 
retreat more and more to the background, and little by little pass 
beyond the thresiiohl of consciousness; while the interest in 
women's shoes, apparently absolutely iuexplicablu, ulonc remains 
in consciousness. The latter are the numerous cases of shoe- 
fetichism. These verj* frequent cases of shoe-lovers, wliich, like 
all cases of fctirhism, possess forensic int(?rest (theft of slioes), 
occupy a position midway between masochism and fetichism. 
The majority or all may Im; looked upon na instanaw of Inrvated 
masochism (the motive remainuig uiicouscious) in which the 

■ Id ContlDCDUl hotel* Ui« gncita are Mcuitomcd to pat tbdr iIimii In tha conUon 

At night, to bo rli-Aiifri]. 

> ItoiTovcr. A^lDat tlie tbaorr th«t foot- and sbue- frtJclilHn Is a mAnireetaUon of 
<iat4-Dt) msKiclilfiu, Dr. Moll («j). eO., p, 134) mUtw ibe ubjectfun Hint it In stUl imex' 
pUiii'Wl wlix tl>e feUvblit eo otWa prefers boot* wUb lil|;b bo«li, Uieu bvuts auJ shoe* of ■ 
particular kind — biitti>n«<l nr Urrd. Tci Ibla objpi-tlim it may >><■ TPniarknl Ihftt, In th* flnt 
place, tJic lil):b hwU c1ianicleri» lli« abiNra aa fenilulinu : »ud, lu tlif •«coiid place, IhuL ]n 
aplleof Uieaviual cbaracl«r of hU ibcliaallou, Uic feUdiUldefiuadt *J] kind* of nathotlc 
quKllUa \a l)U fetlcb («ofDp. Cau ilO). 


/etniile foot or sfioe, tw the masocfUat's fetich^ ha^ acquired an 
iBclcpendcnt ugnificauce. 

Next come two cases in wliich the female shoe possesses 
a subordinate iutcrest. but iu which uumistakable masocliistic 
desires play an imjiortaut part (comp. Case 44) ; — 

Case fil. Mr. X. aged 26, pHrcnls hcaltliy, never stick Wlbre, places 
tlw following autobiogrnpliy at ni_y disposal: "I began to practici-onanifini 
at Ibe ago of ten, witbuiit t^vur haviii*; any hmtrul llioiighct* dtiring 
tbc aut. Yet ut tliat time — I iitu suru uf tbiii — tlit »igliL ami ti}ii<;]i of 
girls' elegant boots bad a peculiar cbnno for oio ; my greittt^l. itt^eiru 
wns nisoto wear »>ucli «hoe«, — a wish tbat KHsocciwioiially fultilled tit luiis- 
r^ucmdcs. Bnt I wna also ti-oiiblcil by a very (UtTereiit tbouglit : My ideal 
was to aee mt/ael/ in a pointion of humiliation ; t would yladUj havt been 
a (Jutv, and wbippetl ; in abort, I wiabetl to receive the trciilnient tliftt one 
fiuda Ucscribi'd in many ulurieN of t^lavtry. I (In iiitt knuvr wh^'tfaer the 
reading of such stories gave riec to lay wLab, or irbetber it arose Biiun* 

'• Puljerty began at the age of tbirteen ; with tlie occtirrence of ejac- 
ulation lustfal pleasure iricrcaRed, and I masturbated more frequently, 
often two or three times a day. From my twelfth to wy sixteenth yenr, 
during the net uf orianiftm, I nlwaj's had the idea tbat I wh(4 forecd to 
wear girlo' iKtota. The sight of an elegant boot, on the foot, of n girl 
ai all pretty, int4ixicntcd uic; 1 inhaled the odor of the leather with 
avidity. In order lo emell leather during the aot of oimniiim. 1 bought 
a {Kiir uf leathern cufl», which 1 smelletl while 1 uia«turbated. My vvf 
tJan«iKam for iadiett' leathern fibocs reiQaina the name to-day ; only, Ainet* 
\y aeventeenth year, it haa been coupled with the wiih to ftceomi' a Mr- 
voTtt, lo hiacl-f.n shoes for di&iimjuiehed ladies, to pttt on and take off 
their thoen/or tkcrm, etc. 

** My dreams at night are made up of aboe-sccncs : either I staud 
before the Khow-window of a Khoti-titore ri'garding the eleguut Indies* 
alioes, — Itartieultirly buttoned elioes, — or I lie ala ladyV feet and amell iirid 
lick her ahoes. For about a year I have given up onanism and go ad 
puellftS; coitus takes place through Intense thought of ladies' l>utt«ned 
aboes J or, if necessary, I take the shoe of the puelhi to lied with me. I 
have never sutfered (Vom ray foruier onanism. I learn easily, have a good 
memory, and hare never had headache in my life. This much couccrniug 

*' A few words about my brother : I am tboroughlj* convinced that 
be Ib also a ahoc-feticbist. Of the many IkcU that demonstrate this to 
me, it (9 only necessary to meution that it is a great pleasure for bim to 
have a certain conttin (a very ht^iutiful girl) tn^ad ii[>on bim. As for the 
rest, 1 might undertake to tell whether a muu who stands before a shoe- 



store, and regards the shoes on exhibition, is a " foot-lorer *' or not. This 
aoomaly is liiicominoul}- fircqucnt. When in the circle ot my acquaint- 
ance I tnrn llie coii^'crsjition to the question or what woman's charm is, 
1 TCF}' ri-etiiiuiiLl>' hear it »md that it is uiiicU more in atlli-c than in 
nudity; but everyone is careful not to reveal bis especial fetich. I 
think nn uncle of mine '\» also a Bliou-rulichist." 

Case. 62. Reported by Mantej^izxa in hia " Anthropological Stud- 
ios," I88(!, p 110. X., Auierfcan.of good family, mentally and morally well 
constituted ; (Voin the bef^inning of pulwrty capable of Iwiug exiiited 80x- 
tmlly Diily liy a wuniiin'ri hUov. iiur body and naked or stockinged foot 
ntudu uo impression on him ; but the foot, when covered with the dhoc, ur a 
shoe alone, induced erection and even ejaculation. Sight alone was suf- 
flctent for him in the case of elegant shoes, — 1>., shoes of black leather, 
buttoning up the side, and having very high heels. His sexual desire 
waa puwerfuHy excited by touchini^, kiswiitg, ur di-awjug on hucU shoes. 
llis enjoyment v/a» increa-sed liy ilrivin); uaila through the eoloH so thul 
their poinlH wouhl pcuetratu hia feet while walking. This caused him 
terrible pain, but be bad real lustful feeling at tiie «itue time. His )rn>nteHt 
cnjoymeut was to kneel down before the ele'tautly-clnd fo«t of ladies and 
have them stt-p on bini. If the wearer were an ugly woman, the flhoeo 
would not alfcct him, and his fancy winilil eool. If tlit- patient had shoes 
alouu at his disposal, his fancy would create a beautilVit woman wearing 
them, and ejaculation would result. FIIh nightly dream? were of the shoes 
of beautiful women. He considennl the exposure of ladies* shoes in 8bow- 
windowji ; while talk altout the nature of womau iieeinod to him 
harmless, but in bad taste. X. attempted coitus several times without 
success ; ejaculattuu uovor occurred. 

In the followiug; case the masoctustJc element U also plain 
enough, as is also the sadistic (comp. "Totture of Animals,*' 
under 'SSadism") : — 

Case 63. A young, ]K>werfuI man, aged 26. Nothing in the oppo- 
site sex excites his sensual feeling except elegant shoe^ ou the feet of a 
handsome womau, espeeiidly wbt'u they are made of bliiek leather and 
have high heels. The shoes without the wearer are sufficient. It gives 
him the gr<Tati-f)t plc-iiiure to see, touch, and kiss them. The feminine 
foot, when bare or covered with a stocking, has no elfoct on him. Since 
childhood he has luid a wcakneris for ladioi' fine slioes. 

X. is potent; during the sexual net the female must bo elegantly 
dressed and, above all, have on pretty shoes. At the height of sensual 
excitement eruel thuugUts about the shoes arise. He is forced to think 
with delight of the deAth-agnnic-i of the animal ti'om which the leiLther 
waa taken. Sometimes he is im|>eltud to take chickens and other atdmBls 
with him to Phryne, in order to have her tread on them with her pretty 



shoee for his pleajsure. He wiIIh this " Hacritiriiif; to the feel of Veous/' 
At othvr UmvB hu has the woomu walk on him with her shoes un, tbo 
h&rder the better. 

Until thi- last year it was sufficient — since hedid not take the slight- 
est sensnfti pleaRure tn women — to curuSH ladieft' shoe-t that pleased him, 
thus attaining ejaculation and complete satisfaction (homhroAo, Arvfiiv 
di Pgichiatria, ix, Gasctc iii.) 

The following case reminds one of the third of this scries, 
on account of the interest in the nails of thr shix's (as eapahle of 
iudicling pain) ; and of tiie ffruilli. on account of the slight 
accompan}'ing sadistic element ; — 

Case 64. X., xged 34, married ; of neuropathic parentage; siifTcrcd 
severely fVoDi coavulsionn oh n chiM ; remarlinbly precocious, but onesided 
In di!Vi-l(ipiueiit (cimld n-iul at a,fze of tliri-e) : niTviniH from childhftod. At 
the age of acTca he mauilested an ineliuntiou to haudk- ^lu>e)i. etipecially 
the nails of women's shoos. The mere sight, hut still more the toocbing, 
of the shoe-nailA and counting them, gnrc him indescribable plvaniire. 

At niftht tic ^avc himself up to ima^lnin); how his cousins had 
their measures token for shoes; how he nailed borsc-shocs on to one of 
them or cut hi-r fet-t otf. In time the shoe-sceneH Lainie uiioii him during 
the day, and involuntarily induced erection and ejaeulalion. Fwqiicntly 
he took the shoes of female weupanti of the house; and if he touched 
them with his |>tjuis he had au ejaculatiou. For a long time, when a 
student, it was pDflHihIc for him to tx>ntrol lils ideas and incliuMtious ; but 
there came a lime when ho was compelled to listen t« female fuotstei»s on 
the pavements, which, like the sight of the nail-marks in ladies' shoes, or 
the night of s1kh>8 in the windows of the sboe-ahops, always gave him a 
fedingof lustful ifleasnre. lie mnrrte<l, and during the first months of 
bis married life was free from these desires. 

Qradaally he became hystevopathic and neurasthenic. At this stage 
he began to have hysterical attacks when the shoemaker spoke to him of 
nails in Indies' shoes or of driving nails in the same. The reaction was 
still greater if he ehanoed to see a pretty lady with shoes well beset with 
nails. In order to induce ejaculation it was only nece^snry for him to cut 
soles out of pfistelxwrd mid Iw^set them with nails ; or he would buy Isdies' 
shoes, have them beset with nails in the store, and at bonne serape them 
OD the ground, and tinally touch the end of his penis with them. More- 
oTcr, Instftil shoe-visions occurred spontaneously, in which he satisfied 
himself by masturliation. 

X. is otherwise intctligfflit, skilUVU in his calling, but powerless in 
oombstiuj: his perverse inclinAtions. He presents phimosis; penis short, 
«xi>wid«d at the root, and incapable of complete erection. One day tlia 



patient aIIowM himitetf to matturhntp wlion excited tty the oight orindiet^^ 
Bhoos beset with nnilct in thr window of a shoo-Bhop, and thus beoame & 
criminal. (Blniiehe, Archiv, de Neurologie, 1882, Nr. S3.) 

Refereuce may be made here to a case of contrary sexual- 
ity, to be described later, in which the principal sexual interest 
was in the boots of male servauts. The desire was to be trod 
upon by tliem. 

Case B5. (Dr. pRscal, " Igicne dell' aniore,") X., merchant, from 
time to time (Liu iHirtieularly in htai wentliiT) bail the following di«ire! 
Ue would at-eont ftum« prostitute and tisk her to jto to n sboe-sbop with 
hirii, wheriL- bt.' would buy her tbv bundftoniuiit |mir of Hhoeu of |mt«iit 
IcMthftf, under the condition that she would put them on iiiinieditilelv. 
After IbiM look plaee, she had to go about in the street, walking in 
manure and mud ni^ tnueli an pontnible, in order to noil the xhoeR. Aft^r 
thin, X. wnulfl lead the jH-rsoii to an hotel, and, idiiiosl before they had 
reached a room, he would cast himself on her fe»>t, feeling an extraoi-di- 
nary pleasure in apply mg bi*t-U|w to them. When he hml eleansed the 
ahoes in l\m manner, he paid her and went his way. 

From these eases it may be plainly seen that the shoe is the 
fetich of the masochist, and apparently because of tlie relation 
of llie dressed female foot to the idea of being trod U])on and 
other acts of humiliation. When, therefore, in other cases of 
sboe-fetichism, the female shoe appears alone as the excitant 
of sexual desire, one is justified in presuming that mosocliistic 
motives liave remained lirtent. The idtai of being trod upon, 
etc., remains in tiie depths of unconscious life, and tlie idea of 
the slioe alone, the mt^us for sueli acts, risf^s into consciousness. 
Cases that are otherwise wholly inex)>hcable are thus sufficiently 
explained, llere one has to do with larvated masocliism ; and 
this may always \te assumed as the unconscious motive, when, 
as occurs not exceptionally, the origin of the fetichism, from an 
association of ideas on the occasion of some particular event, 
cau be proved, as in Cases 87 and 88. 

Such cases of desire for ladies' shoes, without conscious 
motive and without demonstrable origin, are really luuumera- 
blc-^ Three cases are here given as examples :— 

■ Thtn U AiipaTciiily a coimcatlMi bctVMD fbot-rclktii^m uid the tiun th*t cfrl«ln 
pcrBons of tlilB kht'l. wliotn cnltne doa net tatlaiy, or irha ore unable to perform It, flnd a 
■ubaUtute lur U lu uitus inciubrl imer pedM uulterto. 



Otaa 6G, MitiistcrT aged 50. From time to time lie goes to boufK« 
of proetitulion aiwl asks to rviit a room, ilu eiitcn* it with a j;irl. TLeu 
li*- iiifttfiiUy rfgArrts her slioei*, tAkps one off and kisses atnl ljil«B it, 
Finally, he putfi It nd girnitaliiL and ejac-ulnc semen floniiuc(|iic eJnniUto 
Axillju^ |iCL>tii^iit> torit; then he comciii out of liis 8en8n!il o<«t»8y. He 
Wgt) tbi! womjui toaUow turn to ki-L>|> thi< shou for a ft'w (liiy», nnd nlwnys, 
Ht the appoiiit«-d time.rvturiis it with tUnaks (CnntiLrauo, La J'aichiatria, 
T, p. 205). 

Cane <>7. Student, j?., agrd 33; comE!S of a tainted fainily. Sister 
was insane; brother aulfered with hyst^'ria virilis. The jifttiimt, pecnHar 
from childhooil. liju* frt-qnent atlackii of hypodiondriacnl depression, 
liLMliuni viuf, and feels that be is irersccute^l, lu a couHiillntjiHi on 
account of mental trouble, 1 finiti him a verj' perverse, hereditarily pre- 
dispose*! man, with neurasthenic and hypochondriaoal symptoms. A 
8U«picion of raasturltfltion is confirmwl. I'littent nmkt-s intereclinj: din- 
closures concerning his vita seximlii*. At ihe age of ten he ■vraa jiower- 
folly attracted by the fool of one of liis coiiirnde.t. Al twelve lie becjimo 
an i^ittliusiast for ladiea* feet. It cave him n delightftU sensation to ri?vi>l 
in the piglit of tUom. At fourteen lie tx-gan to miuttiirbati-, thinking, at 
the wLme time, of the Iteaiitifnl foot of a lady. From thiii time on hu 
was taken with the feet of his three-year-old si«t«r. The feet of other 
females that attracted him induced sexnnl excitement. Only women's 
feet — no other part of tln-ni— iiiten-stis.) liim. The thought of sexual 
interentirtte with women excited bis disgust. He had never attempti'd 
eottU!4. After liis twclftii year he had no interest in the feet of main 
individmils. The style of «>vcring of the I'emalu foot is iudilferent to 
him; it i» ouly necessary that the jwrson seem to be sympathetic. The 
thought of enjoying the feet of prohtUutes was diogtiating to him. For 
yeHra he had been in love with his siHter'n feet, tf he could hut obtain 
her shoes, the sight of them imwerfidly excited his sensuality. Kissing 
or embracing his sister did not have this elfeet. Uia greatest delight 
was to embrace and kiss tlie foot of » aym|>athetic woiuaii, when ejacula- 
tion WMuld result with a lively pleasurnbte sensation. ()t>^n he was 
im|ielleil to touch his genitals with one of his sister's shoes; but he had 
been able, thus far, to master this impulse, especially for the reason that 
for two years (owing to progressive irritable w™knej!« of the genitals) 
the simple sight of the foot had induced ejaculation. From his relatives 
it is atioertained that the patient has a silly admiration for the feet of 
hitt sister; so that she avoids him and seeks to hide her feet from him. 
The patient looks upon his pcr\*ersc acxual imimlse as jwithologieal, and 
is {lainfidly aflWaed by the fact that bis vite &ucy baa for Ita object his 
sister's foot He avoided opportunity as much as he could, and sought 
to help the matter by maslnrbutiou when, as in dreams accompanied by 
pollution, Udiefi' feet filled his imagination. However, when the impulse 
became too )>owcrful he could not avoid gaiuing a partial sight of his 



iister's foot InunwHatfly after pjuculation be woaM become angry 
with hitn<;clf ftt bnving bcon weak ajiain. H\a pAitiality for htrt sister*s 
foot had cost hiru mniiy a sleepless night. He often wondered that he 
could htill love liiH »4iKter. AlLlum^b it ttm-inc-d ri^lit to him that she 
should conceal Iier feet from bim, yet he was olten irritat^Kj because 
the o(inc«^lment cau^ei) him to linve pollutions. The patient git'es 
ftBsurancts of being moral in other respects, which are confirmed by bin 

Case 88. 8., New York, is accuRed of being a Rtreet-thief. Nnraer- 
ous Cfutes of inaauity in Ins nucetftry ; tather, brother, and Hist«r men- 
tally nlHioriiml. At seven yeait*, violent cerebral concussion twice. Al 
thirtc<-n, Rtriick with a l>cnm. At fonrte<>n S. had violent (ittacks of 
headache. Accompanying these attacks, or imraedintely after them, [>ocu- 
liar iinjiiilmf to take th« whops of f«niale members of the family — aa a 
rule, Ihoao belonjjing to ou« ueiulK-r — and hide them in some iml-of-thif- 
way comer. Taken to task, he would lie, or declare that he had no 
memory of the affair. The passion for uhoos was imcomjnemble, and 
made its appearsnre every three or four months. On one op«Lsion he 
iitti-rapted to take the shoe from the foot of one of the scirants, and on 
another he stole lits sister's shoe from her slecping-iipartment. In the 
a]>riu^ two Indies hud their 8lioc>H torn from their feet in the upeu tttreet. 
In August S. left his home early in the morning to go to his work as a 
printer. A moment alterw»rd be tore the shoe from a girl's foot in 
the open street, fle<l to hi* place of work, and there w.^s arrested as a street- 
thief, lie dee!aM;d that he did not know much of hia net; that it had 
come upon him like a stroke of lightning, at the sight of n .^boe, that he 
muHt possess himself of It, but for what purpose ho did not know. He 
bad acted while in a state of unconsciousness. The shoe^as he correctly 
indieated, wuit foinid in bis coat, lu conQuement ht* was so much excited 
mentally that an outbreak of insanity was feared. Discharged, h« stole 
his wife's shoes while she slept. Uitt moral character and habits of life 
were hiamelc-ss. lie w.^s an intelligent workman ; but irregularity of 
employment, that noon follnwed, made bim t«nl\ised and incapable of 
work. I^urdoned. (Nichols, Am. Jom-nal vf Inmnitt/^ 1859; Beck, 
'• Med. Jurispiiidenee," vol. i. p. 732, I860.) 

Dr. Pascal (op. cif.) has some similar cases, and many others 
have been mentioned to me by colleagues and patients. 

(c) DUijnathig Ad^ for the Pftrj^one of Self-HumUioHon 
atul Sexiiai GraiificuUon — Larvaicd- Masoc/iinm. — There are 
niimcrouR established cases in winch perverted men are thrown 
into scxnal excitement by the secretions, or even the excretions, 
of women, and try to sec and tonch tlietn. Probably in these 
cases tticre is almost always an unconscious masochistic impulse, 



— pleasure in the most extreme humiliation of self, and desire 
to cx|K'rience it. 

This connection is made prrfrctly clear hy tlie confessions 
of those affected wilh this repugnant [HTversion. Case 88 of 
the sixth edition — that of an individual affected witli con- 
trary M-'Xuality, which is later described — is liere instructive. 
The subject of this case not only i-evels in the thought of being 
tlie slave of the heloved man, and refers on this i»oint to Sacher- 
Maswrh's "Venus in Furs." whI otiara sihi liiif^it amatum poa- 
cere ut crepidas sudorc difflmiites olfaciat ejusque stercore 
veseatur. Delude narrat, quia non habeas quo: rnnfingat ct 
exoptet, eomm loco suas crepidas sudore infi'ctas olfacere suoque 
stercore vesci, inter quie facta j>ene crrecto se vohiptate pertur- 
bari semenqtic ejaeulari. 

The masochisti)! si<»niftcanc{' of a disguKtin^ act in the follow- 
ing case, communicated by a professional friend, is clear : — 

Cft*e 69. H. V. G., landed proprietor; major; died in hU aixtietti 
yeiir; t-ami- of a ftimily in whioli irrfspoiifiiNnily.ti-mlcnc-y to run in delit, 
and defect of inornli^ nre hcrcditni^-. In lii« yoiitli he wii» given to most 
reoklcsa di!*sipntinii (In- wii3 known lis tlin U'tiiler of ** nnlicd tiiilla"). ITe 
wfw a]wa^>-« of a i-jitiinLl and brntail iinture, thtmpli piiiietilionrf uTid exact 
in luR mititnrv s^Tvitv, whieti. on tic<.'otint of u di»rc]>iifnl>lc ntTnir tliat 
wan not made known, he had to lenve, and he lived in privafe life i*even< 
teen years. Untnunmclcd )<y the ncecaaity to earn his living, he led everj*- 
where the life of a mnnH>f.t!ie-l»wn, and was rvitrywliere avoided on 
acconnt of hi« lascivioua nature. Hia ofttraeism by the best society, 
which, in spite of hir» indfjitndeneo, he noticed, caused him to prefer the 
ordinary society of Iiikirs,artiHMn»,and Itriferis. It cannot be ascertained 
that he bar! ttexual intercourse with men, liut H \a certain that In his 
later year* he nrrangod symposiums with mixed company and was Icnown 
an a rani. In the Inst few ypnrs* of his life he wbh ai-cnwiomwl to bang 
about new liuildin^ in the evening;, and of the women working there ho 
would SAk the dirtiest to accompany him. It is certain that he had the 
woman undress, and then he would »uck her toes, his libido being ex- 
cited and aatiifQed hy the act. 

Cantarano also reports a case in La Psickiairiay v year, p. 
207. in which, preceding the act, ap|>arent]y from a similar 
cause, there was bitlnjr and sucking of a woman's toe* in as 
filthy a state as possible. 



Several cases have vnmc to my knowledge in wliich, wiUi 
other masochistic acts (maltreatment, hiimiHation), such disgust- 
ing desires were entertained ; and the confessions of the indi- 
viduals left no doubt of their significance. 

Such cases prepare the way to an understanding of others 
which are absolutely iucompreliensible without tlie connei^tion 
with the masochistic desire for humiliation.' It is probable, how- 
ever, that this impulse, in its actual si{ti;niticance, remains unknown 
to the perverte<l individual, and only the desire for distrusting 
things rises into consciousness, — again larvatcd masochism. 

Other cases of C^ntarano*s {lor. cii.) belong here: mictio 
even deftecatio puelEte ad linguam viri ante actum ; consumi>tion 
of confects smelling like fieces, in order to become potent; and 
also the following i;ase, likewise communicated to me by a 
physician : — 

Oa«e 70. A Biisstan prince, who was very decrepit, vas accustomed, 
to have his luitttrods turn hvr hack to him aud defvcnte on his hrenst ; this 
bciug the only vrny in which he could cxcitt; the rcinnnnC of libido. 

Anotbt'F stipport't'd u mistn-SH in uiiiiKuall^' hnili:int Htyle, with the 
condition that she eat uinrchpanc exclusively. Ut llbidinosus flat ct ojnc- 
ulero po8i«it cxcremenliL remiuiL' ore excipit. A nrnzilian physician tells 
me of sevwral caaus of <it^fieuiitio feuiinfe ui os viri tlrnt haw cvme to his 
knowledge. Such cases occur everywhere, and are not at ail inlVeqncnt. 
All kinds of secretions — aalivn, n.isal miicu-s, and oven aural curuinen 
— are used in this way ami nwtillowed with pleasure; and oscula ad 
nateH and even ad aniim are indulfrcd in. Dr. Moll (op. cit., p. ISA) 
reports the t*anu- thtuy of a man atrvclvd with contrary fW'Xuality. The 
pcrvt-rec dt-Bire to practice ciinnilinRus, which is very wide-«pread, proba- 
bly ft^uently ban its root iu tnoi^ochiHtic impulses. 

Palanda {Ar<^hivio di Psichialria. x, fascicolo 3, 4) relates 
the following ciuse: — 

(!a.w Tl. W., (igiMl 4f», predisposed, was given to inasturlntion at 
the age of eight. A di-cimo a^xlo anno liliidiiie.s suas bilreiido recentvm 
femiiiaruui urinam autiavif. Tanta crat voluptas uriimm bibcutia ut nee 
sUquid oUaceret nee aaperct, hscc Cacicos. After drinking he always 

* AniUogjr with thfl exi-caaM of reUirloui cnliiiiBtuin 1h louiiil even hen. Thv re11gl> 
Ofw enthiuliut, ADlolnt.-tlc liourUruMi (l« Is Purbr, nif v(-<l ln.-r roni] wfili riPcn in (viiuiBit h^. 
seirCZImmc-rtnnnti, op. <*.. |». 124). Tho bciillllcd Marie Alacoqne, W> "morliry" benelf, 
ticked up wIlU ti«r toosuo tbv dcjecliunit of pkUeuta, ui<l Nuckud Lticlr Lo«a cvverod Wllb 



experienced disgust and Ul-rL-ctiug, and tuiide Arm tviuilutioDs to do it no 
more in the ftituri?. Once lie lisd tlic same pleasure in drinking tbe urine 
of a nine-year^Id bo^, wiUi whom lie once practiced fclhitio. The [Mtticnt 
aaffcra with epileptic insanity. 

The caBes described in tins group form tlie completo coun- 
terpart to group *'rf" of the sadists. 

Still other older ca^es belong here, which Tanlicii (" £lnde inf!dico> 
I^ale sar les attentats aax m(eurs,"p. 206) observed in senile iudjvidunl». 
He Ue«cribe« aa " Kenifleare *' pemous "qui in awereto* Iucom nimirum 
theatrorum pastteoFi convenienteH quo c^onipliires feminte nd mictnri- 
endum festinant, per nares urinuli odorc cxcitnti, lllico se iiivicem po)~ 
luiint." Tbe " Stert^omires " that Taxil ('■ Ijh pro«titiition uunteiu- 
poraine") lucutious arc, in relation to ibis subject, unique. 

Finally, space U here given to the following case, reported 
to me by a physician : — 

Case 73. A noturr. known IVom his youth to those about him •• 
peculiar and mittHntiiropic. During biti ^i^booUhiyH he wns given to 
masturbation. According to bis own »tory, be excited bis sexual desire 
by spreading out on tbe cover of his bed pieces of toilet-pnper that he 
bad U9ed, induced erection by regarding and smelling tbem, and Mien 
practiced inaaturbnticn- Aft.i>r bia death, by the aide of bin bed, there 
was found a lar^e Iwiskct of such papers, with the dates marked on them. 
Here there trere probnhly raueicH of tbe nut tire of the iihovf-nit'nli lined acta. 

(d) Afasochunn in Wutiien. — lu woman voluntary subjection 
to tlie ojjpositc sex Ix a pliysiological plienomenon. Owin^ to 
ber passive roh in procreation and ioiig-cxistcnt social condi- 
tions, i<!efls of suhjrctinn are, iii woman, imrnially connected 
with the idea of sexual relntions. So to s]X'ak, they form the 
harmonics which determine the tone-quality of finniiiine freling. 

Any one conversant with tbe history of civilization knows 
in what a state of absolute subjection woman was always kept 
until a relatively high degree of civilization was reached;' nnd 
an attentive observer of life may still easily recognize how the 
custom of unnumbered generations, in connection with the 

■ TIM Uwi of lh« Mri7 MIddlfi Aen r*'n tbe husband ihe rleht to kilt Xbr wife ; 
Ibou of the lftt«r MIdille Afiw, Uie rtifbt lo itVAl Iwr. The liMer righc waa UMd tiwW. 
ereo by tboM of lil;;b •UbiUuk (ram{). S^liullzv, Dm 1i5n»cbe I^Uii tut xriL dvn Mln- 
nrHB)^, nd. I, p. Id *( m^.). YeL, by the stde of tliU, Ute parodoxIcKl cblvalrjr of tbe 

Age* MmmI* ui>eipl»iiiaL 



passive roh with wliich woman lias been endowed by Nature, 
has given her an instinctive inclination to vcjluntary subordina- 
tion to mnii ; he will notice that exaggeration of customary 
gnltaiitry is very distastelul to women, and that a drviatinn 
ti-oni it in the diiection of masterful behavior, thongh loudly 
n'pmhonded, is often acxepttni with sccrot satisfiiction.' Under 
tlie veueer of polite society the instinct of feiniuiue servitude is 
everywhere discernible. 

Thus it is easy to regni-d masorliism in (fcneml as a patho- 
logical growth of s|«_'oific fcmitiini' mental elements, — iis an 
abnormal intensification of certain features of tlic psycho-sexual 
character of woman,— and to s<%k its primary origin in that 
Bex (r. mfnt, p. 145). It may, however, be held to be estab- 
lished that, in woman, mi inclination to suhordiuation to man 
(which may be rej^rdnd ns an acquired, purposi^Jul arrange- 
ment, a plicnomeuon of adaptation to social i-equircmenU) is to 
a certain extent a normal maniftwtation. 

The reason that, under such circumstances, the " poetry " 
of the symbolic act of subjection is not reached, lies jiaitly in 
the fact that man has not the vanity of that weakling who 
would use blows to display his powpr (as the love-serving 
knights did with the ladies of the Middle Ages), but prefrra 
to demnnstrat*' his real adviintagns. The barbarian has his wife 
plow for him, and the civilized lover speculates about her dowrj'; 
she willingly endures both. 

Cases of (mthologiral increase of this instinct of subjection, in 
the sense of feminine masochism, are probably frefjnent ennngii, 
but cnstnm represses their niaiiitbstntion. Many young w«ineu 
like nothing Iietter than to kneel l)er()re their hnsiinnds nr lovers. 
Amung all Slavs of the lower classes it is said that the wives 
feel hurt if they are not beaten hy their Iiusbands. A Hunga- 
rian officer informs me tliat jwasitnt women of the Somogj'er 
Comitates do not think they are loved by their husbands until 
tlicy have received the first box on the ear as a sign of love. 

» Cunip. Lady Mll(t)rtl'« word« In ScfalUrf's " Kfttn»le und LIpIib " : "W«woni»n 
c«n cmlx rhiXMW lit'lwmt niHiig stiil M-.rV{iig; buL tlir Iil^lip«t [drMilix-i [jitwor olfuril* t* but 
■.mlBcrKbleftUhfUCnu, irUiegn«t«rJa)rof bflUgUie atavMofa bud we Iota bdenlod lul" 



It would probably be difficult for tlie jOiysiciau to find 
cases of Icmininc tuasocbism. Subjrrtivo iind objective re- 
straint* — modesty anil custom — iinturHlIy constitute. In women, 
iusurinouatable obstacles tn tbe expiTssion of jxrvei'se soxtml 
instinct. Thus it hap^wns that, up to the pa-scmt time, but one 
case of masochism in a woman lias been scientifically estab- 
lished ; and tliis is accompanied by circumstances that obscure it. 

Ctuw la. MtB8 V. X., RuBsinn, ngeil 3.t ; of greatly |irt'(H«|»0B(^ fftmit5-. 
For some years she Uum Imh.'ii iu tli*? itiiLial stnfi^t^ ofpiirnnoin prixcoiitorin. 
TIlis spning from cervl'io-spiual ncunisllnmia, iIik yrigiii i>'t which is UhmuI 
to be sexunl h;i-|>er'exdtntion. Since her twenty-foiirtb ycflr she hne been 
givon lo inai»tiirbstion. As a result of (lisapnoiiitiiient in an engagement 
an<I intense sexual rxcit^-nnr-nl.shp U-jfiLii to [unnlirc- niafttiirlKition nml jwy- 
rbicol onimtsm. JncUnation toward perHonn of hrr own mx nexsir fn^rurred. 
Thi* )>atient says : " At lb« ngc of six or eight I ooneeivwl n desire to lie 
wlii|>}H-d. SinM! I h&il never Ufti whipjicd, and luid neri^r lK!cn ]iresi>nt 
when others were thus itiiiusbod, I ciiunot iiudei'staiid how [ canic- to 
luive tbim stningc desirv. I «in only tluiik tliat it is congenital. With 
th(S« i(lu»*t of being whipp^il I had a feeling of actual delight, anrl pict- 
^]r€^d in my fancy how line it would I>e to lie trhiiiped hy one of my 
female frieuds. I never had any thought of lN>ing whipped by a man. I 
revelcil in the idea, and never Btteinpted anj' actual realization of my 
fencica. Th<!8(* rliKHjipeareil an4!r my tenth yt-ar. Only wUeii I read 
" Rousseau 'k Con IVhh ions," at the age of thirty-four, did I understand 
what my longing for whippings meant, and that luy abnormal ideas were 
like thoi*e of Kousswui- Since my tenth year I liave never had any 
more siieb faiicie«." 

On account of its original character and, the reference to 
Rousarnu, this case may witli certainty be called a case ol' 
masochism. The fact that it is a female friend that is eonceivcnl 
in imagination as wliippinjr her, is explained by the circum- 
ince that the masochistic desire was here present in the mind 
if a child before the psychical ritii sexualis liad developed and 
the instinct for the male hiui been awakened. Contrary sexual 
instinct is hens expressly excluded. 

An Attimpt to Explaih MASOcewM. 

Tlie facts of masochism are arrtainly anion" the most in- 
teresting in the domain of psycho pat ho logy. An attempt to 



explain them mtist first spnlt to distinf^iisli in tlicm the essentinl 
from tht; unessential. The ilisthigiiisliing chfiiacl4.>ristir in inuw)- 
chism ia certainly the nnlimitcd suhjection to the will ol'a person 
of the o])poBite sex (in sadism, on the contrary, the unlimited 
masterj' of tliis person), with the awakening and accompani- 
ment of lustful sexual feelings to the degree of orgasm. From 
all that has preceded it is clear that the particular manner in 
which tliis relation of suhjection or domination is expressed {v. 
eiipra)^ whether in simply symlwlic acts, or whether tlien? is 
also a desire to suffer ]Ki;iu at the hai;ds of a person of the opposite 
sex, is a subordinate matter. 

While sadism may he looked upon as a pathological inten- 
sification of the masculine sexual eharactor in its psychical 
perulJKrittes, miisnchism rather repn'senls a patliological degen- 
eration of the distinctive psychical jirculiarities nf woman. But 
masculine masuchism is undouhtedly frequent; and it is this that 
most frequently comes under obserration and almost exclusively 
makes up the series of observed cases. The reason for this has 
been previously stated (]>. 139). 

Two sources of masochism can he distinguished hi the 
sphere of normal phcnomrna. The first is, that in the state 
of luBtful excitement every impression made hy tlie ]>erson 
giving rise to the sexual stimulus, independently of the nature 
of its action, is pleasing to the individual excited. 

It is entirely physiological that playful taps and light blows 
should be taken for caresses, 

"Like Ibe lover's pinch which hurM sad Is iles[re<3."i 

From here the step is not long to a state where the wish to experi- 
ence a verj- intense impression at the hands of the consort leads 
to a desim for blows, etc., in cnses of pathological intensification 
of lust ; for pain is always a ready means for producing an intense 
bodily impression. Just as in sadism the sexual emotion leads 
to n state of exaltation in whlcli the excessive motor excitement 
implicates neighboring nervous tracts ; so in masochism an 
ecstatic state arises, in which the lisiug flood of a single emotion 

1 AuUiDiiy umI Clcoptttra, t. 9. 



tavenously devours and covers witli lust even' impression coming 
from the beloved person. 

The second and, indeed, the most imiwrtant source of 
masochism is to he sougtit in a wide-B|m'ad plienumfMinn. which, 
though it is extraordinary and almormal, by no means lies 
within the domain of sexnal perversion. 

I here refer to the very prevalent fact that in innumerahle 
instances, which occur in all varieties, one individual becomes 
dci>endent on nnothor of the opposite sex, in a vciy extraordi- 
nary and remarkiihle manner, — even to the lotw of all in(ic|K'nd- 
crit will; a dependence which forces the party in subjection to 
acts and suffering which i^icatly prejudice jrersonal interc-st, and 
often enough to ofteuse agaiii;$t buth momlity and law. 

This dependence, however, differs from tlie manifestations 
of normal life only in the intensity of the sexunl feeling that 
here ronfes in play, and in the slight degree of will-jjower neces- 
sary for the maintenance of its equilibrium. The difference is 
one of intensity, not of quality, as in masochistic manifestations. 

This dependence of one |>erson upon another of the o])po- 
site sex. that is abnormal but not perverse, — a phenomena pos- 
sessing great interest when regarded from a forensic stand- iwiut, 
— I designate " /ternaf bondage ;" ' for the relations and circum- 
stances attending it have in all resix'cts the character of bondage. 
The will of the ruling individual dominates that of tlu? jwrscin 
in subjection, just as a master's does his bondsman's.* 

This "sexual bondage," as has been said, is certainly an 
abnormal phenomenon. It begins with the first deviation from 
the normal. The degree of dej»endence of one person upon 
another, or of two upon each other, resulting from individual 
pef.uliarity in the intensity of motives tliat in themselves are 

> Comp. tbe auibor'a ftrtlcte, " titer grM-hlccblllrlic IIArlpkelt nnd XaaocblAmun," 
In tlio PRjctiUtrlMhm Jahrb&cher, Bil. x. i>. 100 et t«q.. "Diltv tlil* subiMt ta Uvatod In 
dolall, KuJ putlcularlj tnat Um forraulc suiud- point. 

■Tbe «'xpre»«loiis"BUTp" and "eluvor>-," thou^rh nn<-ii urimI mplnpliarlcallj under 
■neli circnmittnncea, ani avulilcd bcre bd'auar tlirir mxr. \he rardritv expirMlon* of inuo- 
eblan. rrom which thb " ImidiIb^ " niuat be atrielly dJITrrTnllit^-ii, 

Tlie i-viircMloa "bonilsgA" la not to t>c rmi<Uiii-i1 to mtruin J. H. Mill'a " Honda^ 
«f WomMi." What Hill ripal^atfa wlUi this MprcBAlcm arc laws aiui cuBloma, aoolol and 
Llatoricsl facUi. Here, buwi-vcr, wo alwaya *|}i-ak of fui.-t« liavluic pvcuii*r ludtvlduBl 
muUv<:a i^ai enc ootiUlvl wIUj pruvaleut oustoma uid lawa. 



imrmal, constitutes the normal standard estaWUhcd by law and 
custom. St'xuai bondage is not a perverst* nuiitifeslAtion, how- 
ever; the instinctive activities at work liere are the same as 
those that set in motion — even though it be with less violence 
— the psychical vita scxualis whicli moves entirely within normal 

Fear of losing the companion and the desire to keep him 
always satisfied, amiable, and inchncd to sexual interrouree, are 
here the motives ol' tlie individual in suhjertion. An extraor- 
<linary degrt« of love — whidi, |mrticularly in woman, docs not 
always indicate an unusual d<'grrt: of sensuality — luid a weak 
clmiacter are the siuiple elemeuts of this extraordinary process.* 

The motive of the dominant individual is egoism, which 
finds unlimited room for artinn. 

The manifestations uf sexual bondage are various in form, 
and the cases are very numerous.' At every step in life we find 
men that have fallen into sexual Imndage. Among marrie<l 
roen» hen-peeked husbands lielong to this category, particu- 
larly elderly men wlio marry young wives aiul try to overcome 
the disparity of years and physical defects by unconditional 
suhmissiou to the wife's every whim ; and unmarried men of 
ripe maturity, who seek to better their last chance of love by 
unhmited sacrifict% are also to be enumerated here. Here 
belong, also, men of any age, wlio, seized by liot passion for a 
woman, meet coldness and calculation, and have to capitulate 
on hard conditions; men of loving natures who allow them- 
wlves to be persuaded to marriage by notorious ]>rostitiites ; 
men who, to riui after adventuresses, leave everything and 

1 Perbftpa the Din»l Imporliint «Ieineiit ts. that b^ the hnhlt of nubmlHloTi a kind tt 
narhaniul nbcdloni-Q, vtlthout rntiRcU'UHriiiw ur ft* mptlvra, wlllch ciporalu* v< lUi auluiUBtiv 
t-i'rtaliitjr, tusj* lie e^LiliDilmt, Iiavliii; tin tippuiiUi^' uiLittvia tu i-unU'iitl with, tKva'Hf It 1t«-B 
b/'jruiil Ihr tlirr^Fjnlil or or>n*rioiiMic*s ; and It Kiaj Iir iMrd bjr tbe domliiaiit liKllvfiliiHl 
lUU: an iiiaiilRiaU: lutLruinmtE. 

■ Sexual course, plajra »Httt in all lllcratnre-s. [ndiikiil, Kvrthc pwt, th« 
•xtTMrflnarT inaiiirrstjilloni o( the wxuat life that uiv not THTVrrM rivm & rich and open 
fletd- Tti« mu«l p^lcbraiMl d««t.'ripll<^n of iiiawuliiir " boadaic^ " li that by Abbi Pr^voat, 
"Maiia LrawatilL" An rsrrlli-nt tlmcrlpliuu of rirliiliiini! " tKiuil^icii '' In (list iif " Leo no 
Leuul," by Qeorse Saiid- But flr*l of nil conica Ktelftl'a " Klilliulirii von Hrlll>n:>iin," who 
hliriKir r«]1c:d it the ..•ounLrrpart ot (Na.lUtic) " ■'•saUiMtlca." llolia's " UrtM>ldl» " aud. 
naoy other aUnltor pocnu alw belong horc 



jeopardise their future ; liusbands and fathers who leave wife 
and child, to lay the iiifomc of a faniily at the feet of a harlot 
But, numerous as the examples of maseullne "'buudage" 
are, cverj' observer of lilb» who is at all unprejiuliced, must 
idlow that they are far from equalling, in number and impor- 
tance, the cases of leminhic *■ bondage." This is easily ex- 
plained. For a man, love is almost always only an episode, 
and lie has many otlier an<l im|K}rtant interests ; for n woman, 
on the otlier liand, lave is tfie principal tliing^ in life, and, until 
the birth of children, always her first int<:rest After tins it is 
still often her first thought, but always, at least, takes t!ie 
)\\d place, liut, what is still more imi»nrtant. the man nded 
>y this im[ ea-sily satisties it in embraces for which he finds 
\irliniiti'(l opportunities. A woman in the upper classes of 
society, if nIic have a husband, is bound to him alone; and 

I even in the lower classes there aii- still great obstacles to poly- 
andry. Therefore, <i tpoman'* kmbantf mfttts/or her the whfjie 
»ex, and his importance to her becomes very great. It must 
also be considered tlint the normal lelation established by law 

jand custom between Iuisl)and and wife is far from being one of 
equality. In itself it expresses a sufficient predominance of 
woman's dependence. The conr(?ssions she makes to her lover, 
to retain the love which it would be almost impossible for her to 
replace, only plunge her deeper in bondage; and this increases 
the insatiable demands of husbands resolved to use their advan- 
tage and traffic in woman's readiness to sacrifice herself. 

Here may be placed the fortune-hunter, who for money 

lallows himself to be euvelojjed in thr easily created illusions of 

la maiden ; the seducer, and the man who compromises wives, 
calculating on blackmail ; the gilded army officer and Che 

^musician with the lion's mnne. who know so well how to 
stammer "Thee or death!" as a means to i»ay debts in id 
proiide a life of ease. Here, too, l>elong the kitchen-sohlier, 
whose love the cook returns with love plus means to saLisry n 
different appetite: the drinker, who consumes the savings of 
the mistress he mairics; and the man who with blows coin|iels 
the prostitute uu whom he Uves to earn a certain sum lor him 



daily. These are only a few of the innumerable fonus of bond- 
age into whicti woman is forced by her greater need ofluve and 
the difficulties of lier position. 

The subject of " sexual bondage " must here receive brief 
consideration ; for in it nmy bt; clearly seen the soil from which 
the main root of masochism springs. The relationship of thesf 
t>vo plienomena of psychical sexual life is immediately apparent. 
Bondage and masochism both consist of the unconditional sul)- 
jecLion of the uidivLdual affected with the abnormality to a 
person of the opposite sex, and of domination of the former by 
the latter.' The two plieuomeua, however, must be strictly 
diflerentiiited ; they are not different in degree, but in quulity. 

Sexual bondage is not a perversion and not patholoijicJil ; 
the elements froTu wliicli it arises — love and weakness of will — 
are not perverse; it is only their simultaneous activity that pro- 
duces the abnormal result wliich is so opposed to sell-interest, 
and often to custom and law. The motive, in obedience to 
which the subordinated individual acts and endures tyranny, is 
the normal instinct toward woman (or man); the satislaction of 
which is the price of bondage. The acts of the person in sub- 
jection, by means of which the bondage is expressed, are per- 
formed at the command of the ruling individual, to satisfy self- 
ishness, etc. For the suboi*dinated individual they have no 
imlepeudont purpose ; they are only the means to an end, — to 
obtain or retain possession of the nding: individual. Finally, 
bondage is a result of love for a particular person ; it first 
appears when this love is awakened. 

In masochism, which is denitledly abnormal and a perver- 
sion, this is all very different. The motive of tlie acta and suf- 
fering of the person in subjection is here the charm affortled by 
the tyranny in itself. There may, at the same time, be a desire 
for coitus with the dominant person ; but the impulse Is 
directed to the acts which serve to express tlie tyranny, as the 
immediiite objects of gratification. These acts in which maso- 

t Cmc* inajr ofcur In wbicb Uie Kxual txiiitligc !• espruMd to Uie Mmo nets that 
irt coRimoii In RiMocblsm. Wtien reu^b m<m whip Uirlr wtrw, nod llic latter aiiflvr tor 
Invft, vlthnut, hovcver, bavluc « tlMfn for blowa, vrc have a pfteuda Conn of boad«g« thU 
nwj eitnulaU' tiuwoctiUu. 



cbism is expressed nrc, for the individual in subjection, not means 
tu ail eud, as iu bondage, but t)ie end in t1ieiuse]ve». Finally, in 
masochism the longing for snl>jection occurs a yrhriy before the 
occnrrcncc of an inclination to any particular object of love. 

Tlie connection Iwlweeii bondage and niasocliism may be 
assumetl by reason of l;hL' correspondence of the two ptioiiom<!rm 
in the objective (condition of dependence, notwitlistandini^; tlie 
difference in their motives; and the transformation of the abnor- 
mality hito the perversion prolmbly tjikcs place in the foHowiug 
manner: Any one living; for a hin*; time in sexual bondage be- 
comes disposed to acquire a .slight degrt-e of nnisochisra. Love 
that willingly bears the tymniiy of the loved one then becomes 
an immediate love of tyraiuiy. W/ien the idea oj lieimj iyrati' 
ttiztxf oecr is hug cltvcely aMociat&J with the lustful thoiiyltt of 
tfie heiomd person, the huiffnl emotion if finftlly connevfffl tcifh 
the tiji'unny itseff, ami the- IrajiH/ornnilinn fi> pcrverttinn is com- 
(ikied. This is the manner iu which mabuchism uiiiy Ih* k< quire*! 
by cultivation.* 

» It i« rrry InUtnuUiisr, •ml di-iwiiilpnl iiprm tlic nafurc fif IkitjiIiiji- and in*»«>ihl*m, 
vrbich rMfncfolly rony>«i>i-)ii'l In rxu-riiaJ utTv^ia, Uiat lo tlla»itntt« ttir funiiiT r<<riaiii pltiyfiil, 
metupliArlc&l expT*wli>n« an- In s»^^«TIll uw; twAi u "elaTcTy," "to boar cTialnti," 
"liotind," " Uiliulil tbo whlporer," ''lo linruiwi lo tlw trlucupliiU <-ar," "to lln at thfl 
(«t," •■ hen-iftkcd," eU'.,— all Uiln^ which, Uit-rally carried mil, form llie ubJc-cUt of the 
maaocldtt'B di.«lrv. Sarh nlmltcw nm frrqitputly uni-d hi dolly Ufa; anil linvr lioroniv triU'. 
Tlnty ani dcTln-tl frwii llie laiiKUai;c nf pui-try. PoDt»y luui nluats rwoftulwd, wl(h1n Uui 
gciirral Idi-a i>f tbi^ piMtoD of lo»i', thr clcmrnt nf ilrpi-nrlriiic in tlje lovi^r, wlio pntL-lket 
•rlT.*«irriflt-r KpdiilanAAunlj nr of ncceislt/. Tli« facta o% •' Uciiala^f ■' ban- nUn alnn.ia 
prvMruliMl thrina'UvM to ili« poeUcal I mimi nation. Whni the pnri- cIioosth Kuch exprcsaioni 
M tbose mrnUviii-d, Ut plulure the d«p<!ui1i.-ui'« of llie lovvr lii .•>tiLl<ilii|i *lmit<ii>, A« pnetmtl 
tBttlt^ v dO€* (Ae miuocAul, who, to Int^imfl)' thr \Av* of hl» (lr]H-ndriii;c (hb nllUnnle aim), 
cn!itt«a each ■lliuUlona III Trallty- In aiiL-leiit pcwlrj, ihi! pxiirviclua "dominn" la uar<I to 
■tgtJiy tbn loved tme, wllli a pr«f«rence Tor tJio atratlc of " caallu^ Iti cbatiia " (r.j., Honoe, 
Od. l», tt). Prom HDtiqultjr thmagb aU lb* pentiirlra trtourirtrti tlmi-a (ci^mp, Grlllp«inB(tr, 
"Ottokar," At'!?: "TonilKls8weec,ala>ostaaBW««iastoot}«y">,the|Ki«tfyaf lovelsnilc4 
«rltb Hlmllar plirnsn anil Htmlke. Thu hl»tuo' of the word " mlftrvM " If nlao Inlcrrf ling. 
But poetry nocU tm llf<;. It b probable that Uii' conrLly chlvalri,- of ibe Mtddlc Aifea aroat 
In thli way. Iu Ita ivTvreucc for women a» " mt*tri-«»rH " In (UH-joty and In Individual Ion- 
rvlatloiia; it* tniniirrn-ni:i;iir llt-i- tvlnlli'im of fruJaliun aiid vaiiulnxe to LbervlaUuci betw«wn 
llip ktilithl nwl 111* lady ; Ita HubriilMiIi-ii lu all feciiliilDi- wblmn : lla lovc-tcala and tows; Ita 
duty of ulwdlcm'c to t-rvry rouimuiul of tTii< lady,— In all Ihb, chivalry epiteAt* ua a nya- 
tcninilc, pontlral rtcTtlopmcnt of llie " bondage " of Im-*, Cf-rtain extreme mauift-Btattona^ 
IHwUtedeediiaDd safTerltig of Utrlch Tim LkhU-ndrlii or Plcrro Vldal In tbe ai-TTli^o of 
Iheb laiUi-a; or tliu practki- of Um IcuK^rulty of ttie " Galok " la Frauce, wtioeo mtmbi-n 
*ouftht aartynloro In Iotp and ii]b](>ct«d thnmachTF li> all kludu of •uflorltig,—' those rltwly 
have a inaaochl«U<^ rharacli-r, and iVTunntitralv Clir luilura! IrauKformaUoii nf oat pheHOm- 
enoii Into Uw otiier. 




Til US a milil dogree of masonhism may arisp fi-om " bondage," 
— ^become acquired; but gennino, complete, dceprooted maso- 
chism, witti its fcvorisli longing Cor subjection from the time of 
earliest youtli, is eongtmital. 

The explanation of the origin of the infrequent perveraon 
of fully develojied masochism is most probably to be Ibmid in 
tlie assumption that it aiises from tlie very frequent abnormality 
of "sexual bondage"; in that now and then (his aimormaUty is 
heretlUaTihj iranR/crr/}d to a pur/nhnjKithic individital isi s\urh a 
teay that it becomes transformM into a perversion. It has been 
previously shown how a slight disphicement of the psychical 
element under consideration may effect this transition. 

This transformation of tlie abnormality into the perversion, 
through hereditary transference, would take place very easily 
where the psyrliopatliie ronstitution of tlie descendant pit-sented 
the other (actor of masochism, — i.e., what has been ]>reviously 
called its main root, — the tendency of sexually hypenesthctic 
natures to assimilate all impressions coming from the beloved, 
person with the sexual impression. 

From these two elements, — from " sexual bondage " on the 
one Iiand, and from tlie above-mentioned disposition to sexual 
ecstasy, which apperceives even maltreatment with lustful emo- 
tion, on the other, — the roots of wliieh may bo traced back to 
the field of physiological facts, masochism arises on tlie basis 
of psychopathic predisposition ; in that its sexual hy]>er%8thcsia 
intensifies first all the physiological accessories of the vita 
sexualis and, finally, only its abnormal accompaniments, to the 
pathological degree of perversion.' 

' If it bu t:uuit1iI«i\''J tbul, u» •howD kbovc, "ecxual liiiti'luffc " 1« & plicnooKnon 
otwerved ntunti more frrqwutly juul In a mans protiounci^il dt-i^re*^ In llie fL-iuult; mx Uian In 
the malf, the thctualil Mdvr's tLu.t miuiocliUm (ir nnl. kInsj'ii, at Int^t a* » nilc) k lUi Inhcr- 
ItaiicHortbn " boiidfigL-" of fi'iniiikit- ciptffVm'e. Tliua ll coniiw UiUi « n-Utiuii — Uinnsh 
distant — wtlh ontitrary bmu*I Iiislinct, ns o. tmiiNfiT^nrc to the mule of b pcrrrrtlon rrally 
belonging to Uie fi'inale. Tlib cniiri>[iUon of iiia«nehUm as a nullmoiitHry contrary kxuaI 
iDiUuct, at ■ pnrtlAl dfi-mlnnUon, here ulfcclltt^ only Ur- sccontUry &Dxual characler of Uiv 
TlU aexualb (u ibuury tulll luua- uitoui»litloiiiill>' ei])r\wcil lit tbu nlxtfa tKHtlon of this 
wurk) flnilii Im »iip)yiM In tlii- maIciuvoI* of the eubjecu of Caw 44 and C&se SO, who prv- 
Mill utlicr (valiirr* i>r rJleiiiluuUui], uud kIt)! a» thHr Idrnl a rolaLlvrily nld woman nlio 
Mcka and «rlii» Ibrni ; and, furtlirr. (n Ibi- fHol that the (potent) luaaoirliUt prefera tbu Hlf« 
or laixabiu, KA dihown by MaU-monU r«rniTing to tbia. 

Ii miut, however, bg cupbuisod Ui&i " bond^w " alao pl^yt no iialmiiorl«nt rAb to 



At any rat**, masochism, as a congenital scxtml iHTvcrsion, 
isfcitutes a functional sign of degeneration in (almost exclus- 
ively) hereditary taint; and this clinical deduction is confirmed 
in my ca«ea of masoclusm and sadism. It is easy to demon- 
strate that the peculiar, psychically-auomalous dii'ection of the 
vita scxualis which masochism represents, is an original abnor- 
mality, and not, su to speak, cnltivut<-d in ii predisposed indi- 
vidaal by passive flagellation, through association of ideas, aa 
Rousseaa and Binet suppose. This is shown by the numerous 
cases of masoclusm — in fact, the majority — in which fliigellation 
never appears; in which the perverse impulse is directed ex- 
clusively to purely symbolic acts expressing subjection wthout 
any actual infliction of pain. This is demonstrated by the 
whole series of cases, from Case 53, given here. 

The same result — namely, that passive flagellation is not 
the nucleus around whicli all the rest is gathered — is readied 
when closer study is given to the cases in which passive flagel- 
lation plays a rSh, as in Case 44 and Case 50. Case 51 is 
particularly instructive in relation to this; for in this instance 
there can be no thought of a sexually-stimulatuig effect of 
punishment received in youth. Moreover, in this CAse, connec- 
tion with an early experience is not possible ; for the situution 
constituting the object of principal sexual interest is absolutely 
incapable of being carried out by a child. 

Finally, the origin, of masochism in purely psychical ele- 
ments, on confronting tt with sadism (r. in/ra)^ is convincingly 
demonstrated. That passive flugpHat-ion occurs so frequently in 
masochism is explained simply by the fact that it is the most 
extreme means of expressing the relation of subjection. 

I repeat that the decisive points, in the diftercntiation of 
simple passive flagellation from flagellation dependent upon 
masochistic desire, are tliat, in the former, the act is a means to 
make coitus, or ut least ejaculation, possible ; and that, ui the 
latter, it is a means of gratitir^tion of masochistic desii-es. 

tlM nsKullDQ TlM aexDitlli, tml UiKt ms»ocIjtoin lu mui nuiy a1«o b« nplalDed wtdiout »ay 
fmeh tnuHference of fQBilnIni> <>1eni<>nt«. U Diu«t mlwi be rp-mt-mlwml Iivrr ibal rawKjchliini , 
«• well ■« lt« couut«rpM-t, Bidiuu, uccura lu im^uloi uoubluatloD with contrarjr mxiuI 



As we have already seen, niHs<H;)iisLs subject tliemselves to 
all other kinds of maltn-atmLnit and suffering in which there 
can be no question of reflex excitation of hist. Since such 
cases are numerous, in Ruch acts (and in fiagellation in maso- 
chists, having hke significance) we must »oek to ascertain id 
what relation |Kttn and hist stand to each other. From the 
statement of a tuasochist it is as follous: — 

The relation is not of such a nature that that which 
causefs physical \iiim is here simply perceived as physicnl plnis- 
are ; but the pc^rson in a stat*; of masochistic ecstasy feels no 
pnin ; cither because, by reason of his emotional state (like that 
of the soldier in battle), the physitail efl'ti t on his cutaneous 
nerves is not apperceived ; or because (as with religious martyrs 
and enthusiasts), with the preoccupation of consciousness with 
lustful emotion, the idea of niHltrcntm<'nt remains merely a 
symbol, without its quality of pain. 

To a certain extent there is over-corn ix'usation of physical 
pain in psychical pleasure; and only the excess remains in con- 
sciousness as psychi<'al lust. This also undergoes an increase ; 
since, either through reflex spinal influence or through a pecu- 
liar coloring in the sensorium of seuRorj' imprrssions, a kind of 
hiillucinatiou of bodily pk-asui'e takes place, with a vague local- 
ization of Uie objectively prnjected sensation. 

In the self-torture of leliglous (>iithuKiasts (fakirs, howling 
dervishes, religious flagellants) there is an analogous slate, only 
with a difference in the quality of pleasurable feeling. Here the 
conception of martyrdom is altw apjierceived without its pain; 
for consciousness is tilled with the pleasurably colored idea of 
serving God, atoning for sins, deserving heaven, etc., through 
marty rdom. 

Masochism and SAcrsM. 

Tlie perfect connter[mrt of masochism is sadism. While 
in the former there is a desire to suffer and be subjected to vio- 
lence, in the latter the wish is to inflict pain and use violence. 

The parallelism is perfect. All the acts and situations 
aaed by the sadist in the active r$le become the object of the 



desire of the mosochist in the passive role. In both perveN 
sions thcfDC acts advance from purely symbolic acts to severe 
mattreatmenL Even murder, in which tiadism reaches its acme, 
finds, as is shown by Cnso 54, — of course, only in fancy, — it* 
passive counterpart. Under favoring conditions, both perver- 
sions may occur with a normal vita sexualis; in both, t]ie acts 
in which they express themselves are preparatory for coitus or 
substitutes for it.' 

But the Jinalogy does not exist simply in external manifes- 
tation ; it also extends lo tlie subjective cliarncter ol' both jH;r- 
versions. Both are to be regarded as original ])syrbopathies in 
mentaily abnormal individuals, who. in particular, ai-e affected 
with psychical hyperesthesia sexufllis, and, as a rule, also with 
other abnormalities; and for each of these perversions two eon- 
stituent elements may lie demonslral^'il, which have their roots 
in ]jsycliical facts lying within physiological limits. For maso- 
chism, as shown above, these elements lie in the fact (1) that 
in the state of sexual emotion evei-y impression prmluced by 
the ronsort. independently of tlie msiniu^r of its pn)durtion, is, 
jier «c, attended with lustful pleasure, which, where tliere is 
hypei-ajsthesia sexualis, may go so far as to over- rora pen sate all 
painful wnsation ; and in the liiet (2) that '' sexiud bondage," 
doiM-ndent on mental factors tlial are in tliemselves not iRTVer.<*e, 
may, under pathological conditions, become a perverse, pleasur- 
able desire for subjection to tlie opjiosit*' sex, which — even if it 
l>e (piite unnecx^ssary (u assume its iiiheritjince fnim the female 
side — i-epresents a pnt.holngiral degeiiei-ation of the clinnirter 
belonging to woman, — of tlie instinct of subordination, physio- 
logical in woman. 

In harmony with this, there are. liltcwise, two constituent 
elements explanatory of sjidism, the origin of wliich may also Iw 

t Of counw!, I>ut1) bafi! to ronU-nil wKli r>|j]fl>>liii,- fLIitcAl wid KiUietlr motlvee tn 
f&ro hrirrno. A^it tlicm- liavr Ihtu ovl^rl■olnr itod wtJUni ii[i|ii'«n>. It ImitirtltAtelj' cuiiim Ici 
cnnlk'twilh the )*w. Tlilil i» iml. Uir roar with miuux^IilAii) ; whk'li acciiiiiiU Tor l.lic givnh^r 
Dnqnencf of muochUlU «ci». Hut th^ InsUnnri ofBoIf prcM-rvitton and ft^ar of patn oi>|hi»c 
Kb» rMUKBtlun of Uiu lulU-r. TIr- pnu^UcuI •tifiilUniuicu of luawrnrblviu Iti-K only In Its xeitr- 
UoiiK lu v'y^'i'i'*' tfflpot«DCG ; wblte Uut of tmiiam lie* beyond U»i, ODd Is prlDctp»ll]r 



tracpii back witliiii pliysiological limits. These are : the fact (1) 
that in sexual emotion, to a certain extent, as an acconii>any- 
ing psychical excitation, an impulse may arise to influence 
the object of desire in every possible way and with the greatest 
possible intensity, whicli, in individuals sexaally liyi»enes- 
thetic, may become an impulse to inflict pain ; and the fact 
(2) that, under pathological conditions, the man's a<;tive role 
of winning woman may become an unlimited desire for sub- 

Thus masochism and sadism represent perfect counterparts. 
It is also in harmony with this that the individuals affected with 
these iH'rversions regard the opposite perversion in the otlier 
sex as their ideal, as shnwn by Case 44 and Case 50, and also by 
** Rousseau's Confessions." 

But the contrast of masochism and sadism may also be used 
to invalidate the assumption that the former has its origin in the 
reflex effect of passive flagellation ; and that all the rest is the 
product of associations of related idejis, as Binet, in explanation 
of Rousseau's case, thinks, and as Rousseau Itimself beUeved. 

In the active maltreatment forming the object of the 
sadist*8 sexual desire there is, in fact, no irritation of his 
own sensory nerves by the act of maltreatment; so that there 
can be no doubt of the purely psychical character of the origin 
of this perversion. Sadism and ma.sochism, however, are so 
related to each other, and so correspond in all jmints with each 
other, that the one allows, by analog)', a conclusion for the other; 
and this is alone sufficient to establish the purely psychical 
character of masochism. 

According to the above-detailed contrast of all the elements 
and phenomena of masoclnsm and sadism, and as a 7'^«umi of 
all observed cases, lust in the infliction of pain and lust in in- 
flicted pain appear but as two different sides of the same 
psychical process, of which the primary and essential tiling is 
the consciousness of active or passive subjection, in which the 
combination of cruelty and lustful pleasure has only a secondary 
psychological significance. Acts of cniclty serve to express this 
subjection; first, because they are the most extreme means for 



the expression oftliis relation; and^a^in, because they represent 
thu most intense effect t}ifit one person, either with or without 
coitus, cau exert on another. 

The cases in wlucli sndism an<l masochism occur simiil- 
taueousl)' in one individual are interesting, hut they pre- 
sent some difficulties of explanation. Cases 49, 50, 58, eto.» 
are of this kind, and also particularly Case 30. From the 
latter it is evident that it is especifllly the idea of subjection 
that, both actively and passively, forms tlie nucleus of the 
perverse desires. Traces of the same thiUj^ are also to be 
observed, with more or less clearness, in many other cases. 
At any rate, one of the two perversions Is always markedly 

Owing to this marked predominance of one per\'ersion, 
and tlie later appearance of the other, in such cases it may 
well be assumed that the predominating perversion is orighuily 
and that the other has been tirquiTed in tlic course of time. 
The ideas of subjection and maltreatment, colored witlt hust- 
ful ]>lonsuTe, eitlicr in an active or passive sense, have be- 
come deeply impressed in such an individual. 

Occasionally the imagination is tempted to try Hie same 
ideafi in an inverted roie.. T'liere may even be realization of 
this inversion. Such attem]>t.s in imagitiation and in acts, 
however, are usually soon abandoned as inadequate for tlie 
original inclination. 

Masochism and sadism also orrur in combination vnih con- 
trary sexual instinct, and, too, in association witli all Ibims and 
dr^i"ec8 of this jierversion. Tlic individual of contrary sexuality 
may be a sadist a.s well as masochist (comp. Cases 48 and 49 and 
numerous cases in the following series of cases of contrary 
sexual instinct). 

Wherever a sexual perversion has developed on the basis 
of a neuropathic individuality, sf^xiinl hyjM'nesthesia, which may 
always be assumed to be present, may induce the phenomena 
of masochism and sadism — now of the one, now of both com- 
bined, one arising from the other. Thus masochism and sadism 
appear as the fimdamental forms of psycho-sexual perversion^ 


which may make their apjiearance at any poiut in tlie domain 
of sexual a)}nrration.' 

3. The A»f<ocintuni of Lttst with ihe Idea of Cerlnin Aw^ 
iionn of ihe Fetnale /fer«>ft, or with Certain Articles of Female 
Attire — Ftticftism. — In the considerations coiicenung the psy- 
chology of the normal sexual life in the introduction to this 
work (i'm/c p. 11), it was shown that, within physiological limits, 
the prououiKs^d preference for a certain portion of the hody nf 
persons of the opposite sex, |>nrtirnlnr]y for a certain form of 
this part, may attain j^n^al psyaho-sextial imporUmci*. Tndtvd, 
the especial power of attraction possessed by certain forms and 
peculiarities for many men — in fact, the majority — may be 
regarded as tlie rrjil principle of individimlization in love. 

This ])ri'rerence forcei-tain imrtieuhir physirul characteristics 
in persons of the op^wsite sex, — by tlie side of wliieli, likewise, 
a marked })ri'fcreuee for certain i»sychical eliaracteristics may be 
demonstrated, — following; IJinet (" du Fetischisme dans Tamour," 
Hevue phiJojiophifjnf^ 1887) nnd Lonibroso (Introduction to 
the Italian cditinii of tlie se(;ond editiim ol' thU work), 1 have 
called "fetichism"; because this cnthui^iasm for certain [>ortions 

■ Ef<>i7 kUempt In nplain Uie Tmeta of cil.h» uillam or nia«MhUm, nwlng tn the 
cloaecoBlX'cllna of lliv two p^ipuomnia ili-mmiKlralod liens miutftlao be outtnl to rvplnln 
thp olh«T prr\'(-T»tou. An atu>iii|>t lo offer au (•xplaiiatlmi of Mullam, hy J. 0. KIim*iiiui (Chi- 
fWE't) (•■<*(»■ '■lVyrlHil(i|{li-»l Ai>|Hvlii of the itrmiitl Ap|i"illc," Alk'Dlitl Knd Xcuralo^ri, 
Si. I^iulf, A|tril, ISOI) iiH'ela Cbln n'tiiilrcmoiil, kiiiI Tiir till* r>-iUM>ii tiiuy l)n lnifflTiiiftillnnc'd 
b«ra. KirniiLii, will! Ii» irvrrul ■iitIiiirlUc« in Aii^lii-Aiiinlroii Iltcmlurc Tor hi* tliimr)', 
klarlA rntm ih<- ii!L<iiini])Uiin of Mivoral nitiura]la>U(IMIIIn|P'r, Orytdnlr, 11»ltih,Ck-iiku<rikyJ 
irhloti (y)uc<'lT<'# llir Hi-i'illtsI (^nnjiicnllmi, km^xubI art In roriilii lovr fAriDi) at ftuimat Itfr, 
bi bt> t-niitiibnllMri. u ili-vourini£ ol' Itit |i>rt!a-i' In Uic ncL. Hi' brl»i;a Into IniinNtlate coii- 
iiwlloii witti rlik Ihfwrll. known fftoulhiLi. al. tbi' tlmvof Miual uiih>ti I'l-alm U-nr limbs rrooi 
their tuHUn Biril it(tlclEn> bile t'O Ihe Ik-uiIh uT tlin dmUv, and (il.linr ^cullxllr arte pi.-rAirini--<t 
bf mILliiy aDiiiialti ivllti ItirlrfnnturU. Frrim this h<!< paM>'ali3lu*l-tuUTilFraii<)oUiPTlti«tful 
ai-ra nf trudtf In man, aiiil aMUiara thai liiiiiici'runil thr Mriaal apprlllcarv, In Itieiiorl^n, 
l(l)^^t)cal ; Ibat tliv aecual i-annlballMn of lowiT forma of ftoImAl life baa an tnHucnce In 
klglicr forme and In iiiut, ai»d lliat iwll«ni it> bd rxnmpic of ataTlsm. 

Tlila uxplauaUou vf bmUmu would, of I'ourae, aUo fxptaln mwochlcm ; Ihr If the 
orti;tti of aosiia] liii'-n'OurHi b ti> Iw unn^ttt In c-nnnllniillBtlc protVMM, tlicu both Uie anr* 
vlval of oav m:% and tbr deainictloiv uf tlir oUier would fiilFIII thr parpoa« of nalutv, and 
thna the lii«tlui-tivr doalre tn be tbv vlctlin would lie oiplalm'd. BuL It mi»l tw »t«t4<d In 
objmtlon ihai Oit baaJa ftf tlttn maaontnir U liiiiuffii'fi.-iit. Tlir «-\lrviiifly uoiniilkatnl pro- 
iVM of caaJaf:aUoD In loiv«r orRanlatne, lutu 'ffbUh tch-n^-r ban rmlly prnclraMI ooljr 
durlnfr tbc la»l few yrut, b by iio lurarit t<i Ik n^^rded oa simply a duTonHiig of on* Indl' 
Tkliial by utiolber (coup. Wcbinaiin, Div Bcdcutuiiir dvr Suurlk-n FortplIan>Dn|; Rirdle 
SvlvcUviwlliootip, p. 61 , Jfoa, 18U). 



of tiie body (or even articles of attire) and the worsliip of tlirra, 

in obedience to sexual impulses, frequently call to mind the 

H reverence for relics, holy objects, etc,, in reHgious cults. This 

physiological fetichism has already boen described in detail on 

ipage 17 c< eeq. 
By the side of this physiological fetichism, however, there 
IE, in the psyclio-sexual sphere, an undoubted imlhologiral, erotic 
fetichism. of which there is ali*eady a numerous scries of cases 
presenting phenomena liaving great clinical and psj-chiatric 
interest, and, under certain rivciim stances, forensic importaTicc. 
B This (fflChological fetichism does not confine itself to cerUiiu parts 
H ot the body alone, but it is even extended to inanimate objects, 
H which, however, are almost always articles of female wearing- 
H api>arel, and thus stand in close relation with the female |)erson. 
H This pathological (eticliism is connected, through gradual 

transitions, with physiological fetichism ; so tlmt (at least in 

Ibody-fetichism) it is almost impossible to sluirply detine the 
beginning of the perversinn. Moreover, tbc whole ticld of 
bod) -fetichism dues not really extend beyond the limits of 
^ings which normally stimulate the sexual instinct. Here the 
abnormality consists only in the fact that the whole sexual 
interest is concentrated on the impression made by a iwirt of 
the person of the opimsite sex, so that all other impressions 
fade and become moi'c or less indifferent Tlierefbrc. the body- 
^P fctichist IH not to be regarded as a immstrmn per exfeoauin. like 
tiie sadist or masochist, but rather as a monstnan fer fh/echtm. 

I What f.timnlates him is not abnnrnial, bul mtlier what does not 
affect him, — (he liniilatiou of sexual iiil<-n.'st that lias taken 
{tlace in him. Of course, this hmited sextml interest, within its 
narrower limits, is usually expressed with a correspontlingly 
greater and abnormal intensity- 
It would seem reasonable to assume, as the di8tinguif*bing 
mark of pathological fetichism. the necessit)' for the presence of 
H the fetich as a romlUio nne gua «<m for the possibility of pcr- 
fommnce of coitus. But when the facts are more carefully 
tttidied, it is seen that this limitation is nsilly only indefinite. 
There are iiumerous cases in which, even iu the absence of tlie 



fetich, coitus is possible, but it is incomplete and forced (often 
with tlic lii^lp of fiindcs roliiting' to tlie fetich), and pavtirulnrly 
unsatisfying aud exliaustittgr; and, too, closer study of the dis- 
tinctive sulijoctivc psychical conditions in these cases shows that 
tliere are trausitiou:U states, passing, on the one hand, to mere 
physiological preferences, and, on the other, to psychical im^jo- 
tence in the absence of the fetich. It is therefore better, pcr- 
hn|>s, to seek the pathological criterion of body-fetichism in 
purely subjective psychical states. The concentration of the 
sexual interest on a c<'rlain portion of the body that has 
no direct relation to sex (as have the mainmie and external 
genitals) — a peculiarity to l>e emphasized — often leads body- 
fctichists to such a condition that they <io not regard coitus as 
the n;al means of st^xual gralitication, but nitlicr some ibrm of 
manipnlatiun of tliat jMirtion of the body that is effectual as a 
fetich. Tliis perverse instinct of body-fetichisLs may be taken 
as the ])atholo;,'ical criterion, no matter whether actual coitus is 
also possible or not. 

Fcticliism of inanimate objects or articles of dress, how- 
ever, in all eases, may well be regarded as a patliological phe- 
nomenon; since its objects fall without the circle of normal 
sexual stimuli. But even here, in the phenomena, there is a 
<:ertain outward corresjiondencc with processes of the normal 
|)sychical vita sexualis; the inner connection and meaning of 
pathological fcticliism, however, are entirely different. In the 
ecstjitic love of a man mentally normal, a handkerchief or shoe, 
a glove or letter, llir flower " she gave," nr a lock of hair, etc., 
may liecome tlie object of worship, but only because they repre- 
sent a mnemonic symbol of the beloved jjerson — absent or dead 
— \vbose whale personality is reproduced by them. The patho- 
loijical ferichist has no sunli relations. Tlie fetich constitutes 
the entire content of his idea. When he is possessed by it, 
sexual excitement orcurs, and tJie fctirh makes itself felt' 

According to all observations thus far made, pathological 

> In ZoIk'ii " Tliercac Kaqnln/'wlHTc the lowt rftfteateiily kbiMB hlft mlstnw'i boot^j 
Ihc r«jie U qultis dtlTorciit rrum (hat "f »Ii(m'- ui<I boot- fcUcbliW, wtin, nt Uiv sl^ht at every 
ImoL worn \jy & ImI;, or uvvu aluue, are Umtwu luto mxiuI excflutUL-ut, evvu to Uic citeal 
of ^aculBllon. 



fctidusm seems to arise only on, the basis of a psycliopatliic con* 
Btitution that is for the most part hereditar)*, or on the baais of 
cxisteut mental disease. 

Thus it happens tlmt it not infrequently appears combine<l 
with the other (original) scxiial jxrversions that arise on the 
same basis. Not iufit^quently fetichism occurs in the most various 
forms in combination with contrary sexuaUty, sadism, and maso- 
chism. Indeed, certain forms of body- fetich ism (liand- and 
foot- fetichism) protiably liavc a more or teas distuict connection 
with the latter two perversions (v. infra). 

But if fetichism also rests upon a rongenilat general |>syr}io- 
pathie disposition, yet tliis ^xirversion is not, like those prenously 
considen^, essentially of an original nature; it is not couf^enl- 
tally jHjrfect, as we may well assume sadism and masoclitsm to 
be. AVliile in tlie sexual perversions thus far described we 
have met only cases of a e^ngeiiital nature, here we meet only 
at^tired cases. Aside from the fact that in fetichism the causa- 
tive circumstance of its acquirement is ol\en demonstrable, here 
the physiological conditions are wanting, which in sadism and 
masochism, by means of sexual hypersesthesia, are intensified to 
perversions, and justify the assumption of congenital origin. In 
fetichism. every case requires an event which affords the subject 
of j)erversion. As has bi'en said, it is, o( course, physiolotjical 
in sexual life to be partial to one or anntlier of woman*s |iecu- 
liarities, and to be enthusiastic about it; but concentration of 
llie entire sexual interest on such partial impressions is here the 
essential thing; and for this conccntmtion there must be a par- 
ticalar nsison in every individual affected. Therefore, we may 
accept Binet's conclusion that in the life of eceri/ fetivhiat there 
may be aatfumed to havr. heen /tome event whicli determined the 
(Ufioeiation of huftfid feeling tdih the single impression. This 
event is to be referred to the time of early youth, and, as a nde, 
occurs in connection with the fii-st awakening of the vita sexualis. 
This first awakening is associated with some jMirtial sexual im- 
pression (since it is nlwnys something standing in some relation 
to woman), and stamps it for life as the principal object of sexual 
interest. The circumstances under which the association arises 



are usually forgotten. It is only the result of tlie association 
that is retained. The gencml predisposition In psycho|i«thiv: 
states and the sexual hypf!r%Bl1iesia of such individuals are all 
that is original here.* 

l.ii\o the other pervprsious thus far tonsidered, erotic (|>iitlio- 
logical) fetichism may also express itself in strange, unnatural, 
and even criminal acts : gi-alification with the female ix-tsou fnco 
indebito, thcll and robheiy of objects of fetichism, pollution of 
such objects, etc. Here, too, tt only depends u)»on the intensity 
of the iKTvcrsc impulse and the rrlntivc pnycr of opposing,' 
ethical motives, whether and to what extent such acts are per- 
formed. These perverse acts of fetichists, like those of other 
sexually perverse individuals, may cither nionc constitute the 
cntii-e cxtenial i-ita sexualis, ))r occur to^:ft!ier with the normiil 
sexual ai-t. This depends upon the condition of physical and 
psychical sexual power, and the degi-ee of excitability to normal 
stimuli that lias been retained. Where excilabilily is dimiu- 
ishetl, not hifrequently the sight or touch of the fetich serves as 
a necessary preparatory act. 

The great pmctical importance which attaclies to the lacti 
of fetichism, in accordance with what has been said, lies in two 
factors. First, pathological fetichism is not infrequently a cause 
of jNti/rhicaf imjK/h/tce.^ Since the object iijwti whinh the sexual 
jnterifst of the fetichist is concentrated st;nid.s, in ilself. In no 
imme^liate relation to the normal sexual act, it oilen happens 
that the letichist diminishes his excitability to normal stimuli 

* Thniich BlnH: (rp. rf^) dirlHru that rrrvj w-xuhI pi*rwniloD, wHfaoat exwpUon, 
def*'"']" UI"'ii luiti an " iBCclilput mcllog on m jjrpi.U»i)«M.itl *ul>Ji-rt " (wbrrr, iindrr prrdl»- 
|aialtIon,c:')ily lirp-rn-fttlii'ftin In ^-iKml IminilrrbUind >, yctsiichamtMiimptiou fnroUipr per- 
vrr*ii>ii« than fi^tlchlHin t« nclUiur necM*«r7 nor aitUitrnrbiry. I'or rxkniplc, It la not olaar 
tiflir the elgitt of anotlipr's pnnUbmcRt cnuld cfzcllc eoxually e»n a very (^x<'iuMl} lndtvidii»l, 
If Ujb pli^idnlncli-al ivInUtiniililp of liut Kiid cruelty liiul not liccji dcvelopad Into mij/iittU 
sadUin Id un slmiinnally irXLitublu ltiillvl<Iual. 

■ Whi-n }-i>iiii|; hiuliHUila who Imvi' luuHirliitfMl niiir:b with ptostltnt^S f«el IrapotMlt 
In tlir r«<!i' of tliL- i-liMtUy of IJii'lr yuuiii; ur1fi-»— « thlriK U»«t rnH|ueiilly ixTiini — th* «jn- 
dlCluii iiiny br rrsTirdrd na • kind of (|>P'yfhir«ll fctlohUut lu b wIiIlt muvo. One nf mj 
[Mll'-ntit wu ni'ViT |H>lcnc with bis bi>«udral itml i-lKutt/- j-rning wifr, bccniiiw he waa bccu»- 
U.m«d to the lafirlvtouc innhoils of pnwtltntcK. Witen hi> novr And then ftttriupt«rd coitus 
vrlth po^'llL* be wii« in-rrii-tlr iHiiout. HmiiirxinU (_op. fit.) roportd avcryslnilliLr InfrMtlnir 
ewe. Of ciiuiite, lu mrh ciu«e, a hiul goii»i.-Iui)cg uid hypuvliMilrlw] temr uf lni|ioU;tkC« 
pki^ Ml ImporUnt pul. 



by his perversion, or, at least is capable of coitus only by mcjuis 
of concentration of hia fancy upon liis fetich. In tliis perver- 
Rion, and in the difficulty of its adequate satislhctioii, just as in 
the other [R^rversions of the tx^xual iiistiiiet, lie conditions favor- 
ing psychical and physical onanism, which again ri'acls dclts 
.tertouKlv on the uonstitution and sexual power. This is 
specially true in the case of youthful individuals, and par- 
ticularly in the case of those who, on account of opposing 
ethiral and testliptic motives, shrink from the realization of 
their perverse desires. Secondly, feticliism is of great forensit^ 
importance. Ju&t as sadism may extend to murder and l)ie 
infliction of Imdily injury, fetichisra may lead tu theft and even 
to robbery for the possession of the desired articles. 

Erotic fctichism has for its object cither a rcrtain portion 
of the body of a jK'rson of the ojtposite sex, or a certain arti- 
cle or material of Heariiig-ai»purfl of the opposite sex. (Only 
cases of |)athological fctirhism in m(m have thus far been ol>- 
served, and therefon; only portions of the female person and 
attire are spoken of here.) In accordance with this, fetichists 
fall into three groups. 

(a) The Fetich in a Part of the Fcmnlf Boiiy. — Just as, tu 
physiolo^eal fetirhism, the eyes, the hand, the foot, and the 
hair of woman very frequrntly herome fftiehes, so, in tlie palli- 
olfjgical dt>muin, the same iwrtiuiis of the body hecfune the sole 
objects of sexual interest. This exclusive concentmliuii of 
interest ou these parts, by the side of which everything else 
feminine fades, and all other sexual value of woman may sink 
to nil, so that, instead of coitus, strange manipulations of the 
fetich become the object of desire, — this it is that makes these 
cases pathological. 

Case 74. (Biuut, a^. cit.) X., iLgud 34, tcncber In a 0;)'i>ina»nini. 

In cbildliooil he snlTered with convulsions. At th«- a^e of t«n he be^u 
to nuutarbatc, with luiitfiil fcclinti;*, wtiicli were eonoected with very 
Btnui^ idew). He wnn pnrtirnlArly pfirtinl to womcn'fl eyes; but since 
he irifthfd to imagine sonip form of roitua, and was alwoliilwly iiinoeprit 
in sexual matters, to nvoid too great n reparation from tbo eyes, tie 
vrolved the idea of making the Qostriix tho tfvat of the female sexual 
organn. Then bia lively Mxual tleitires were connected with this id«ft. Ue 



■keUbeU 'ImwingH reprenenting correct Greek prolileB of fcinnle hi-adn, hiil 
tbe DOfltrila wcru bo lar^itf that ituuilsslo penis wouli) hare livuu }K>£sible. 

One day, in an omoibuB, he saw a girl in whom be thotight he reo* 
agaitvl bi« idvMl. Hv followcil her to btfr home aitd unmedtately pro- 
pOMd to her. Shown the door, he retnmed again and again, nntil 
arreeied. X. never bad sexual intercourse. 

Hand-fetichists 4re verj- numerous. The following case is 
not really pathological. It is given here as 9. transitional case : — 

Ca»e 75. B., of neuropathic fxinily, very ««ns«al, lut-iiUily iutavt. 
At the sif^ht of the hand of a beautiful yonn;; lady be is always (rharroed 
and fcbU wxiial cxciU^inunt to the extent of ejaculation. It is bis de> 
light to and press sneh haiul». As long an they are covered with 
gluve» be feels utiluippy. By prctejKlB be tries to get hold of such hands. 
He 18 indifferent to tbe foot. If the lieautiful bands are ornamented with 
ringn, his luttt i» increased. Only the Jiviug band, not its image, €«u»eH 
him this Int^tfnl excitement. It is only when he is exhausted sexually 
by frequent coitus that the hand loses its sexnul clmna. At first the 
roemory-picttire of feuukle hunda disturbed bim even while at work. 
^Kinet, op. cit.) 

Binet states that such cases of enthusiasm for the lemale 
hand are numerous. Here it may be recalled that, according 
to Case 24, a man may be partial to the female hand as a result 
of sadistic impulses ; and tliat, acrording to Case 46, the same 
thing may be due to masoctiistic desires. Thus such cases have 
mure than one meaning. But this is by no means to say that 
all, or even a majurity, of the (»ses of hand-fetichi^m allow or 
require a sadistic or masochistic explanation. 

The following iuteresliug case, that has been studied in. 
detail, shows that, in spite of the fiict that at first a sadistic or 
ma.-«>chistic element seems to have exercised an influence, at tlie 
time of the individuars maturity and the complete dcvclo]»mcnt 
of the perversion, the latter contained nothing of tliese elements. 
Of course, it is possible tliat, in the course of time, these disap- 
peared; but here the assumption of the origin of the fetichism 
in an accidental as.snciation meets every requirement : — 

Case 76. A case of kand-fetichumi. coinmnnicated by Albert Moll. 
P. L.. a^ed 38, a merchant of Westphalia. Aside from the fact that the 
p«tient'» father was rt-'iiinrkably moody and somewhat quick-tumpered, 
uotbiug of an hereditary nature could be proved in the family. At 



Bcbool the patJent was not v«ry diligent; he wiib iii'tit nhle to coniH.'U- 
trato hh sttiiution ou nny one subject for auy leugth of liui<^ ; un tliti 
other band, Trom cbiUlhoo'l he bad a gnsl iQdtnatioD for music. Uis 
tcinperaiucnt was always nervoua. 

In August, 1890, be came to mo complAinlng of headache and 
abdominal pnin, which in every wiir gave tlii> iniprcsBion of being ncu- 
rusthFiiic. The jiatit'iit atno said be was dt;»t.iliit« of eii«rgy. Only aflor 
accurately directed questions did the [wtieut mnko the follovt-iiig tttate- 
uients conoerniiig his rtvxua) life. Ak f»r as he could rumeiiibvr, the 
bvgiimiiig!i of aexual excitement otrcurred in bi» Bcvunth year. When- 
erer he Raw a boy of bin own age urinate and caught sight nf hia geni- 
tals, he became lustfully excited. L. slates with certainty that thla 
excitement was assoi^iiitfd with very evident creetioiis. Led astray by 
another boy, L. learned Lo niasturhute iit cht- tige of seven or ei^L 
" Being of a very cxeitable nature," inaid L., " 1 practiced masturbation 
Tcry frequyutly until my ei^htei'nth year, without guiniiig any clear idea 
of the evil resiiltfl or the meaning of the pmcltee." He wim purtiuuhirty 
fond of praetieiug mutual onanism with A)mi! of his KehnoUfricndH, Init 
it was by no meiinfi an indifferent matter who the other boy was; ou the 
contrary, only a few uf hiii rumpuuiouH eould KaliHfv liiiii in Ihi-'^ reBpect. 
To the ([ueHtiou an to what fiarticulurly caused liiui to prefer thitt or that 
boy, L. replied that a tphite, beauti/idiij-/ormed hand in Lis school-fellows 
impelled bim to practieu mutual onnui)<m with tbciu. L. further rt-niem- 
bered that friHiuenlly, at thf l>e}{inning of the gymnn^lic Ittw>n, ho 
would exercise by him»telf on a bar stAndtng apart. He did thia for the 
par|>()»e of exciting hinifielf of« mneb as possible ; and he was so suecess- 
(al that, without using Ihh baud aiut without eja'^ulation, — L. was still 
too young, — be had lustfijl pleasure. Another early event which L. 
rememlMirA is interesting. One day bis favorite eompauion, N., who 
practiced mutual onaui&m with him, propoi<ed that L. should try Lo get 
bold of his (N/s) (lenis, and he would dn all be could to prevent it L. 
aequieiwed. In thin way the onanism wat, direetly oombined with a' 
struggle between Lmth parties, in whieli N. was always overcome. The 
struggle alwnvs finally ended in \.'n hiring cotupi'lled Ui allow I,, to 
pmcti<% onanism on litm. L. aKsure<l uie that this kind of nuisturluitioii 
had given biiu, as well us >'., especial pk-ii^iure.' In tins way h. eoutiu- 
ued to practice masturbation very frequently until his eighteentli year. 
Warned by a frieud. he IIk'H Iwgan to struggle with nil bis might against 
his evil babit. He became more and more euccc!»fnl, and finally, after 
the first perfornifinee of coitus, be stopped the pnicticp of onanism 
entirely. But this was only accomplished in bi« twenty -second ymr. It 
seema incomprehensible to the patient — and he says be is filled with 
illegust at the thought of it — how be could ever have found pleasure in 

1 A UdO of mdlniontjiry KuUtm in L. uid ouuochlMii In N. 



performing miistiirluttion vith other hoys. \ow, notbiiig could iodacc 
bitn to toiich Hiiotlicr innn'« gvnitaU, tbc sight of which iit even unpleas- 
ant to him. U(.' has lo^ all inclinntion for men, sod fecU attrat-tcd t>3* 
women excl usi «*ely . 

It must be mcnCioned. however, that, thouj^h L. has a dccitliKl 
inclination for the female tw\, be pre»entj« an abnormal pheaomenon. 

Tlie e8«tmiti»l thiiiff in woniAii tliat excitva liiiu i» tbe si^bt of faer 
beautiful bauds ; L. is by f&r more impressed wbeu be touches a bcautifVil 
Tenuile b»n<I tliaii be would lie wtrrv be to see i|ji> poaseBSOr to a state of 
complete nudity. The extent to which L/s prefvivnca for beauUftil fmuale 
UiiiHlt* tioe« 19 »bown hy tbe following incideut : — 

I>. knew a I>eautit'id yount; lady i»0(»*e»'*e<l of ever)* eharm, bat ber 
hittid^ were quite large aiid not lti-auti(Villy forme*!, and ollcn they were 
not fld elcan as h. could wi:ib. For this reosou it was not ouly im|KKSsilile 
for I., hi eonwive a doe[>er interest iu llie lady, Imt lie was nut able even 
to loueb ber. L. I>elievet« that there is uotliiug more dingustiu^ Ui bira 
than dirty fin^feNnniN; thin atone would make it impos^ilile for him W 
toHoli a woman who in all other respects w&s moat U^utiful. L.. for- 
raerly, as a su1)stitute for coitus, hail the puella iierform genital nuuipu- 
bitioii with ber bnud until ejaculntiou took place- 
To the qiicotion as to wbat tliere wnt alKiut a wonuuia band that 
tracted him in particular, whether be aaw in it a symbol of ]H>wer, and 
Tthetber it fpivf bira plrtwurc to l^e directly htiniiliated by a woman, ibe 
patient answered tbnt only the bfauli/Hl form of the band charmed him; 
tbat it atfoitlrtl him no gratiHeation lo be biimiliat^l by a woman; and 
that he had never had any tbouglit to regard the band aa tbe aymbol or 
iostrament of a wouiau'^ {tower. Tbe pn.-fcnmcre for tbe band Is still 
so gn-ut that tbe |>utieiit has greater pleasui-e wheu bis guallals are 
touched by it tfiau when be perlbrmtt cnitiiit in vaginam. Yet, the 
patient prefers to perform the Inlter, because it Rcems to him to be 
natural, while tbe fonner swms abnormal. The touch of a beautiful 
femiile hand ou his body immediately causes him to have crei-tion ; be 
thinks that kisBtng and other eonlHctti do not exert nearly so strong ati 
infiueiiee. 11 is ouly of late years tbat Uie jiatieiit has jjerformed coitus 
IVequuuUy, but it has always been very dilliciilt for him to delermiue to 
do it. Too, in coitus, he did not find tbe complete Bati^rnctlon be aoDght. 
However, when bu finds himtielf near a woioau whom he would like to 
IHfSSUSs. sometimea, at mere sight of ber, Uit^ i^exual ejkcitemeut becomes so 
intense that ejaculation results. L. says expressly that during this he 
dues not intention ally touch or presH his genitalia ; ejaculition under such 
circumstances afforda bim much more pleasure than he esperiences ia 
actual coitus.' 

To go back, the patient's dreama were never about ooltua. When 




fa«h»d pollution)* at iii^bt, they werenlincst. ainnyfi aoAocmted with other 
thoofihts than those tbnt oocur iu the nannnl man. Tbo imiicut'S dreams 
are of events of his school -<lnys. During his school -(Iftya, besides the 
iDutuul nuajiisin dutici'ili'il. he bud t-jtu'uIaliouH whunuvi-r he tit-ciimt 
anxiously fscite<l. When, for exumpte, the iencher dictated tm extern- 
poraueouM extrfisL', nnd L. wan inuible to follow iu tmnshtiou, ejacuUttion 
often o»,x-urtv<l.' Thf- ]>ollt)tiotiit thnt now oocur occimionally, at nii^ht, 
»re only ftCfomimnieil by dreams timt have the siunc or a similar sulijeet. — 
the events at (•chool junt mt-iitioueiJ. On Recount of lii^ iinnattiral feeling 
and stiDKihility, the [lutieut thinks he is iucuimhh; of lovinf; u woumn long. 
Treatment of the putieut'o iwrveraioa has not yet been possible. 

This case of Imnd-leticliism ccrtaiuly docs not dr^K'Hd on 
masocliism nr siulism, Imt is lo lip pxplHinpiI simjdy by early in- 
dulgence in mutuiil onanism. There is hero, also, ([uite as little 
of contrary isexual instinct. Bpfnro the' s<;xnal apjK^titc was 
clearly conscious of it* object, the hands of school-fellows were 
used. xVs soon as the instinct for the opposite sex cecame en'- 
dcnt, the interest for the hand was transferred to woman. 

In hand-fetirhists, who, areonling to Binet, are so nuiner- 
ouSf it is (wssiblc that other associations lead to the same result. 

Next to the hiuid-(etichists, naturally corae the foot-fetich- 
iste. WHiile plovi'-fetichism. which beloiif;s to the next grou]) 
of object-fetichism, seldom takes the place of liand-letichisra, we 
find shoe- and boot^ frtirhism. of which there arc innnmornble 
cases orcurrin«( everywlicrr, taking the place of entliusiasm for 
iJie naked female foot. There are only here and there traces of 
the hittt^r enthusiasm, and tlirse are s(ar(rt*Iy ^Mitlutlugjcal. Tt is 
easy to see the reason for this. The female hand is usually seen 
uncovered; the foot, covered. Thus the early associntioits 
which determine the direction of the vita sexualis are naturally 
connected with the naked hand, hut with the covered foot. 

Shoe-fetichism also tinds its place in the following group 
of dress- fetichism ; however, ou accouut of its demonstrable 

* This Is alto wmal hyper«0tlit>alft. Any InuoM axBlu>in<^iil iJltetA 'tho mxukI 
•pben (Blnct's *■ drnAinoiriulD ^ir«]i> "). CoDcitraliiir UiU, Dr. Moll coiDmuuk-HtM thv 
fiillowltif: CBM : " A »lidUu- tblii£ I* >l««eiib>-a by Mr. E.. ae?d 37 ; mprchaitt. Wlill« &( 
•chiuol, Hiul afterward. In- nrtrn hHil njiu'iilntlo)) nltli plranuniblR fn-lIiiK wlif n tie wa* 
wiled wlUi a fvtJltii; ■))' IuU-um aiitU-ljr. BcsldL-*, uliuoot I'vcf^ (idicr [ihytleal or nH^iiUl 
pftln fxtrUi m «linllar Influence. E., m he states, liu s iii'iniisl mixusI luetlnct, but tuffcn 
with ai-rroud InpoteDce." 





masochistic chaniotcr in the majority of cases, it hatt been, for 
the most part, described already (p. 123 ot seq,). 

Besides the eye», hand, and foot, the moutli and ears often 
play the role of a fetich. Among others, Moll (oj). cit.) men- 
tions sucli cases. (C'-omp. also Kclot's romance, " La Bouche de 
Madame X.," which, B. stales, rests upon actutd observation.) 

Tlie foUowing remarkable case came under my pcrsouaJ 
observation : — 

Case n. A goiitIi>ruan or very bad berodity oonsDlted me conocni- 
ing iii)i>oti'uuc tluit whm Jriviti^ bim lUiuost lo dedpsii-. Wlillu he wits 
yoiirin, hii* Mich was woioon ol' plimip form. He ninrriod (-tich u lady, 
and was* lia]>|iy nnc! pot^-nt with her. After a few months the hidy felt 
very ill, and lost mut-b flesh. Wlien, oue day, he tried to resume hia 
marital duty, he wb« nliKoltitely impoUiiit, and n-iuaJued no. If, however, 
he attempted enitiiii with plump womvD, he was perfectly potent. 

Even bodily defects may become letiches. 

Deswirti'!*. who him*«lf (■' Trait»5 dea Pussions." cxxxvi) expreaMtf| 
Kome opinioas concerning the origin of pcctilinr alfcetioii!) in nHAociationa 
of ideas, wan always jMrtiftl to crosseyed womeu, Ijecaiiso the object of 
his first love had stit-li a defert. (Bini<t, op. nU.) 

Lyd.ston ("A Leetiire on Sexual Perver8ion,"Chieflj;o, 1890') re|)Orts 
the i!S8e of a man who hwl a love^fTair with a woman whose right lower 
extremity liad liecii nm|Hit»U-d. AAvr seimratiou from licr, bo searched 
for other womeu with a like dwfeot.* — A negative fetich. 

When the |>art of the female body formini; the fetich is 
capable of removal, like the hair, the most extnivajLjaut acts 
may be performed. Therefore, hair-fetichists form au m- 
teresting and forensicallj-iniportanl category. While such 
admirers of female liair are probably not iiifrecpicnt within 
physiolojficnl liniil.s, and possibly various senses (sight, smell, 
and hearing, through crepitant sounds,- — and certaiTdy touch, 
just as witli velvet- and silk- fetichists. v. infni) are thus excited 
with au accompaniment of lustful fcclhig; yet, a series of 
similar pathologiciil cases has also been observed, in which the 
hair-fctichism^ liad become an overpowering impulse, and driven 

■ Phlia. *H<n\. KDrt Biirg-. Rrp., Sept. 7. leSO. 

* Tlilji caan hu urielQulJy reported l>y Dr. Jl. R. Roynuldi, Cblcaga (Western Med. 
R«poncr, Nov., 1S86). 

These form the group of 

Caee 78. A hair-despoiler. P., aged 40. srtiatic locksmith, single. 
His father was temporarily insane, and his mother wus very norrous. 
He dcTclopcd wdl.and waa intelligent; l»iil he was early arTected with 
tifg and imperative ideas. He Imd never iua(;liirtmt«(l. He loved pla- 
tonicully, aud often busieil himself witti matrimouinl pkuti. He lind 
coituK infVequeutly with proi^titnteK, but never felt tuntit^lled witli kul'Ii 
iiitercotirae — rather, disgusted. Tlirct* years «jj[o be wax overtiikeii by 
misfortane (tinnncial ruin), nnd, Iteiiides. he had a febrile disease, with 
delirium. These things had a very bad effect on his hcreditftrily.[>re- 
dimjiosed nervous system. On AiigUBt 28, lH8i), P. was nrreaUrd at the 
Trocndero, in PariH, in fiagranii, as he forcibly cut off a young girl's 
hair. He was arrested with the hair in his lutnd nnd n |>iitr of sheurH in 
bi» pocket. He excuwed hiiaitelf on thu ground uf momentnry mental 
ConfVision aud an unfortunate, irresistible passion; h<a confoittted that be 
ten times cut olT hair, which he took grejit delight in keeping at 
On searching his hoiue, sixty-five Bwitclietf and trett^-ri of hair 
were found, assorted in packetu. P. Imd ;dreu<ly l>eeii omi; arrested, on 
Decemlser 15, 18yC, under eimilar tarcumstanoes, but was rtleuHed fitr 
lack of Gvidencc. 

P. states that, for the laet three years, when he is alone in liis room 
at night, he feela ill, anxious, exeited, nnd dizxy, and thnn is troubled by 
the impuUe to touch female hair. When it happened that he could act- 
ually take a young girlV hair in liin hand, he felt intensely excited scxu. 
ally, and ha<l erection and ejaculation without touuhing the girl in any 

■ Moll (<:)). ea., p. ISI ) report* : " A tama, X., beconiM luteuwly cicltcd aexuAltjr 
wb«iM!V« tae MM * wuiuAii Willi tbc hair lii u bral*l ; locMe hair, no uiuiuir buvr brHUlind, 
UBODoi pruOucc this effect.'' 

Of couree, H t» not JonllflnbtD to i-ntifiiler all li»tr.«ltwpailer« fKlIchbts, for tn a few 
•ticb acts ar» dune for the purjiocu of t;*')*) — 1'*'> ''"^ *Uilen liair In nut a frtlrli. 

■ Maffiiiui (Arvb. di- NrumloKli-, vol. KXXlIt, >'o. fll>, IWS) fclvrs Itir di-lallaor a tiiae 
of icxiiAl prrvrmlon in •dcgcncrair IniUvldwnl, wlKiri- th* elbinciilAi>t fi.-tli.-liUm «ud «Hdl»U] 
•KtTvt:mnMae<\.^ti<\ fault demlfHj llie«atllillc Imputfis rnund BttlMartlou In s^lf-DiUULatiou. 
Thi* [wrreniF linpulM bcjcrafi a\ tin- Sfo of ill ; ttic risbt of « >>L>y i^r irtH vrllli ■ di-licate, 
whltr skli) BwukcDcd In liloi *i'ZukI appetite, wUh a d»lr« to blic and cut a piece of ili< 
alitii. Wblte trart-vHtnc *■ lioree, thu ImpniM' t<> Mir tbr Kin Rkiu i>r It* nnrlrila arose, aud 
afWrwaril thri mrmnry or thla bmrnme uwN.'liital wilh lh<^ mrt or onanism. l,eili<T, \\k bc^n 
tu pHrlk tilii]*«1f n'Uii ptiia, ktilv^ vie., wlille niBaturbiitlije' TT>e drktrr to bitr Aud vaX 
kkln wu aJ*o pn>vnk(4 h/ tlir^ «l|i:ht nt nMtilnK blitdcA, lik« thoM of srlMoni. lie w<m 
nlwaj-* >Mc u> rt^tBi tliR tmpulu* to attack young glrla; but tbe ttmirst<i was bard, and for 
eight miinths hf^ hnilt«t«d bororc veutlii? liU pnaaloti ou hie owu person. Ue was Bnally 
amsted Id Ibe act of euiiliic a large pleco of »klu from his arin wlili icUaora. Aaked Uh 
luoUvoof«t«t^ tbnt for tuvmt Iinurc iii- luul bct^ii followliig a Touiijc 
0t1 who liad n. flni% wliltr nklii, and waa buniltifc wlili dc^alrc Ui cut out a pin-aoflt and eat 
It. Oti hU penwn ihtn were niaay tears of previous miitltntlnn*. The Impulae was darotd 
of natural avxual dealre. Cbcwlcg ibe piece or skin proroked ^aculatloii.— TRAxa. 

hi» p 
■ confVi 






othor way. On reacliing home, be woultl foel anliained of what had taken 
place ; Imt the wwh to possess hair, always accoininiiiioii by grrat Mtntitial 
plcnsure, boaime morv :in(l more poworfiil in him. He wondered that pre- 
%-iuusIy, even in the most intinmte iritercourne witb women, lie hiul ex- 
pcrifiiL-i-d u(i (tut;h r«H!liiig. 4>uu uvcuin^ he luuld not resist the impulse 
to cut ott' a girl's liair. Witb the hnir in his Unud, iit boiue, the wn^iuitl 
pruce*w was i-vju-iited. lie wjia fort;e<l to rub his body with the hair and 
enrclo]! his KC^nitals in it. Finnllly, quite exUftnoted, he grew ashamed, 
and could not trnst himsflf to go out I'or several dayn. Attt-r nmntha of 
n-Ht hewHSfttpiiii impelled to iiosseMs himeell' uf feumle hair, inditUTeiil as 
Lu whose it mi|{ht lje. II' he nltiiiiieU his end, he felt himtteii' possir^t^i-d by 
a Hupernatiiml powur and unaMe to give up Uitf booty. If he l-oilIU not 
attain the objifl uf liis de^iiv, he bei-ame gre»tly d<^I)re»Aed, hiirridi home, 
and there reveled in his collection of hAir. Heeomlied and fondled It, and 
thus had intense orgasm, satisfying himself by raaslnrbiktion. Hair c-x- 
[KM^ed in tlie eat^es of hair-dresKers made no imjireH^ion on him : it re.[|uired 
hair hanging down from a ffrnale lund. 

At the ht'ight of his at-t, be stales, he is in such a state of excite- 
ment that lie has only imperfect apperception and !iubsei|iivnt mfiiiury of 
whiit he do*'-'*. VVht-u he touches the hair with th*? i»he:ir3 he has erection, 
and, at the of outting it otf, ejaeidation. Since his misfortune, 
about three years ngOj he states that he li:is had weakness of memory, is 
easily exliaut^tc^l mentally, and hsin Iieen troubled by slei^plcsNneso and 
nigbt-torrora. V. deeply rtgretH his crime. 

Not only hair, but a number of hair-pins, riblrans, and other articles 
of the feminine toilet, were found in bis posBession. which be had had 
preMUitet] to liim. fie had always had iin actual mauin for collecting 
such things, as well as newspapers, pieces of wood, and other worthless 
trash, which he wontd never give up. He also had a strange and, to him, 
iiic\plicjiblc fear of passing & ctM-iain Hltvet; if hu ever tried it, it made 
him ill. 

The opinion (medico-legal) ghowetl him to be hereditarily predis- 
posed, .and proved the iraijerativf, impulsive, and decidedly invohintary 
character of the criminal acts, which had the significance of an ImiK-ra- 
live act, iuducctl by on imperative idea, with an accompaniment of over- 
powering abooruuil sexucU feeling. Pardon ; nsyUun fur insiuie. (Voisin, 
Socquet, Motet, Annaiea tVhyyiene, April, 1890.) 

FoUowiuj^ this case, is a similar one wliinh also deserves 
attention ; for it has been well studied, and may be cailed almost 
t'latisical ; and, too, it places the tctich, as well as the original 
associative awakening of the idea, in a clear light : — 

Case T9. A kair-dfaf^aUer. B., ag^d 25. Maternal aunt, epileptic ; 
brother had convulsiooa. E. says be was fairly healthy as a child, and 



leamwl quite eJiMly. Al the a^ nf Bftevn he Iiatl n m>iisimi fevthig of 
[ilwiHure, Willi erection, at lUc sijjUl ol" oii« of tbc villa^'c lirautifH comLiing 
her hair. Until that time jwrsons of the "ppoeite uta Imd iiiHiIe no iin(ire»* 
»ioii oil litm. Two months Inter, in Puri«, Mie Hi^ht ol' yoi>)>f! t^i'*'-'^ with 
their hair Itowiti^ liown over th<'ir shoiilih-rs nlwaj^'s escited liiin hiti;nsply. 
One da.y he could not resist an opportunity to twist n youu^ g"^'^ lif'ir in 
liifl tingeni. Kor this he wun ari-enied and sentenceil to imprinonTnPTil for 
three moiuhs. After that lie served live years ao a soldier, louring this 
time hair was not dangerous For him, thoiijfb nUo not very accessible ; but 
he dreamed eometiniM of female heads with the hair bnttded or flowing;. 
Oivasional roitiis with women, hut withrtut having their hair ptfective as 
a fetich. Once more in Paris, he again drwimcd iw before, and hecame 
greatly excited by feniale hair. He ne*'er dreamed nliout the whole form 
of a woman, only of la-ads with hniids of hair. Hi* sexual cifiteraent 
<lue to this fetich had become so intense of late that he had resortwl to 
miwturbntion. The ide« of touching female hair, or, belter, of possessing 
it to masturhAte while handling it, ffrew more and more imwernil. Of late, 
when he had feninte b&ir in his Ongors, ejaouliilion was iiiduecd. One 
day he succeeded in iMittiiig hair, nlwiil 2.1 centimetreH long, from three 
little girls in the str(H--t. and keeping it in his poeseHsiou. when he was 
arrested in a fourtb attempt. Deep regret and shame. He wan not sen- 
tenced. Since sjieiiding ^oiue time in the iiifyluiii, he hri* so far iininoved 
that female hair no longer excites him. Set at liberty, he thuught of 
gr»lng to his native place, where the women wtar their liair done up. 
(Magnan, Archiv. de Vanthropol. criniimtle, v, Kr. 28.) 

A third case in the folluwiuj^, which is likewise suited to 
illustrate the psycliopathic nature of such phenomena; atid the 
remarkable means which induced a cure are worthy of note: — 

Coee 80. Hair-felichi»m. Mr. X., I)etween tlurly and forty years 
old ; from the higher einss of society ; single. He says that he eoines of 
a healthy tiiniily, bill from chitdhond has lieen nervous, vaeilliiting. and 
pet.-tiliiir; that since hij» eiyUth yeiir he Imx been powerfully iittructtnl 
by fbmflto hiiir. This wan particnbrU- true in the cane of young girls. 
Wlien he was nine yenr.-* old, a girl of thirteen sednped him. He did not 
uuderrttand it, and wan not at nil ex(;iteil. A twelve-year-ohl sister of 
CbiA girl alKO eourte^l, kisso^l, and hugged him. He allowed this (inictly, 
be>c«use this girl's hair pleuiie'l him ^o well. When about ten yvv-ta old. he 
began to have sensual feelings at the sight of female hair timt pleasetl him. 
Orndunlly these feelings oceurred spontaneounly, and memory-piclnreB 
of girls' hair were always immediately associated with them. At tile age 
of eleven he was taught to uiiiHl-urlHile by school-matos. The associative 
fonnec-tioii of sexuul feelings and a fetiehistie idea wim already established, 
and always apjMsared when the patient indulged iu evil pracliees with his 



compsnions. Wilb stivftiit-inp years, the fetich (jrew more anA motv power- 
All. Kven false hair ijefran t^ excite him, Iiiit he always |>rL-ft'iTL'd natural 
hnir. Wlit-n he could touch or kiss it, he w»s [HTlVclly happy. He 
vrrot« eHHiiVH mxl piH'iiiH on Um beauty of fmualc hair; be skuccbcd beadK 
of bair and iua><turbutL-d. Alter his fourteeDtb year bv became no power- 
fully excitetl by Iiih fetich thnt he had violent erections. In contrast vith 
his early taste while ii boy, he wa« now charmed only by luTuriant, thick 
bhiek hair. He experiencftd intense desire to kias such hair, particularly 
to auek it. To touch such hair affonled him but. little flatiafaetion ; he 
obtained nniith more pleju^ure in l(^)kin^ at it, but particularly in kissing 
Hn<l suckiii;; it. If this were iiupofsiblc, be would become uuhajipy, eveu 
to the extent of tiediiiin vitte. Then he would attempt to relieve hiinaelf, 
fmagining fantastic " hair-a<lventurea" and mastarbating. Not inf^*- 
quently, in the street and in crowds, he could not keep from imprinting 
a kiss on Indies* heads. He would then hurry homo to masturbate 
Sometimes he Donid rcHiKt this impidne; but it was then neceBsary for 
him, nilinl with fceliiif^s of fear, to ruu away as quickly as possible, in 
oi'der to escape the domination of his fetieli. lie was only once im- 
pelled to cut off H girl'a hair in a crowd. In the act he was setxed with 
fear, and was not sucressfnl with bis pocket-knife; and, by flight, he nar- 
rowly cseapwl detection. 

Wlieii he lieciime mature, he attempted to satisfy himself in coitus 
with piii-llia. He induird powerl'iil i-nurtioi) by kissing the hair, but could 
not induce ejaculation. Therefore, he was uiisatisflcd by coitus. At the 
aanie time, his favorite idt-a was coitus with kissing of hair; but even 
this did nut s;Ltisfy him, because it did not induce ejacutatiou. Faitte 
de jntei"^, he once stole the combings of a lady's hair, put it in bis moutli, 
anil masturltjited while calling its owner up in imagination. In the dark 
n womnn could not interest him, because he could not then see her bair. 
Flowing ludr also had no charm for him ; nor did the hair about the 
genitals. His erotic dreams were all nbout bair. Of late the patient 
had beeunie »o excited that he had a kind of natyriasis. He was incapa- 
ble of biiainess, and felt so unhappy that he sought to drown his sorrow 
ill alcohol. He drank large (iimntities, had alcoholic attack 
of alcoholic epilepsy, and required bospitnl treatment. After the intoxi- 
cation had passed away, under appropriate treatment, the sexual excite- 
ment soon dtsapjiuared ; and when the patient was discharged, he was 
freed from bis fetichisttc idea, save for its occasional occurrenoe In 
dreams. The physicul examination showed normal genitaU and no 
degenerative signs whatever. 

Siinh coses of hair-fetichism, whicli lend to attaclcs on 
female Iiair, seem to occur everywhere, from time to timn. In 
November, 1B90, according to lepotts iu American newspapers. 



several citire in the United States wen; troubled by such bair- 

(b) The Fetich U (tn Article of Female Attire. — The great 
importance of adornment, ornament, and dress, in the normal 
vita sextialis of man, is very generally recognized. Cullnre and 
(iishiou* have, to a certain extent, endowed ivoman witli arti- 
ficial sexual characterii^tics, the removal of wliich, wheu woman 
is seen unattircd, in spite of the normal sensnal effect of this 
sight, may exert an opposite influence.* It should not be over- 
looked that female dress often shows a tendency to emphasize 
and exaggerate certain sexual peculiarities, — secondary si^xual 
characteristics (bosom, waist, hips). In most individuals the 
sexual instinct awakes long hefon? there is any possibility or op- 
portunity of intimate intercourse, and the early desires of youth 
are concerned with the ordinary apjK'aranee of the iittii-ed female 
form. Thus it Impjiens that not infretinently, at tlie beginning 
of llie vita sexualis, ideas of the ^lersons exerting sexual eharma 
and idejis of tlirir attire become associated. This association 
may be lasting — the attired woman may be always preferred — 
if the individuals dominated by this perversion do not in other 
respects attain to a normal vita sexualis, and find gnilitication in 
natural charms. 

In psychopathic individuals, sexually hypeiTcsthetic. as a 
result of thiK, it actually iiapjH'ns that the dresse*! woman is 
always preferred to the nude female form. It may be recalled 
that in Case 48 tlie woman was not to take off a garment, and 

■ Tb« ffvquent ehKnges of atvlcof divMwhl'rti faahlon <tkUtM m&jrbe referrecl lot 
|)h]raIolOKlciO law. The rfUKiinu uf Uic utinrouN wyctcm ta n i!on«latii »iliiiulig» ditiiliilkhta 
In profKirtloa lo Um iltiruUou of tbc K-ttuD of tliv ■tlioalue. CoiKlaiit ttwuvlailou «illi 
uodily rriiuiriv lln ixiwer to exi^lli- M-iiia.Hf. Owlni; tn tliln, Uip mvb^ I'lKlpiiTora loaltnipt 
atlsnUiH) by chanfflnit hJ* pliyak-al ptri-ulUrltlra ; be dreMoi lila lialr Iti H>ina romnrkabls 
iray,oriMltiUhlal>oJy : Uicii luf Uttoor»hl*sklii,or perform* Mtrlktiifc BflMniilllBtlnn.aucIi 
a» hal f->'.u>lr«tlnn anil rimimrliilnii (rriinp. Wt-ACfrmar^k, op. ril., p. 305). FInnlly, matl- 
UUan Is replorcHl by inoVAblc appenilugM, upon whtcli ornamcDta arc vrom; aiid Utuathera 
Ift ■ITnrd'?'! iiptxirLunltjr for ^, In ollC1JtoI)Cl^ to t.tie uiiuoihh'Ioun plif«iclO|[1vii] require- 
ment, vrhloh It rallM a "futtrorcbiuigv." UTidoiibtcilty, n-cunan'B dMliv rTctmngwof 
faahinn U primarily ilrpi'tnlpnt apnu man'* (IcbIi'i- Ii> Lw picnju-d ; and Iicr fuiittlon In thb 
■tlrn'tluM liaa c<.tI«Iii1j' tit-uu trauaferred fiuiii Ijlm tu licr b; clrlllKaUuti (ciinip. pi. IH). 
— Tr*x«. 

■ Comp. no«Ui«>> remarks about b[sailTentiireliiQeDCTn("Br1efeaasd«rSrliirelt," 



that in Case 51, efpnijt ^m/icws, the woman was proferred dressed. 
In Ci'ase 89, of the sixth edition, — that of a m;iii manifesting 
contrary sexuality, — the same preference is expressed. 

T)t. Moll {op. cit.) mentions a patient who could not per- 
form coitws with puclln nuda; the woman had to have on a 
rhcmisn, at least Tlie same author (op. trit,, p. 129) mentions 
a man affected with contrary sexuality, who was subject to the 
same dress-fetichism. 

The reason for this phenomenon is apjmrently to be found 
in the mentAl onanism of such individuals. In seeing; innTi- 
^ Iperable clothed ibrms, they have cultivated desires before seeing 

A more marked form of dress-fetich ism is that in which, 

instead of the dresstnl woman, a certain kind of attire becomes 

a fetich . One can undertitand liow, with an intense and early 

"sexual impression, combined with the idea of a particular gar- 

^ raent on the woman, in hypcrtcsthctic individuals, a vci-y intense 

interest in this garment might be developed. 

kV Hammond {op. cif.) reiiorts the following case, taken from 

iioubaud ("Traite do I'impiiissance," Paris): — 

CA»e 81. X., Aon of a {{enci'al. He frikr rained in llie conntry. At 
the age of fourteen be was inilUiteU into the joys of love hy a young 
Indy. This laily wn« n blonde, mid wore ber hair in rinirlets ; ojmI, in 
oi'iler Co AVoiil ilcbeution in sexttnl iiiterconrRe willi ]ier young lover, she 
iilways wore tier iisnal ulotliiug, — gaitei"s, a corset, and a sillt dress. 

Wlion bis stmlieB wore fompleted, and be was sent to r garrison 
wberu lie could lanjoy frtwdoin, lie found that bit) sexniil desiru could be 
excited only under certain pomlitions. A brunette could not excite bitn 
in the least, jitul n woman in night-cl utiles «onld stitic every bit of love 
in bim. In ordt^r U* nn-aken bis desire, a woman bad to be n hloDdc.and 
we&r gaiters, a uorset, and a nilk dreafl, — in nhort, nbe bad to be dressed 
like the lady wlio had llr^t nvt'iiki-ned liis sexual desire. Ho was always 
coinpelieU to );ivi> ii|> tbougbtn of matrimony, beuniiHe be knew lie would 
be unable to fulfill bis marital duty with a woman in nigbt-clotbes. 

ftanimoiid reports another oaite where c©itu« nimitaliti could be 
perforiDcd only by the help of a ceilain cofitiiine ; and Dr. Moll mentions 

■ 71)6 Tact thai tliA partly-Trtlnt rom la oftea mnt« chitrminc ihKO when It la per- 
frPtly ■anae, U, as Tnr as object goci, ilinlUr, but {jutlr illfTi^rrnt |>f vohtntlty, Tlit» drpriKU 
Qpon Uii) pJTi-ct of ci^ninM and upDqUitJuu, wUcb uru w)iutw>n pliGuuiuciia, Kud iu nv 
tuutc )nltio)D|{1<;al. 



wverxl atmilnr cnscs in iiKlivifliiaU of het«rf>. nnfl homo- seximUty. The 
caii^ mxy often be aliown to he an early assocmtion, and bucU may 
always he nsfltitned. It is onl^* in this irnv thnt one can csplnin ^hy n 
certain coBturni* cnnnot Vte resisted hy such iiiilividiialH, no niati«r whnt 
iwraon wears the fetich. Tlius one can understand why, as Coffignon 
(op. ci^) rcliites, Dicn at brothels demand tlmt the women with whom 
tbey are concerned put on certain costumes, such as that of a liH.Met- 
dancer, or nun, etc. ; and why the^^e hoones are fVirnished with a com- 
plete wardrobe for such pnrposes. 

Binct {op. cit.) relates the tmae of a judge who was exclusively in 
lore with Italian girls who <:aini; to Paris as artists' modela, and their 
[icculiar costume. The cause was here dcraoritttmhiy an improssion made 
at the time of the awakening of the sexual instinct. 

A third form of dress-Fctichism, having a much higher 
drgroc of pjiihologlrail significaiirp, is by far tlir most frrqiioiit. 
In tliis form it is no longer the woman herself, dresBed, or even 
dressed in n partirular fiisliioii, that ron.stitutps the principal 
st'xual stimulus, but the sexual interest is so concentrat^-d on 
some certain article of female attire that the lustful idea of this 
object is entirely separated from the idea of woman, and thus 
obtains an indepcMident value. This is the real domain of dress- 
fi'tiehism, where an inanimate object — an isolated article of 
wearing-apparel — is alone nsinl fortlie excitation and satisfaction 
uf tlic s«xual instinct. This third form of dress-fcticliism is 
also the one tliat is important forensically. 

In a large number of these rases the fetiches are articles 
of female underwear, wliich, owing to tlieir private use, are 
Btiited to occasion such associations. 

Cflac82. K.,agcd 45,Hhocmal(cr, isrcportwltoWwithont heredilary 
taint. He is pw^uHar, ami has small mt-ntsLl «n<Iowmfnt. Ite is of niascu- 
line liahiluB and withont .sipiis of degene ration. PivviniiBly hiameless 
in conduct, on the cveninti oi" July 5, J.87G. he was detected takinjr atolen 
female unOenpanneots from a place of conwalmi-uL There were found 
with him aliout tliree hiiinhed articles of the female toilet, auioitj; them, 
be!*ides chemises and dniwcrs, night-caps, garters, and a female doll. 
When arrestwl he was wenring a chemise. Since his thirteenth year he 
had lN%n a slave to an Impulse to steal women'ti limm ; hut, af^er his llrst 
punishment for it, he had become very careAil.and stolen with reflnement 
and HUocess. When this longing came over him, he would grow anxious, 
and his head would become heavy. Then he could not rvaiiit the impulse, 



cost whiil it miffht. Fie wn? iiidilTcrent t« the eourre ot the articlea. At 
night, im |!ui>i^ to UhI. Up would put on thi> Klolen clothing; and creatti 
iK-autinil women iu iniiigiuation, tbiis iiittucing pleai^urabLe I'eciuig uid 
ejnc'uliition. This was nppiirvntly the inutive of liitt tlielli<; ut leii8t, he 
hdd never di8|K>fte(I of «n_v of the articles, but had hidden them here and 

He [Icelnrod ihnt. enrlter in his lire, he had indnl^l in normal sexual 
intemourse with women, lie deuie*! onanism, {XMiemsty, and ntlier Kexii^ 
nets. He siiid he wiis en-ja^jed ut twenty-live, bnt the engagement was 
broken through no fnnlt cf hi». ]le wnx inea]«l'Ie of insight into the 
aboorntulity of hiti con<lition and the wrong of his acts. (Passow, Ft>r- 
teljnhrstxrhri/t f. /jer. JtfMic, X. F. XKviii, p. fil ; Krausfl, " Paychotogie 
dcs VerbrechenB," 1884. p. 190.) 

Ilanimoiid (op. cit.) reports a case of passionate interrst in 
siti'^h articles of iemnU* woaring-apivircl. Here, also, the 
patient's pleasure consisted in wearing a corset and other 
frmnlo garments (witliout any tnices of contrary sexwal 
instinct). T}ie pain of tii^lit laeini;. exjierieneed by Iiimself 
or induced in women, is a deliglit to liim,— sadist ic-mnsocliistic 

A case probably l)elons^ing here is one reported by Diez 
("Der Si'lbstmord," 1838, p. '^4), where a younj; man could not 
resist the impulse to tear female linen. Wliilc t^'aring it, he 
always had ejaculation. 

A eomhination ol' fetinhism with an imindsr to destroy the 
fetich (in a certain sense, sadism with inanimate objects) seems 
to occur quite frequently (comp. Case 93). 

An article of dress^ which, though it has not really a pri- 
vate cimracter, by its material and color, as well as by t}ie place 
where it is worn, recalls under-g-armcnts and hence has sexual 
relatio]is, is the a^iroii (couq*. also the metonymie use of tlie 
word " apron " for '■'• [x-tttcoat '* in the saying, " To chase every 
aprou," etc.). This explains the following case ; — 

Oaae 83. C, aged 37 ; of a badiy taint^xl fnmily ; of amall mental en- 
doinnent ; plaf^iocephalic. At fifteen hU tittention was attmcted by aprona 
hung out to dry. He houml them about himself luid maHlurbnted Iwhind 
the fence. From that time be eould not see aprons without repwitiiiir the 
act. If any one — no mutter wliutbL'r nmu or woiuati — with hu apron on 
came near him, be was compelled to run after the pernon. In order to IVoe 



bjm A-om thiH ooiistaiit HtcAlin^; of aprons, he wan f*eiit an a tnnrinc in liin 
fnsteentli y«ir. In this L-alliiig be wiw no aprons, titnl bad coutiimal rest. 
Wlit' [liiieteeii, he rctiinieil home, he was nimi" comi>ellcd to steill 
apron!<, nn<l, »A n n-Jititt, tiot into »*rions coiupli<'ation*, and wan i4i*veral 
lime* locked up. He soii^fht to I'roe himself of hU weaknesR hj a 
sojourn of several yenrs in a eloictter. When he cnme out, he vta» Just 
a« Ijad as Ijefom. Ab a rvHull iif a new theft, be underwent a inwliro-Iegal 
exaiuiuation, and ivns committed to an asylum. He never stohi anythiii;; 
TjuI aprons. It was a pleasure to bini to revel in the meiaorv of the fljst 
apron he ever fttole. Hix dreams woi'e filled with xprons. He oec*a«ion- 
ally Hoed the mpiunry of his thefts to nialce coitns j>o.<isib!e,or for miistur- 
hfltion. (Charcot and Maguaii, Arch, fie neurolotj.. 1,S83, Nr, 12.) 

In a case reported by Lombnwo ("Amort nnomaii precoci noi 
])AZZl," Arch, di jtrirh., 1«83, p. 17), aiisiogoua to thoM- of tbiH tteries, a 
\foy of very t'od heredity, at the ape of tour, bad erections aud great 
sexual exeitenient at the »ight of white ^iirmeiitit, [Mirticuhirly under* 
clrithin)(. He wns luRt fully excit*^ by handlinjj aiul <Tiimplinjij them. At 
the a;fO of ton be beipin to nmsfHrh«t4' iit the nxt^ht of white, utarched linen. 
He secm^t to bavc liecn nUected with moral insanity, and was executed 
for munler. 

The following rase of jietticoat-fetirliism is combined with 
peculiar circumstances : — 

Caee 8-1. Z., aged 35 ; otTlcinI ; tbe only child of a nervous mother 
end healthy father. From childhood he wa« " nervoua," and at the con- 
sultation bis neuro|>nthic eye«, delicate, wlender body, fine features, very 
thin voire, and siuirHe growth of lieard nttraete<l attention. The psitient 
prescDta nothiTig almormat except syiu]it(imH of alight neunistbcnia. 
Genitalft and aexnal futH'liniiH normal. Patient states that be baa only 
niNMtnrlHilctil four or live times, itn<1 that when he was very young. An 
early as at the a^ of thirteen, the patient watt powerfully excited sex- 
ually by the «i)jht of wet female tlre^Res; while the aaMw dres«e8, when 
dry, had no etfeet uprin him. His urealest delight was to look at women 
with WL-t garments in the rain. If he met a woman having a plen.'«in^ 
fitce under sueb cirniinHlnnct-s, he experienced an inti^nKe feeling of luat* 
ful plMusun>, had en*lion. and fell ini|)e[led to perform coitus. He states 
that be has never bad any desire to wet female <lre8seB or to throw water 
on women. Uv can give no explanation of the origin of his peeulixrity. 

It is posfihle that, in thia cone, the sexual instinct was first awak< 
ened by the sight of a woman a-s she exposed her charms by raising her 
skirts in wet weather. The olweure inKtintt, not yet conHRiona of its 
object, then became directed to the wet gnrmcnts, as iu other caaca. 

Lovern of female handkerchiefs are frequent, and, there- 



foic, im[w)rtiint rorensirally. As to the frequoncy of ItandWer- 
cliirf-f'flicliism, it mny lno remurk<'d tluit th<' lianclkercliicf" is the 
one ftrtiulf of ffmiuiiie attire which, outside of intimate associa- 
tion, is moat frequently displayed, and which, with its warmth 
from the ]x?rson and specific odors, may by accident fall into the 
hands of others. The frequency of early association of lustftd 
fi-ehnir^ with the idea of n handkerchief, which may always be 
presumed to have occurred in such cases of foticliism, probably 
is due to this. 

Caae 85. A baker's asoistant, ng«d 32, itingle, prcvioooly of good 
repute, WAS discovered ste-alint; » bsiirl kerchief from a, la<iy. In Minoere 
remorst, he ennfessc-d that lio hud stolen from eighty to ninety such hand- 
kercliiefs. He hiid care^l only for handkerchiefs, and, indeed, only for 
tboHe beloiijfiiij.' to yoiiiig women attnwtive to lilin. In hie oiitwnni ap|>ear 
ance the culprit pn»cnts nothing peculiar. Ue ^Iresses Uiinfii-lf with uiiirli 
ta»t«. His eomliiul is [M^t■uIia^, anxiouH, •lupi'«8Hed, aiut unnianly, nnil be 
often lapses into whining and tenrx. Lack of ^elf-rcliancc, weatcnesH of 
comprehension, and nlownena of perception and reduction, are nnticeatilp. 
One of hi» sistent is epileptic. He Urcs In good circnmstnnees ; was 
never severely sick ; developcil n-i^II. In relating his liistory, lie ebowe 
weaknoHs of memory and bick of clearness; calctilitiou is tmrd for him, 
though when young hu learned and comprehended easily. Hi.'< anxious, 
uncurlaiu »tute of mind gives rise to a suspicion of onanism. The culprit 
confesned that he ha/I been given to thio practice excessively since hia 
nineteenth year. For some years, an a. rcsnit of his vice, he had suffered 
with (lepression, lasHitude, trembling of the limbs, pain in the bnck, and 
dtMinelluiition for work. Frequently a depressed, anxious state of mind 
came over him, in which ho avoidt.'d people. He bad exaggcmtcd, fnn- 
lasliu Tiolioiis alHJut the results of sexual inlereourse with womvn, and 
could not bring himsflf to indulge in it. Of late, however, he lia<l thought 
of marriage. With great remorse and in a weak-minded way, X. now 
confessed that wis months before, while in a crowd, he became violently 
excited sexually fit thu sight of a ]>retly young girl, and was compelled to 
crowd up against her. lie felt an impulse to compensate himself for the 
want of a more complete satisfaction of bis suxua! excitement, by stORling 
her h.Hndkercliief, Tbercafter, aji soon as became near .ittmctive females, 
with violent sexual excitement, palpitation of the heart, erection and 
impetan roaundi, the Impulse would seize him to crowd op against them 
am], faille th- mieux, steal their handkerchiefs. Although the coiiscious- 
neas of bis criminal act never lelT hiiu for a moment, be was uiiitiite to 
make any resistance to the impulse. During the act he felt an luixiety 
wbicb was in part due to his inordinate sexual impulm?, and )>artly to the 



fear of detection. The mfdiro-Ipgal opinion rightly Ka^e weight to the 
coui^iiitnl uii'iitnl ciift't-ML-mt'iit and thf ptfrnifioiiB inttuence of masturba- 
Li«>n, !Uk1 nffL-iTud llie iilinorriml impulses to n perverse sexual impulse, 
miling attcuticpu to Uio pretiuucu of uii iiitvrt>Klii^; and well-known ph^'sio- 
logical coiineftioii Ijetween the olfactory and sexual bcuscs. The inability 
to resist tlie luitholoj^iral iuipiiliw wiut ryfojjiiiKed. X. was not puoislied. 
(Zippe, Wtener Med. Wocheasckri/t, la<9, Nr. 23.) 

I am iiidebtt'd to tlie kindness of Dr. Fritsch. of Virnna, 
for further facts conci'ming tins Iiandkcrchief-li'ticliist, who was 
again arrested in August. 1890. in the act of takhig a Imndker- 
chief from a lady's pocket ; — 

On scareliiug liis buiitiu, four liumlnnl and forty-cix ladies' Iwndker- 
chicfs were found, lie stated tbiU he lind burned bi-siden two bumlleH 
of lUein. In the course of the exauiination, it wnn further shoirn that 
X. lt.Hd been punished with imprisonment for fonrteen rlnys, in 1883, for 
st4Milin^ twenty -seven handkerehiefs, and agnin with inipri!tonn]ent for 
three weeks, in 188*1. forasiiuilnr crime. Concerning hia relatives, nothing 
more eonid be learned tli&n tliat h'\» father was sulijcot to cougestiotis, 
and that a brother's daughter wa^ wenk-iuinded and constitutionally iieurti- 
p&thic. X. bad married in l^~^,and embArked in an indepeudent business, 
and ia 1881 bo nude au assigument. 8oou ailer that, his wife, who could 
Dot live with him, »nct with whom be did not perform bis mariLnl duty 
(denied by X.),dcmaudefl a divorce. Thereafter he lived as assist-int haker 
to hiH brother, lie complained bitterly of an impvitine for ladien' linndkcr- 
chieb, but when opportunity olTered, unforLuiiulttly.he i^iuld not resist it. 
In tlie net he pxjMtrieneed n feeling of delii^ht, nnd felt as if some one were 
forcing him to it. Sometimes be could re»traiu himself, but, when the 
lady van pleasing to him, be yielded to the tirst impulse. He would be 
wet with sweat, partly from fear of dcteetion, and partly on account of 
the impulse to i>erform the act. He says be boa been sensually excited, 
by the Bight of handkerchiefs I>eloni;ing to women, since puberty. lie 
cannot recall the exact clrearastanccs of this fbtichistic associMtiun, The 
aenstial excitement, occasioned by the sight of a lad_v with a Imiidkerviilef 
hai^mg out of her pocket, had constantly increased. 'I'his had repeatedly 
cauiied erection, but never ejaculation. After his twenty-first year, he aays, 
be had inclination to normal sexual indulgence, and had coitns without 
dilllculty without ideas of handkerchiefs. With increasing fclichism, the 
appropriation of handkerehiefn had atforded him much more satistUction 
tb-in coiliiH. The Appropriation of the hamlUerchief of a lady attractive 
to him was tbc same to him U!> luteroourse with her would have been. In 
the act be had true or):asm. 

If be could not gain posscsalon of the bandkercbicf be desired, he 



irould become painfully excited, tremble, and swcAt all over. He kept 
HftlNirate the humlkerchiefH of IhiUur pnrticiilarly pleasing to him, and 
reveled in the sight of tbcni, taking great pleasure in it. The odor of 
Uiem also gave biio grfnt delight, though he statett that it yras reallj the 
odor peculiar to tbi,' liucn, aud not the perlVimc, which excited him scii- 
Hiially. He hftd mftsturhfttwl hut very Heldom. 

X. compluined of no pbysical ailments except occasional headache 
ttud vertigo. He greiitly regrettw.1 liis rainforluiie, Iuh iilmormal impulHe, — 
the iivil Hpirit timt impelled biiu tii Huch eriuiinal uetH. Ik- bud but ouu 
wigh: that Home out* might help him. Objectively there are mild neuras- 
thenic symptouiH, Huomalies uf the distributiou of Moo*!, and unciimil 


It van proved that X. had committed his crimes in obcdieooc to an 
abnormal, irresistible impulse. Pardon. 

Such oases of haiidkcro}iief-fetichisra, where an abnormal 
individual is driveu to thelt, are very uumerous. Tiiey also 
occur in combinsition with contrary sexuality, as is proved by 
the Ibllowing cast?, whicli I borrow from [mgc \'2o of Dr. Moll's 
Irequently-cited work': — 

Cast! 86. Uandkerchiaf-fetichism in a Cam of Contrary Hexttai 
Inetinct. — K., aged SH; mechniiie; a powerfully bulll uuin. He makes 
numerous complntuts, — wcakiieBis of the legs, pnin in the Imck, hentbtche, 
waul of pU-Hsiire in work, etc. The compliiiut» give the decided impres- 
sion of nvumiitheuia with tendency to hy]ioehouilria. Only after the 
patient had been under my treatment several months did ho state that he 
wnd also alinorimil stixuiilly. 

K. had never had any incliiitition whatever for women ; but hand- 
Bome men, ou the other hum), hud a peeiiliar charm for him. Patient 
hud ulUKturbitled freiiiieiitty until be Ciime to mv. lie had never prao- 
tivt-'d muLunl onnninm or )>ederaNt}'. He did not think that ho would 
hiivo found satisfaction in this, Itccfluse, in spite of Iiik pn'ferene« for 
men, an article of white linen was Ills chief chann. though the beauty 
of its owner played a rGle. The handkereliii^ft* of handsome men pArticu- 
hicly excite him sexually. Uis grentcKt delight is to m-isturlmte iu men's 
haudherchiefv. For this reason ho oiteu took his friend'i> handkerchief^ 

1 On p*ge 134 (t)p. «U.) Dr- Moll wrIUi* conrvrnltiK iM* Impn1»c Iq betero-HXOil 
tadlvtduala : " llie piMdon &v bniiiUcFrt-Uli-fii uwy |{u au fur llinl Uip man l* ciitlrelj under 
(liL-lr i-ijiitrol. A wanian iclU mc : * I ki»)H » i.'crl«ln gonUcinHii, oiul wti«'D I nen him nt x 
dltUiitcc 1 only t\prd U) drnw out my lmiiilkt.'n'tili>f' tin r.tint it [H-i-p* out of my poi.-k<-l, &u(t I 
•m cfTtttlu That hi^ wlU foUow mi' ua (loe; lollovrs Us master. Unirh^iw I |tliiutr, tliUgDii* 
Uoman WJIt follow iiic. lit! rimy bt: rldliit; Iti a cArrlntrc or rtimL'v-'I In |[n]K>r[aiit busliirM, 
uidyi.-i, when lie >ceimy likudk«n;liler bu drops en rjUiUig Ui urdur tu foUow loc, — l.<.,in; 
handkmtUcf.' " 



In order to save biiusclf from detection, he always left one of his own 
handkerchiefs with hfs fVieiid in place of the one be stole. In this way 
be sought to escapf" the t»iispiL'ion of tlipft., by t-n-ntiiig the npiK«rRnce of 
a mietake. (fthtir arliclt-s of mt>uV UiiuD also ojccited K. suxually, but 
not to the extent baudkercbicfs did. 

K. had often perfurintHl cuitus with women, having erection and 
pjacuL-xlion, but wittiout lustful plejisurc. There was also nolbiiig wLii-h 
could fitimnlatb the patient to the performance of coitun. Erection and 
ejaculation ocourrt'd only when, durinf; the rwrt, ho thoujj:ht of a man'a 
hand kiTcli iff; and ihiu v/an camfr for the patienL whi'u he took a friciirl's 
bandkercUlef with him, and h^d it in his hand during coituB. In uccord- 
anoe with hitt sexual [wrvention, in hi^ nightly pollutionn with lui^U'ul 
id«a8, mcu'H linen |>luyi.>d the principal role. 

It is possible that, in this interest in (used) handkerchiefs, 
elements of fc*eling in the sense of mnsocMsm, group " c," are also 
oilen at work. 

Still far more frequent than the fetichism of linen garments 
is that of women's shoes. These cases are, in fact, almost 
innumerable, and a great many of them liave been scientifically 
studied ; but I have but a lew reports at second hand of the 
similar glovc-feticlii.sra (concerning the reason ibr the relative 
infrequency of glove-feticliiam, tUile p. 161). 

In the close relationship of the object to the 
feminine person, which explains lincn-fetichism, is absolutely 
wanting. For this reason, and Ifecause there is a hirgi? nimibcr 
of well-observed cases at hand, in which the feticliistic enlhusi- 
asm for tlie female shoo, or boot consciously and undoubtedly 
arises from masoclustic ideas, an origin of a mayuchi&tic nature, 
even wlien it is conceiiltHl, may always be assumed in slioe- 
fetichism, when, in the concrete case, no other nmiiiirr of origin 
is demonstrable. For this reason the majority of the cases of 
shoe- or foot- fetichism have been given under " Masocliism." 
There the constant masochistic character of tliis form of ei-otic 
fetichism has been sufficiently demonstrated hy means of tran- 
sitional conditions. This prrsumptinn of the masiM:histie char- 
acter of shoe- fetich ism is weakened and removed ouly where 
another accidental cause for an association between sexual 
excitation and the ideii nf wnmen's shoes — the occurrence of 
which is quite improbable a priori — is demonstrable. In the 



two fuUuwiiig^ caseti, however, tliere ib ttuch a demonstrable 
connectioa : — 

Oaae 87. Hhoc-feiicnUm. Mr. v. P., of an old and honoraltle fam- 
ily, Pole, aged Si, consulted me, in 18£K), on account of " nnnatumlneas " 
of litH vita. Hcxuolict. He gav<^ the aasurance that be came of a iierfeotljr' 
lionltby family. He Imd buen nvrvoiiH (Vom childliood, and had fluRered 
with i^hDH'A minor at thu age of I'lovui. Vor ten yc-dim hv Imd sufft-rud 
with slucplessucBs and various, neurasthenic ailments. From his Gfleentb 
yinLr he had recoj;niz«d tlit» diHereuciv of the »i;xe« and been capable of 
sexual excitation. At the a^re of serenleen he had been RodiiPofl by a 
Proncli govonicfts, but coitus waa not iK'rmlttcd; ao tliat intense mutual 
ficnsual excitement (mutuni masturlmtioti) van nil that was poH»iib1e. In 
thiH Hiluation 1\\h attention welh attnicted by Iter ver^' eli>guut boots. 
They made a very dec|) impreesion. His intercourse with this leird 
pervuo laste<:1 four months. Purine this aMKoi'iation her tihovit became a 
fetich fur the ii ii fort i mate boy. Ele bc^u to hare an interest in ladiea' 
shoes in general, and actually wont almut trying to CAtch tiight of ladies 
wearing pretty ^'oots- The shoe-fetiehism gained great power over hia 
mind. He hnd the govemess touch hiK penis with her KhtWH, and thus 
ejaculation with great Uiatful feeling vs^ immediately induced. Afler 
separatiou from the governess, he went to pueitis, whom he had perform 
the aame manipulation. Thts was usually sufllcieut for batisfacUon. 
Only seldom did he resort to coitU!^ as an auxiliary', and inclination for 
it grow lc!is and less. His vitn. Hcxuaiis consisted of dti-ani-pollntions, 
in whioh women's shoes played the exclusive rQle; and of gratification 
with women's slio4is apiKmiln ad mcntulnm, but this had to Iw donu by 
the puella. In the poeiety of the opposite sex the only thing that in- 
tereKted liirn was the shoe, and that only when it was ete^nt, of the 
French style, with beeU, and of a biilUant blaek, like the origiuaL 

In the course of time the followinj,; conditions have lieconie acces*' 
sorj' : A prostitute's shoe that is elegant and chic ; starched [)ellicoati, 
and black hone, if possibtc. Nothing else In woman interests him. Be 
id abnohtte.lif indifferent to the nalrp.d foitt. Women buvu not the slightesl 
mental clinrm I'ltr him. He bad never had miisocliisvLie desires, in the 
oense of iieing trod upon. In the conrce of years his fetichism haft 
linined such power that when be saw s lady on the street, of a certain 
appcarnnue and with certain shoeH, he was so intensely excited that 
he had to masturbate. Slight pressure on the ]>euis sutEeed to iuduoA 
tgaculation, in his Btate of severe neui-asihenia. Shoes displayed in 
ahop», and, of late, even advertiMeuii'nts of bUocs, sulllced to excile him 
inteuiHjIy. In states of intense libido he made use of onanism, If shoes 
were not at hts immediate command. The patient quite eiirly recog- 
nized the pain and danger of his condition, and, even when he w:is IVee 
Arom neurasthenic ailments, he w^s momlly very mach depressed. U4 



soagfat help of various physicians. Cotd-water cures antl bypiiotism 
were nnsuucessful, Tbe moni uelubrutcd pli^rsicians mlvi&ed him to 
tuarr,v, And assured him lUtit, as iioon as be once really loved a girl, be 
would be free from his feUcbistit. Tbe pntieat b»d no connileiict; tit biii 
fature, but be followod tbe advice of tlie phyKiciiinH. Tie was cruelly 
di»AppointeiI in the hope winch the authority of tliu pbytiicians had 
aroused in liiiu, though bo led to the nltar a lady dialinguiahed by both 
mental and pbysicnl chnrmn. Tbe veddiug-ni^bt was terrible; he l^lt 
like a criminal, and did not appruacb bis wife. The next day be aaw a 
prostitute with the rer|uired cfiiv. lie was weak enough to have iiiter- 
COOTM with her in bis way. Tlien he lionght a pair of elegant Indieii* 
boots, and hid tbem in bod, and, by tuucliinf; tlic'm, while in marital 
cmbrflce, after a few dayt*. he was able to perform his naritHt duty. He 
ejs('nlnte<l tardily, for he had tii rf>rce liimHuir to i;oilus; and, after a few 
weeks, thiit artifice (ailed, because bis ima^inutiou failed. Ue felt 
unspeakably misenible, and would bnve preferred to make an end of 
himstlf. lie could no lonjier satisfy bis wife, who was sensual, and 
much excited by their previous intercourse ; and lie saw her siiH'ering 
severely, both mentally and mopiUy. Ho could not, and would not, dls- 
uluse his secret. He experienced disgust in muritnl intercionrse; lie felt 
afraid of Uis wife, and feared the coming uf nigbt and being utune with 
her. He could no longer induce crcetion. 

He again made nttempls with prostitutes, and satisfied himself by 
touching their shoes. Then the pnella had to toiitrh hia [lenis, when be 
would have cjnculation ; but, if this did not take place, he would 
attempt coitus with the lewd woman; withtnit aueeeHs, however, for 
ejaculntion wonUI oi^cur immediately. In absolute dL>s[Kiir, the |>iitient 
comes for consultation. He deeply regretted that, against his inner 
conviction, he had followed Ihc imforlunatu advicv of the physicians. 
and made a virtuous wifv unlla]^py, having deejily injured ber, butb 
mentally and morally. Could he answer God for continuing such a 
marriage? Even if he were to discover himself to hia wife, and she 
were to do everything for him, it would not help him ; for the familiar 
X»erfunio of tint de-mi-mtmde! was also neccssnry. 

Aside from his mental pniii, this urifortiui.'itu mnn presented no 
remarkable wmptomA. UenitaU perfectly normal. Prostate somewhat 
enlarged. Uc coui)>lftincd tliat be was so under the domination of bis 
boot-idens thnt he would even tilnsh when h(H)t.s were talked nbout. His 
whole imagination was given up Co such ideas. When be was on bis 
estate, he often suddenly had to go a distance of ten miles to tbe city, 
to satisfy bis fetichism with shoe-stores or with puelUs. 

This piiLible mnn conld not brinq; himself to take treatment; for 
his faith in [ihysicians hnd been greatly shaken. An ittCompt to ascer- 
tain whether hypnosis and a removitl of the feticbistic associattoo by 
this meaus, wuro possible, increased the mental excitement of the uafor- 




tunnte [ukd, who was excluflively controlled by the thonght that he had 
tnftde Ilia wife uiili&|ipy. 

Case 88. X., agetl 2-t. from a Iiinlly-Uintwl family (motlier's brother 
«nd gmnilfattiLT iii»aiio, utic sifiLvr fjuieptic, aiitfUiur Bistvr subjuct to 
migraine, parents of excitable tern |iera men t). Puriiig dontitiou be bad 
bad coiLvulsionn. At tli» age of (tewu liu wuh taugUt to inn<iturliute by 
n acrvKiit-girl. X. Iir«t expeiienceti pleasnre in lliefto nuiiiiimlMtions 
wlien tbift girl occaKinnally airoicd kin penxA vsilb her fool with her »hoe 
on. Thus, In the predisposed boy, an association w»s ustnblisbcd, na a 
result of wliich, from timt time on, merely thu sight of woraeu's sluws, 
and, finally, merely tbc idea of titem, suJlluvd to iuduuc eexiial uxoile- 
meiit atid crcctiuii. He now n)nntiirb&t«tl while looking at women's 
bIioo!^, or whil'e callini; thrm up in imagination. At acbool the teacher's 
aijoes excited him intensely, iiinl in general he was (iffL-cted by shoes that 
were {tartly concealed l>y ffniiile ganueiit»i. One day he could not keep 
from grasping the teiielifr*^ tsbovs, — an act that cuiised him great Bexiiul 
excitement. In uplte uf piinishnient he could not keep from iierrurming 
this act repeatedly- Finaliy, it was i-eewgnized that there niiist be an 
abnormal motive in pln^-, and lie was i^nt to a tnale tenclier. He then 
If vele'i in thf rieinnry of shoe-acenca with Iiia former achool- unstress, 
and tliUd had erections, orgasm, and, after Ids fourteenth year, tjiicula- 
tion. At the snme time, he raasUtrlkated wliile thinking of a woiuan^s 
sboe. One day the thouglit ciamu to Uim Lo inc-reaKe lu)) plraHurc by 
ufttng Bueh a shoe for mH.f-Lurbrition. Thei-ciLlTter be frotiucntly took 
shoes secretly, and uoed Ihem fu'r that purpuse. 

Xolliing el^ in a woman could excite tdm ; the thought of coitus 
filled him with horror. Men did not interest hini in any wi»y. At the 
age of eightren be opened n geiiprsl store, and, among oi.lier tilings 
handU><l ladies' iilioei4. He was exeited t<>exunlly by fitting i^hoes for his 
female patrons, or by mnnipnlnting slioes that they had worn. One day, 
while doing this, he hiul an epileptic attiiok, iukK »<.>un afler. niiotlier, 
while practicing onanism in his customary way. Then he recognized, 
for the first time, the injury to health cnuned by his sexual pmcticcs. 
FTc tried to overcome his nnmnHtii, sidd no murt shoes, and strove lo 
fr(>e himself from the abnormal association between women's shoes and 
the sexual function. Then fhiqneiit pollutions, with erotic dreams 
atwut shoes, oeeurred, and the epileptic nltacts continued. Though 
devoid of the sli^hteMt feeling for the female sex, ho determined un 
marriage, which seemed to him to be the only remedy. 

He married a prclty young laily. In spite of lively crenliona 
when he thought of bis wife's shoes, in attempts at cohnbituLion he was 
alwolatcly impotent; for his di»lai«te for cuJtns.and for close intercourse 
in general, was far more powerful tiinn tlie influence of llie slioe-ideu, 
which induced sexnni excitement. On account of bis Ini^Mtence, the 
patient applied to Dr. Unmmond, who treated his epilepsy with bromides, 



and advised him to bang n shoe up over bin bed, and look at it fixeiUy 
ditrin); cottas.nt tlie same time imnf^inin^ hia wife to hf a shoe. The 
patient became free from epileptic attacks, and potent so tUat lu^ could 
have coitus about once n week. Too, his sesual excitation hy womcii'ii 
«boes grew l&m and less. (Ilniumond, " St^xual huputence.") 

Following these two cases of shoe-reticltisni, which apjiar- 
ently depend merely upon accidental association, and are not 
favored by any umer relation between the things themselves, is 
given the very stTaiigc lase of a Ictichist who was excited sexu- 
ally only by tlie idea of a night-cap ou the head of an 4igly 
old woman ; also a case arising apparently from merely 
accidental a!iso<:iatioQ : — 

Case 89. L., aged ST, clerk. (Vom tainted fainily. hnd bin (1r»t ereo- 
tion at live years, when he saw hi» Ihed-feHgw — an aged relivtive — put on 
a night-cap. The name thing occurred later, when he 8aw an old seri'ant 
put on ber niglit-cap. Later, simply the idi^a of an old, ugly woniariV 
lload, covered with a night-cnp, was »nf11cient to t-ausc an er«!tion. 
Simply the ni^^ht of a cap, or of a naked woman or man, made no impres* 
sioo, but the mere touch of a night-cap induced erection, and Fometimes 
even fijaculatioii. L. was nota maaturbator.and had never been eexuiUly 
active until bia thirty -second year, wlien. he married a young girl with 
whom he had fallen in love. On his marriage-night he rt-mained cold 
until, from ntK^enHity, he brought to Iiia aid the memory-picture of an 
ugly woman's head with n night-cap. Coitus van immediately nuc- 
cessftal. Thereafter it woh always necessary for htm to use this means. 
Since childhood he had twen subject to occasional attnckH of depreaaion, 
with tendency to suicide, and now and then to frightful tin|]nL-iiint.ion8 
at night. When looking out of windows, he became dizzy and anxious. 
H« was a p«rver»e, peculiar, and easily embarrassed muu, of batl mental 
ooastitution. (Charcot and Magitan, Arch, de neurol., IHS'i, Ho. IS.) 

In this ver)' pccnlinr case, the simultaneous coincidence of 
the first sexual excitation and an absolutely heterogeneous 
impi'ession seems to have determined tlie association. 

Hammond (op. ctt.) also mentions a case of accidental 
associative fetichism that is quite as peculiar. A married man, 
aiEjed 30, who, in other respects, was healthy, physically and 
mentally, is said to have suddenly lost his sexual power, after 
moving to another house, and to have regained it as soon as the 
furniture of the sleeping-room liad been arranged us it was 



(c) The Fetich is Some Special Malcnal. — There is a third 
print-iiial ^rotip of fnticlmts who liuve as ii frtich neither a jKir- 
Uon of the female body nor a \tQ.ri of fbmaLe attire, but some 
{)iirtictilar material which is so used, not b«::;iuse it is a matenal 
for female gaL-mcnts, but because in itself it eau arouse or in- 
crease sexmd fit^lings. In many cases of this kind, the act of 
feeling of such matt^rial during the m^xual act seems indis- 
pensable, in order to make the latter possible, or at least satis- 
factoiy. Such materials am furs, velvet, and silk. 

• Tliese cases diffur from tlie foreyoini? instances of emtio 
dres»*feticiiism, in that these materials, unlike female linen, do 
not have any close relatlnn to the female body; and, unlike 
shot's and gloves, they are not relati'd to c(>rtjLin parU of the 
person which have peculiar symbolic sii,niificjincc. Moreover^ 
t]us fetinhism cannot be due to au accidental a.ssneiation, like 
that in the cases of the niglit-caps and the arrangement of l}ie 
sLeeping-rooni ; for tltese cases form an entire group liaWng the 
same nbjert. It must be pn'siinind that certain bietilo sensa- 
tions (a kind of tickling winch stands in some distant relation 
to lustful sensations]), in hyprrjesthetic individuals^ furnish tlie 
occasion for the origin of this felichism. 

The foUouiug is a t>ersona! observation of a man affected 
with this peculiar fetichism : — 

Case 90. S. N., aged 37 ; of n nciiropslliic family; ni'uropRthio 
constitution. Il« miik^.« the fdllowinfr Btatenieiit: "From my itarlicHt 
youth I hav« itlwHyti hwl a ilut'i'ly-rootud iJiii-liaiity for tuvn imd velvet, io 
tlijit th(«« matvriaU i-nirso ine Hoxiial ex<'iU'iiipnt,anil llio sij^bt aiul touvb 
of thcin give me lustful pleasure, I fan ret'dl! no cveut that c^uHod thia 
tH'fulinnty (Hiich Hs ilie Biinnltaii»K»is oirc.iirrerifi) of the first sexual ex- 
fitalinn anil an iiiiprt-«sioii of those iniitfirialH, — i.e., ftr«L excitation hy n 
woman drei^Ked in them) ; in Im-t, 1 cnuuot remember when thi.s eothushuim 
began. Uowever, by tki« 1 would not exclude thu possibility of sueb au 
event, — of an ac-cidentjil connection in a lirst iinpro'wiion and coiiB«?t)iient 
ASSoriatioQ ; but I think it very improbable that such a thing took place, 
Kn-'auHe I V»elicve wnch nn oeenrrence would have deeply impressed mo. All 
1 know is, that even when n small child I had a lively dee>ire to see and 
Htroke run*, aud thus had an obncure Benfoal jjlcaaure. With the first 
oefurrenc-e of definite aexual ideas. — »>.,tlie direction of sexual thouifblB W 
woman, — the peculiar preference for women dressed in such matoriala w«c 



pitwent. Sinoc tlicii, up to mature manhood, it has renuiued unclianged. 
A woniftn wpjiriug I'lirs or velvet, or, t»ett*r, both, excitea me much more 
•luiokly ftml int^nsply tlian one dyvoirl of tht-se auxiliaries. To Kc gure, 
tlioMi nmtt-rials are not a coftditm rinr. qna mm of excitation ; the desire 
occoro also witliout theni. in ruHimntic to the ii»iiiul stimuli ; but the siglit 
and, [lartieukrly. the touch of thcHe fetich-ma teria Is fonu for mt- b 
IwwltIuI aid to other normal i«tin)uli.»nd iiiti'nxify erotic plensure. Olten 
merely the 8i}j;ht or onlj a |msftably pretty girl. dn.>si(«] In these raittcrials, 
causes me lively escitcment., and ovprt'oine« me c-omplctely. Even the 
eight of my fotich-muturialH ^i\*si mv pletiHiiix*. but the touch of them 
much morv. (To the [H'tiftnitinj; odor of fiir.'^ J am indifferent — rather, 
it is Hitt'leasnnt — Rnd it is endiimblp only by reason of the awnociation 
with pleading vimuLl and tactile impresaionei. ) I have an intense longing 
to louoh these mnterinls whilK on a ivojimn's person, to stroke and kisa 
them, and imry uiy liiee in them. My greatest pleasure in, inter ai'^um, 
to DM* ami feci my fetich on the womnn't* ithoulder, 

" Fur, or velvet alone, exert« on me the etfet'l: descrilierl. the former 
mneh more intensely than the latter. The combimitron of the two has 
the most intense effect. Too, female ganuonts of velvet iind ftir, sevii and 
ttmcIuH] without the WHarer, cautio uie xuxiial excitement : indeed, though 
to a less extent, the same effect is exerted by furs or robet; having n» 
relation to femide nttire. an<) al^o by the velvet and plnsb of rumitura 
Ritd diaiferj'. Merely pictures of coatnmed of furs and velvet nre olyeets 
of erotiu interest to me; indeed, «iin|(ly the word " fur "has a luagie charm 
for me, and imroedintely calls up erotic ideas. 

" Fur ie such an object of sexual interest for me that a man weiiring 
fiir that is effective (u. in/ro) make» a ver>- uiipleatsant. r«piignant,and 
ilia^ating impre-tsion on me; i*iieti a-* wonid be mixdo on u ni>rrnal person 
by a man in the cmstume and attire of a ballet-dancer. SimiUrly repug- 
nant to me ifl the sight of an old or ngly woman clad in beautiful fura; 
because opposin^r feelings are llnis aroused. 

'■ This erotic delight in ftii-» luui velvet is something entirely <liffer- 
ent from simple seathetic pleasure, i have a very lively uppreuiatiou of 
twautiful femnle attire, and, nt the same time, a particular partiiiHly for 
|Kaut-lace; hut it is purely of an n-stlieti<- nntnre. A woman drcsHed in 
apoint-taoc toilette (or in nther elegant, idaborate attire) is more beauti/ut 
than anoLher; hut one dn-8M;d in my fetich -mate rial is more pharminff. 

" Bui furs exercise on me the elfvtt described ouly when the fur baa 
very thick, fine, nmooth, and rather long hair, that stands out like that of 
the Bo-ealled tx-arded furs. T have ni)tic'4?d that the effei:-t depends u]>on 
this. T am cntinOy indifferent not ordy to the c-:nmmoii coarse, bushy 
fun. but also to those that are commonly regarded as lieautJful and 
preeiouti, from which the long hair Uiis heeu removed (seal, beaver}, or 
of which the hair ia naturally short (ermine) ; aud Hkewise to those of 
which the hair ia ovcrdong and lies down (monkey, bear). The ttpeciflc 



eflfecfc 18 exertM only hy Uie standing long tukir of the rable. marten, 
Hkunk, cto. But velvet U nude of thick, fine, staoding baiirs (Bbree); 
:\nrf iu etfect may Im due to this. The effect 8*em» to depend upon % 
very definite impn-tt^inn of the points of thick, fine hmir upon the eod- 
orgsns of tht- scumry nerves. 

" Bat how thiM )>«culixr impresMion on the tactile ner^'i's is irlnted to 
sexual iaBtin''t \* ft perfect enif^nut to me. The fact u, that tUia is the 
case with manj men. I would aluo Htate expre8«l3- that beautiful female 
hair pleasi-s me. but plnye* no more important pmrt than th« other charm ; 
and that while tuucliiiig fur I have nu thought of fi-mali> hair. The tac- 
tile ftpnsatiori, ateo, has not the least reecmblanre to that imparted by 
ffiiiale Uftir. There i» never association of an.v other idt-a. Fur. per ae, 
arouEfes nensiinlity In uu% — hoir. I cannot explain. 

"The mere aesthetic etTerl, the b*?aut_v of t-ostly furs, to which everv 
one ts more or less HUM-i-ptUile; which, since Itnpbacl'M Fornarina and 
ReubenV Ilclc-nc Founnent, haa been used an the foil and (Vame of 
female I'eauty by innumerable (minters; and which phiys ho iin|K>rtant a 
r&ie in fAshion, — llie art and science of female dress. — this wsthctie eflVct, 
as has Ifeen remnrke*!. explain* iiothin); here. B«<autiful fum have the 
same nesthetic rllcrt on mc n« on normal indlviduaU, and nffwt rae in the 
same way that fiuwerH, ribbons*, precious stont-tt, and other omameots 
afl^ct every one. i^ucb thlnga, when HkiltfUlly used, enhance female 
beauty, and thus, under certain cinmmstaiicetr, may have nn indirect t»en- 
anal effect. They never have a direct, powerful, B«n«ual effeta on mo, as 
do the fetich-nmlerials mentioned. 

" Though in roe, and, in fact, in all * feticbisto,* the Mosual and ss- 
tbetic effect muHt be rtrictly ditleren tinted, neverthcleas, that does not 
prevent me from demundiu}; in luy fetich a whole Acries of (esthetic qnal* 
itiea in fonii, style, color, etc. I could give a very lengthy deecription 
of these qaalities that my taste dcmandn; but I omit it as not being 
essential to the roil subjet^t in band. 1 would only call attention to the 
fact that erotic fetiehisra is complicated with purely wsthetic tasteu. 

" The specific erotic effect of my fetich-materials can be explained do 
better liy the n^ftncialinn with the idea of the person of the female wear- 
ing them, than by Iheir atnLbetic impn-»hion. For, in the first place, aa 
has been said, these materials, as such, affect me when entirely isolated 
from the body ; and, in the eiecond place, articles of clothing of a much 
more private nature, and which undoubtedly call up associations, exert a 
much weaker influence over me. Tbas the fetich-materials have an inde- 
pendent sensual Value for me ; why, ia an enigma to mc. 

" Feathers in women's bats, fans, etc., have the same en>tic fetichistio 
eflect on me aa fiirs and velvet (simitar tactile sensation of airy, peculiar 
tickling). Finally, tlie foticbistic effect, with much less intensity, is 
exerted by other smooth materials (satin and silk); but rough goods 
(ck>tb, flamiel) have a repelling effect. 



"In coiiclusioti, I will meiilitm Uiat ttomcwbere I read an nrticiu by 
Carl Xogt oD microcopbalic men, oecordiim! to which these crpnturee, at 
the ftight or Tixn, rushvJ for them hihI mtroktsl them with every manife»- 
tfttion of deliphL I nm far from any thought, on this ground, to oe* in 
wide-Bpn-ad fiir-foliehism iin atavistic retroffw»siou to the taste of oor 
Imiry anct^Cors. Kvery ert'tiii, with that simplicity Tjelonffing to his con- 
ditioD, touchcH aiiythiii>; that |)K'aHtt« him ; and th(' act Ik not tieceaearily 
of a sexual nature; just as mauy normal men like to stroke n cat and 
the like, or even velvet and fura, and are not tbiia excited sexually." 

In the literature of tlits subject, there are a few caaeg 
^longing here : — 

Case 91. A boy, agcil 12. became powerfully excited sexually when 
he chanced to put on a fox-xkin. From tiiiit time there wni4 raaNturbatiun 
with the employment of liirn, or by me:ins« of taking a furry dog to bed. 
Ejftculalion would result, sometimes followed by an hysterical attack. 
His nocturnal pollutions were induco<l by dreaming that he la^' entirely 
covered up in a whiU- nkin. He waw alwoluUHy iiiHUHi'e]>tible to stimuli 
coming from men or women. Ue waj^ nuuraHthunic. sulturcd with dvlu- 
t)iun» of 1*eing wuU'bed, and thought that everyone noticeil his sexnal 
iinotualy. He iiiul Ijediuni vita* on aii-ounl of Llutt, and linitlly becamQ 
insane- He had marketl f*int ; hia genitals were imiwrfei^tly formed, and 
he prcf*ented other signa of degeneration. (Tarnowaky, op. ciL, p. 29.) 

Vase 'M. C. is an especial !i>ver of velvet. He is attracted in a 
normal way liy tieniitifnl women, hut it particularly excites him to have 
the person with whom he has sexual intei-eourse dressed In velvet. Id 
this, it is remarkable tltat it ia not so inueh the sight aa the touch of the 
velvet that eauM.*t« the exeitatiun. V, told me tlitit stroking a womoii'tl 
velvet jacket would excite him iwxually to an extent scarcely poetsible in 
any other way. {Vr. Moll, op. ciX., p. 127.) 

The foHowHiig is a very peculiar rn^e of material-fetich ism. 
It is combined with tlio impulse to injure the fetich, which, in 
this coiw, reprrsent.'* an element of snHism toward the woman 
wearing the letich, or impersonal sadism toward objects, which 
is of frequent occwrreiicc in fetichists (comp. p. 170). This 
impulse to injure made this a remurkable criminal case: — 

Case !I3. In July, 1891, Alfred Baclimnnn, aged 2&, locksmith, was 
brought before Judge 1.. iu the second term of the criminal court, in 
Tl*Tlin. In .\pril, 1S91, the polire had liad nimieroua complaint.'*, accord- 
ing to which some evil baud had cut women's drcssca with s very sharp 
instrument. On April 25, they were snucessful in arreHting the perpe> 



trator in the person of tbu A |>oliremnii noticed how the so- 
cuftcd pr«»cd, in a remarlciible inannor, a^iiiftt a lady in tlie company of 
(1 gcnllt'inan, while they were goiii<; through a pnsaage. The ofllcer 
nM{iii>Kteil thi^ lady to exaintiu^ her divtw, while ht* held the man under 
suspiciou. It was oHcertained that the dress had received quite ■ long 
slit. The nociisie<l wns taken to tlie statton, where he wa» examined. 
Be-sidi'« a sliarp knife, which he confessed he nBe<"l for entting drosiws, 
two stlk wLshea, sneh aa kdirs wear on their drcitscs, were found on him ; 
he also confeaned that he had taken these from dresses in crowds. Finally, 
the exainitiatiori of liin jHTsim bnmght to liglil a liuly's allk neck-i^h>th. 
Thi: aec-u&itl said lie had found this. Since bia stntemeut in this case 
could not be refiitwl, cuuiplaint was therefore made to rest on the rtwult- 
of the senivh ; in two instances in whieh complaint was made by the 
injured parties his arts were desi^ated iw injury to property, and in two 
othiT instnnees as tiled. The a»>used. a man who had been olYeo pun- 
ished Ijefore, with a pule, expr^Hsionleiw face, lK>fore the judge, gave a 
Btrnugo explanation of hts enigmatical aetiou. A iuajur*s rook had unee 
thrown him down-stairs when he was begging of her, and sinee that time 
lie had entertained great Imtred of the whole female sex. There was a 
doubt, almnt his refipon nihility, and he was therefnre examined by a phy- 
sieian. The m(HlieaI ex)M;it gave the opinion, at the tlnal trial, timt there 
was no reason I'O reganl the accn^^ed &a intiaiie, though he was of low 
intelligenue. The culprit defended himself in a peciiliarmanner. An 
irresistible inipube foretsl him to appnmch women wearing silk dresses, 
The (ouch of aiik maierinl (/ave him a /eelint/ o/ deiighl, and this vent 
Ro far that, while in prison for exaniinntion, lie bad been excited if a silk 
thread baiipiuc^l (o \vim through his fingers while raveling rags. .In<lge 
Miiller eon.sidered the aeensed to be simply .i dangerous, vieious man, 
who shiiuhl III- nnule harmless fttr a Icmg time, fie ad%'iRed impriFiotw 
roent for one year. The court scntcneed him to six monthu' imprisonment, 
with low of honor for a year. 

The following case was corarmmirated to me by a phy- 
siciau : — 

In a biTitliel a cei-t.iin man was known by the name of " Velvet." 
Ho drcssetl a puella i)lea8ing to bim in a black velvet dress, and excited 
and aatitified his sH'Xiial n]>pt'tite simply by stroking his face with a part 
of the velvet skirt, toueblng the woman in no oilier way. 

1 am assured by an ofTiceT that, ntnoiig mnsoehists, a 
jwrtiality for furs, velvet, and feathers, is very frequent (comp. 
Case 44). In the novels of Sacller-^fasocll. fur [ilays an im- 
portant part; indeed, it fufnishcs a title to some of them. The 
explanation given there t^eems far-fetched and tin satisfactory,^ 


that fur (ermine) is the symbol of royalty, and ther 
fetich of the men described in the novels. 

II. Great Diminution or Complfti' Abumre of Serual FefUng for the 
Opposite Sex, teith Subatitution of Hexual Feeiinij and Inntinct for the 
Same Sex. {Homo-KxtuUity, or Contrary Sexual Instinct). 

After the attainment of complete »oximl clevelopmcnt, i 
among the most constant elements of self-con scioiisnes.s in the 
indivuhml, ai-e the knowledge of i'C])resentinp' a definite sexual 
pc^jwntUity and the consciousness of desire, during the period 
of |ihysioIogi(ail activity of the repi-oductive organs (production 
of semen and ova), to perform sexual acts conrsponding with 
tliat sexual personality, — acts which, consciously or uncon-' 
sciously, have a procrealive pni-pose. 

The sexual iiistinrt and desiiic, save for indistinct feelings 
and impidscs, remain latent unlil the period of dpveh>pmeut of 
the sexual organs. The child is fftmfrin neutntis ; and though, 
during this latent peviod.^ — when si'xuality has not yet risen into 
clear consciousness, is bat virtually present, and uncouTiecled 
with powerful organic sensations, — too early excitation of the 
genitals may occur, eitlier spontaneously or as a result of ex- 
ternal influence, and find satisfaction in masturbation; yet, 
notwitli standing this, the ptti/rhirrif mlntion to iktsous of the 
opposite sex is still absolutely wanting, and the sexual arts 
during this period jmrtake more or less of a reflex spinal nature. 

The fact of innocence, or of sexual neutrality, is the moi-e 
remarkable, sinee very early, in edueation, emplnymiMit, dress, 
eU:, the child undergoes a diflcreutiation fi-om children of the 
opposite sex. These impressions, however, n-main destitute of 
mental meaning, lieciiuse they apparently are without sexual 
coloring; for the central organ (cortex) of sexual emotions and 
ideas is not yet capable of activity, owing to its undeveloped 

With the inception of anatomical and ftmctional develop- 
ment of thegenemtive organs, and the difTerentiatinn of form 
belonging to eacli si'X, which goes hand In hand with it in tlie 
boy or girl, rudiments of a mental feeling corresponding with 



the sex are dtfvrlopcd ; aiul in ihis, nf nourse. eduwitioii aud 
external influences in jicneml have a powerfiJ effect npon the 
iiidividitul. wlio is now all aUention. 

If the sexual development is normal and undisturbed, a 
definite rharacter, corrpspondiny; with the sex, is developed. 
C^'i't-aiii deHiiite iiicUnntiuns and reactions in intereours*^ with 
j»ersous of the opposite sex arise ; and it is psychologically 
uortliy of note with wliat relative rapidity the definite mental 
type correti ponding with the sex is evolved. 

While motlesly. for example, dnring childhood, is essen- 
tially but an uucompreheiided and inconiprebensihie exaction of 
education and imitation, and in the innocent* and iiiiivei^ of 
the child but iinpr-ifeetly expressed ; in the youth and maiden it 
become^ an impc'ialive rL'(piirenient of >vlf-resi)ect; and. it' in any 
way it is offended, intense vasomotor reaction (blushing) and 
psychical emotion arc induced. 

Tf_the origin al con stit ution is favorable _and_jianBy.l, and 
factors injurious to (he psych n-sexnal development exercise no 
influence, tlien a psyrli'>-s['xual (M-rMHiality is drveloi>ed tliat is so 
uncliangi'iihle, and corresponds so conipleli-ly and biirmoniously 
with the sex the individual represents, that subsequent loss of 
the {.'t'neratlve organs (as by cjistrntion), or the cllmrtctcric or 
84'niiity. cannot e«sentiiilly alter it. But this, of course, is not 
to declare that the castraled mnn or woman, the youth and 
the; a^ed man, the maiden and matron, the impotent and the 
potent man, do not differ essentially from one another mentally. 

An interesting and important question for what fallows 
is, wlietlirr tlie peripheral influenws of the generative glands 
(testes and ovaries), or central cerebral conditions, are the 
detBrininin*|j factf>rs in psycho-sexual development. The feet 
that coufTi'nilal deficiency of the generative j^dands, or removal 
of them before puberty, has a great influence on physical aud 
psycho-sexual development, so that the latter is distorted and 
assumes a type more closely resembUiig the opposite sex 
(eunucha, certain virajioea. etc.). betokens their great importance 
in this respect. 

But that the physical processes taking place in the genitel 



oi^ns arc only co-operative, and not the exclusive factors in 

the pi-occss of development of tlie psycho-sex iml cluirncter. is^^ 

shown by the lact that, notwithstanding a uoruml anahnuical / 
and physiological stale of these organs, a sexual instinct may ^ 
be devcloiied which is the exact opposite of that characteristic j 
of the sex to which the individual belongs, -'^"^ 

In this case, the cause is to he sought only in an anomaly 
of central conditions, — in an abnormal psycho-sexual consti- 
tution. Tliis constitution, as far as its anatomical and functional *^ 
foundation is concerned, is ab^Iutely unknown. Since, in 
almost all such cases, the individual subject to the perverse 
sexual instinct displays a neuropathic predisposition in several 
directions, and the latter may be brought into relation witli 
hereditary degcnemte conditions, this annnialy of psycho-sexual 
feeling may be called, clinically, a funcliurnil sign of degeneration. 
This perveriie sexuality appears spontaneously, witliout external 
cause, with tlic development of sexual life, as an individual 
manifestation of an abnormal form of the vita sexualis. and 
then has the force of a nmyentUtl plienomeuon; or it develo^is 
upon a sexuiility the beginning of wjiidi was normal, as n result 
of very definite injurious influences, and thus ap]iears as an 
acquired anomaly. Upon what this enigmatical phenomciion 
of acquired homo-sexu«l instinct depends is still inexplicable, 
and only a matter for hypothesis. C'areful examination of the * 
8o-4;alled acquired cases makes it probable that the predisposition 
also present here consists of a latent lionio-S4;xuality, or, at least, v^ 
bi-sf'xuality, which, for its manifestation, requires the influeuce 
of accidental exciting causes to rouse it from its slumber. 

In so-called contrary sexual instinct there arc degrees of 
the phenomenon which quite coiTespond with the degrees of 
predisposition of the individuals. Thus, in the milder cases, 
there is simple hermaphrodrtisni ; in more pronounced cases, only 
homo-sexual feeling and instinct, but limited to t]ie vita sexualis; 
in still more complete cases, the whole psychical personality, and 
even the bodily sensations, are transformed to correspond with 
the sexual {H'rversion ; aiul, in the complete cases, the physical 
form is correspondingly altered. 



The following divisifin nf tlir various phenomena o this 
peycho-sexual anomal)' is made, tUcreibre, in accordiincc with 
these clinii:al facts ; — 

A. Hotno^exttal J*i'eimg as an Acquired Manifestation.^ 

The determining conditioiLjiere is the deraonstration ^f :par- 

verselceling for the same sex; not the proof of sexual ants with 

'the same sex. These two phenomena must not be confounded 

y with each other ; perversity must not be taken for perversion. * 

Perverse sexual arts, not dependent upon perversion, often 
come under observation. This is especinlly true with reference 
to sexual acts between j>ei*sous of the same sex, jjarticularly 
pederasty. Here parajsthesia sexualis is not neressiirily at 
work ; but hypeiajsthesia, with physical or mental impossi- 
bility of natural sexual satisfaction. Thus we find homo- ?* 
sexual intercourse in impotent masturbatora or debauchees, or / 


/ante de mieux in sensual men and women in imprisonment, ou 

ship-board, in garrisons, bagnios, boarding-schools, etc. — ' 

There is an immediate; return to normal sexual intercourse 

,118 soon as obstacles to it are removed. Very frequently the 

"canse of such tempnniiy aberration is masturbation and its 

results iu yotitliful individuals. 

Nothing is so prone to contaminate — luider certain ciixnim- 
stances, even to exlianst — the source of all noble and ideal 
^ 'sentiments, whtcli arise of tliemselves from a normally develop- 
^\ iug sexual instinct, a.s the practice of masturfiation in early 
yeai"S. It despoils the unfoldinj^ bud of |ierfiimc and l>eanty, 
^ and leaves behind only the coarse, animal desire for sexual sat* 
isfaclioiu If an individual, similed in this manner, reaches an 
a{<e of maturity, there is wautlnfj in him that aesthetic, ideal, 
pure, and free impulse which draws one toward the opposite 
sex. TluiB tlie glow of sensual sensibility wanes, and llie 
inclination toward the opposite sex becomes weakened. This 
defect intiui'ucc^ the niovals. character, ftuicy, fceliiijr 
instinct of the youthful niasturbator, male or feni^ 
unfavorable way, and, under certain circurastar" 
desire for the opi>osite sex to sink to nif : so tha* 
preferred to the natural mode of satisfaction. 





Sometimes the development of higher sexual feelings 
towm-d the opposite sex suffers, on account of hj'pochondrinciil 
fear of infection in m>xuu1 iiitercoui'se; or on tu»:ouiit of un 
actual infection ; or they suffer as a result of a faulty edueiitJun 
which points out surli dangers and exaggerates tliem. Again 
(especially in females), fear of the result of coitus (pregnancy), 
or abhorrence of men, by reason of mental or moral weakness, 
may direct into perverse channels an instinct that makes itself 
(elt with abnormal intensity. But too early and |H'rverse sexual 
satisfaction injures not merely the mind, but alsu the body; inas- 
much as it induces neuroses of tlie sexual ap{>aratu5 (irritable 
weakness of the centres governing erection and ejaculation ; 
defective pleasurable feeling in coitus), wliile, at the same 
time, it miiintains tlie imagination an<l libido in continuous 

Almost every masturbator at last roaches a point where, 
frightened on learning tlie results of the vice, or on expenericing 
them (neurastlienia), or led by example or seduction to the Oj)- 
positc sex, lie wishes to fife himself of the viw and re-instate his 
vitii sexnnlis. The moral and mental conditions are tlic most un- 
lavorable possible. The pure glow of sexual feeling is desti-oyed ; 
the fire of sexual instinct is wanting, and seU'-confidence, no 
less; ibr _ ever }^masturbator ia more or less timid and cowardly. 
If the youthful sinner at last comes to make an attempt at 
coitus, he is cither di^^Jippointed because enjoyment is wanting, 
on account of defective sensual feeling, or lie is lacking in the 
mental strength nwessary to accmuplisli the art. The fiasco 
has a filial I'fttft. and leads to absolute ]>syeliical im[>otence. A 
bad r aeniory of past failures prevent success 

■f constaijt libido soxualis, however, 

md menlul jwrrersion 

women. For various 

lints, hypochondriacal 

[s kept from masturba- 

istJinces, there may be 

sex is then near at 

Ion or of the feelings of 






friendship wliiclj, on the level of pnthological sexuality, easily 
as5oc:iatc.' tliemsclves witli sexuiil leulings. Passive aiiJ mutual 
onanism then becomes the equivalent of the avoided act. If 
there is a sedueer, — wliirh, unfortunately, is so Ireiiueut, — then 
the culti\*ated pederast is produced, — i.e., a man who i>erforni9 
quam acts of onanism with persons of his own sex, and, at the 
ainie time, feels and ]>rcfers liimself in an aetive ro/c con'es|>ond- 
iug with his real sex ; who is mentally indifferent not only to 
persons of the opposite sox, but also to those of his own sex. 

Sexual abermtioii iu the nonnulltf constituted, unUiifUetl, 
mentally healthy individual, reaches this degree. No casc lias 
been demonstrated in which jwrvcrsity has been transformed 
into penTrsinii, — into a reversal of the sexual instinct.' 

With tainted individuals, the matter is quite different. The 
latent pfTversc; sjjxuality is develuiied under the influence of 
neurasthenia induced by masturbation, abstinence, or otherwise. 

Gradually, in contact with |>erson8 of the same sex, sexual 
excitation by them is induced. Related ideas are colored witli 

1 OarfiliT (Anomallc* Bvnucllts. P&rit, ^tp. &08, S09) rcpirt* two vium (Cmis S33 
nod ISH) Hint arr^ appnn-ntly op|Ki»r;il lo Lhtii MMUinjilfon, parllriilnrl; tin- flrvt. In wbU'li 
dctpnii' ftlrom.tlio unriilthfiiliiMMor a lorcr list tha imliviilual tn submit (a llie u^ncUonji. 
of men. But Uic cue Iterir clearly sliowe ttml thih Indlvlduul never Foanil pl<vuuR> In 
liimo-RrxUAl anbi. In Cue 833, tliu ludlvMual wu iilti.-ui[D»U-il oA arii/iiK. ur wu rI Ituinl a 
]k»yi;hica1 hcrmttplirodlte. 

HicMic! who bull] to tlu> opiiiiou Uint th<i origin of hnmomnxual leFllikK* *riil InRUnet 
k fouiji] til be cxcluMlveljr Iu dereuUve educulliiu and olber pi^t^faalOf^cal IuAucdccs mn 
citlln-l/ liirrmr. 

An uuulrilt-i] instf ronj be rftlAnl ncYiir so much Ititr s femnSn, immI h femHle llk« a 
male, but Uicy vlll n»l bri-oaio lionio-Hcxuul. Tlir HnUiml i11p|x>s[il'iti In tl>c dsUcilllnlniL 
i.i; <»idlLlom;tiotedu<!iitlcia fto<l oHwr BCclJeiitftl cl/c uii»-t .n. . ill.. „, .lu, u mi. Ttit-rt- cbu b« 
DO tlimixht ofniiotruy iexiial iDBttnct •>«!» n-licn rln j.. i-mi i.r iln .»iiin mx (•terts & 
pftycho-sexun.1 liifliieiiii^a oii tlic luillrblum] , >ud Uiti* l>r)nL,ii nliitut liXiliIu ■iid iiraa»a>,—i.*., 
ha* ■ |)»,virlili.'al iitlractlon. Time eaoea are quft« dllfvn'nt Itj wlik-b./diiff tU mteui, wllj] 
, fKM MTtinuallty auil itdcffvUve irHthettc cciiap, the Ixxly of n pnnon of tti« aun« aex ta uaed 
Ibr au otianlfiilc act (not for cnUun in a ]>syelilral ficns^). 

tu Ilia excellent inoEiugmph, Moll ithuwH very dearly stid cimvliidn^ly the Impor- 
tance of original pri'dUpMlUuri iu eoiiirast wltli cxdlluR eauaea (voinp. op. cit., pp. tn^ 
173). Hi; know* " many cases wlipro cnrly anxuAl Intcrt'ourMt wicli men vrim not capabld 
of Iiidiieliiir ixncriiliiii." Mull iili;plfl<-uiiMy «»>■, fUrlher : '' I kuow of iudi an ejildemlc 
(of mutual niianUm) in a Berlin M-lionl. vrlirrL- a pCTfton who I* now an actor •tiamoleaaly 
lDlrDdui<(<d mutual rmaiilARi. Tlioiiicb I now know tho naiOPA of very many nnduES In 
Berlin, ycl I roald not a»ertaln, even wtth anything like prabaMlliy, tliat among all the 
scbolara of itiat acljoul at Uiat time Ifaerc wa» one Uial bad bi'cotiie au uruliii; ; but, on thu 
iillirr bund, I have qullv ('-.■rtalti knowledj^e that many of thoM eeholan aro »ow normal 
•exually, In feeling and Inteivoiuae." 



lustful feelings, and ftwakcti corresponding desires. This 
decidedly degenerate reaction is the bejiiniiinf; of a proi^eas of 
physical and mental tninslbi-matlon, a description of which is 
attempted in what follows, and which is one of the most inter- 
esting psych nlogicul phenomena that ]ms been observed. This 
metamorphobis presents different stages, or degrees, 

/. Degree: Simpie Reversal of Sexual Feeling. — Tliia 
degree is attained when ijcrsona of the same sex liare an 
aphrodisiac cfFecl, atid the individind has a sexual Iccliuj^ for 
them. C'liaratiliT and Ibeling, liowcver, still corres|M)ud with 
the sex of the individual presenting the reversal of sexual feel- 
ing. He feels himself in the active role : he recognizes his 
irapnlse toward his own sex as an aberrntion, and finally seeks 
aid. With episodical improvement of the neurosis, at first even 
nuLinal sexual feelLiigs may re-a[H)eur and assert themselves. 
The following case seems well suited to exemplil'y tliis stage of 
the psj'cho-sexual degeneration : — 

Coae 94. Acquired Contrary Hexnal Insiinci. — ** I ani an o<T]cint,iind, 
B8 Ihr n» t kimw. come of nn untninttnl lamJly. My fatli^r dwl or an ncrut« 
disease ; my mottjt'r is living utid in quite neriwus. A sinter has baen very 
intentelt/ religious for somg year$. 

" I iuys<*lf nm IaII, am), in «]K>eCli, gait. hiuI mttiincr.pive a pt-pfectly 
Buuouline imprc^iiiiioD. Mcnalcs is the only disc-nst.- I hove hnti ; but Hinc-e 
my thirteenth year I liavc HiilTertxl with no-called nervous hendachc. 
My (»xual lilu In:-t,'iiii Id my thirteenth year, wlicn I liL'wiiuf aciiiuiiiitiMl 
with ;i )«oy .soniewlint uKUt tlian uiytiulf, with vrboiii I took |)lciiHiire in 
niutmil fuiiiiling of tliu ^iiitab. I had tla- linit t^jaculatiuu iu niy I'uur- 
trvnlli year. S^-diireil to imatiism by two older ftchfioUmntea, I pmctired 
It |>srlly with others nm) |Mirt!y niofie ; in the latter case, however, alwdya 
with the thoii^litof piTHoim of the fitnialc sex. My libido Hoximlis was 
very gn-at, as it is tu-dny. Later, 1 tru-d to win a iiretty, stout eervaiit- 
girl who bad wry large iiiaitima; ; id boIuiii abseeutoH sum, iit mt; pracsetit« 
sujMjriorem curjiorit* gui [larl^iu enuilaret mihiqiie concede ret 08 niaiii- 
liie oHTulari, dum ipsa pcncm meom valdo erectuni In manuiu ttuam 
BcpU eumquo trivit. 

NotwirhMtjindtn^ mV iirfient domatid for cf>itnfi, ahe would not 
allow it; hut she Unally permitted mc to touch her genitola. 

"After going U> th« Uuivvmity, I viojted a brothel and succeeded 
without e«p«ciHl elFort. 

" There an event occurred which brought a ctutnge in me. On« 



evening I acvompnriiKcl a friunc) luiinu, niid in a mild etaU*. of intoxiuation 
I graHpcil liiiii n<I ^I'liitulia. lie luude liut slight o|)posIlion. 1 tUvu wuiil 
up to bU ruom with him, nml we |>ruc'ti<H-(l mutual innsturWtion. From 
that time wi- iudul^cil in it i^uite tr^qn^ntly ; in <hct, it oume to immisftio 
iwnis in os, with r»f.sult.'int I'jiieuUilioiis. Hut it is slmnjfo thnt I woa not, 
Hi all in love with this person, but passionutely in love with aoothor 
frietid, minr wlium I imvvr felt tbu uUglitest («exunl vxuiCumpJil, and whom 
1 never conueetort with sexual mntters, evea in thought. My visits to 
brothelSf where I was ghnHy reteiveil, hecam« more infrequent; in my 
friend I found a substitute, mu\ did not desire nexual intercourse with 

" We ntwor prneticed pederastyfiinU that word was not oven known 

between us. From the beginning oT this relation with my friend, 1 again 

mnstiirimted more frefiuonlly, and naturally the thought* of femnles re- 

^ eedetl iiu)re t»iid more into the liinckground, and I tliought more and 

\ more about young, linndsome, strong men with the largest genitAls. 

^ I I ]>rcferrcd young fellows, from sixteen )/> twenty-five years old, without 

|bcnrd.% but tbey had to he hnndsonie and cluaii. Young kihorers dressed 

Ml troupers of Alarichet^tcr clutb or Knglisb leather, particularly m&iioug, 

espeeially excited mc. 

" Persons in my own position had hardly any eflect on me ; but, at 
the sight of one of those ,'*tni|>ping felhiws of the lower class, I experi- 
enced marked sexual excitement. It seems to me ihnt the touch of bucIi 
irouscra, the otwning of them, and the gnisping of the penis, ns well xs 
kissing the fellow, would be the greatest delight. My scn«lbility to ^pm.^le 
ehiu'ms is "oiiiuwhat dulled ; yet in eexunl intercouriie with a wum:\ti, par- 
tioulArly wlien she Ims welWeveloped mammn.', I am always patent 
without the help of inui'^i nation. I have never attempted to make use 
of It yoiing labon-r, or the like, for the .'^Htisfaction of my evil desires, and 
never sluill ; but I often feel the longing to do it. I of1:en iinprcM on 
myscK the mental image of such n tuan, and then mnnturlKite nt home. 
" 1 sm aliHolutely devoid of taste for female work. I rather like to 
move in femnie society, hut dani*i»g is rejiugnHnt to me. I have a lively 
interest in the linearis. That my sexual sense is par tly reversed is, 1 
believe, in p art d uetto gre ater con venience, wlugB^^fecps mc fi-om cnteriim 

"tntoa relation with n girl ; as tlielatter is a matter of Utn nnn-h trouble. 

'To-be-COiiBtaully visiting houses of prostitution is, for leslhelic reusous. 
repugUHut to me; and thus I am always returning to fiolitarj* onanism,' 
which is very dilllcult for me lo avoid. 

*' Hundreds of limta I have said to myself that, in order to have a 
normal sexual sense, it would be nccc»aary for me, first of nil, to ove^ my irresistible imssion for onanism, — a practice so rfjpitgnant to my 
wsthelic feeliiij:. Again and ngnin I have resolved with all my might to 
light this i>assion ; hut I am still unHiiccessfub When 1 felt the sexual 
impulse gaining strength, instead of seeking satit^factiou iu the natunU 



manner, I prererred to maslurtuite, because I felt tbAt I would thus IjRve 
more enjoy mtiit. 

" Aritt ,vet «x]>erieiice Ims taught inc that 1 niii itlwiivd [mtent with 
girls, ami tlmt, too, without troutile nud without the help of ima^iuiii^ man- 
culiile ^eiiitnlH. In uiie c»»e, however, I <lid not atlatu ^javulatioIt Uevuiiitu 
the wuuiaii — it wai* in ii tirotliel — wns devoid of everj' cliarni. 1 cHiiiiot 
avoid the thought and severe Kcir-RCcasatlon tlmt, to fi certain extent, my 
contrary lU'Xiinlity is the result of exce»sivi> oiintii^m ; and tliiseit|iccinlly 
depresses mo, l)ccaii»e I am fompellvd t^t ackiiowiwlge that I syarcely 
feel strung enough to ovtiicuiue this vice by the force of luy own will. 

"Ana result of my relations with my lellow-atinlent and school* 
mate for 3'enni, mentioned iu this comniunicntlon, — wJnc.-li, Ijuwt-ver, 
l»cgan while wc wei"c at the TTnivcrr^ity, and (liter we had hcen friends 
for seven yeni's, — the imjtulHe to nnnAtnnil KiitiHrnctiiai of libido h&8 
grown much utrongor. I trust you will ]>L-rmit the ilescriplion of an 
incident which oceiipiett me for months; — 

" In the ftummor of 18^*2, I made the acquaintance of a comimnion 
six years j-ounger than myself, who, with several others, had been intro- 
duced to me and my acquaintances. I very s^oon felt a deep interest In 
this hnml»onie man, who wna uiiusually well proportionud, slim, nnd full 
of health. After a few weck^ of association, this feeling iKeamc friend- 
ship, and at last pafisionate love, with ret-liiigM of the most intense jealousy. 
1 very soon ii«ti<jed tlmt, in this, sexn.-d excitation was also very marked ; 
and. notwithstanding my determi nation, aside from all others, to keep 
mynelf in check in rehvtion to tbis man, whom I respected so highly for 
his superior character, one night, after free inilalgetioe in heer,«s we were 
enjoying a bottle of champagne In my room and drinking to good, tme, 
and laHting ft-iendehip, I yielded to the irresistible impulse to embrace 
him, etc. 

" When 1 «>aw him, next day, I washo ashsimcrl that I could not look 
him in the face. I felt the deepest regret (or my action, and accufted 
myself bitterly for having tlinsi sullied this friendahip, which was lo 1« 
nnd remain bo pure and precluus. In order to prove to him tliat 1 had 
lost control of myself only momentarily, at the eud of the seuiei>ler I 
urged him to make an excursion with me ; and after »orae reluctance, the 
KMOD of which was only too clwir lo me, he consented. Several nights 
we slept in the Hame room without any attempt on m^' part to repeat mj' 
action. 1 wished to talk with him alwut the event of that night, but I 
could not bring myself to it; even when, during the next Muuester, 
we were si-panitcd. I could uot induce myself to write to liim on the 
subject; and when I visited hini, iu M.-irch, at X., it was the same. And 
yet I fell a great desire lo clear up this dark |>oint by an ojjen statement. 
In Ucto1>er of tlif^ Maine year, I was again in X., and this time foiuid 
courage to speak without reserve ; indeed, I asketl him why lie had notre> 

sistetl me. He answered tliat, in part, it wa» liecauau he wished to please 




me, anil, in part, owing to tbe Tftct that be was somcn'ttat apathetic as a 
ruaull of being a little intoxicated. I explained to Uim my condition, 
and also gave liiiu " Psyclioiwilbia Sciualis " to read, exuressing the ho]ifl 
tliftt l»y Uie force of my own will 1 should become fully ami Ia3tin;:ly 
master of my unnatural impulse. Since tUis confession, the relation be- 
tween this friend and me Una been tlie moBtdeli^btl'ul and happy possible ; 
there are tlu'. most friendly fet-lingH on both sides, wbicli me heart-folt 
and true; uttd il is to bo hoped thut tlioy will endure. 

" If I should not improve my abiiormiil eondition, I »m deter- 
mined to put myself under your treatment ; tlie more beeaiisc, after a 
careful s^tniiy of yonr work, I cnnnot count myscll" as belonging to the 
cat^ory of ao-cidled uruiugs; ami, too, because I have thu linn coiivictiou, 
or hope, Bl least, ibat. a strong will, assisted and combined with skillful 
treatment, could tranKform nic into a man of nnrninl feeling/' 

Case 95. Ihua S.,' ugcd '29 ; single ; mcretiunt's daiigtiter. Hha comes 
ofn family having bad nervous taint. Father was a drinker and died by 
suicide, as also did the patient's brother and sistor. A sister sittfwft with 
convulsive hysteria. Mother's fiitber shot himself while Insane. MotbtT 
was siclfly, and died paralyzed after apoplexy. The patient never had 
any severe illnesa. She is bright, enl.iiusiastic, Rn<l dreamy. Menses at 
Iho age of eighteen without dillluulty; but thereafter they were very 
irregular. At fourteen, chlorosis and uat«lep!ty from fright. Later, hys- 
teria gravis aitd an attack of Lystorieal insanity. At eighteen, relations 
with a young man which were not pbtonic. This man^ love was pas- 
sionately returned- From statement* of the patient, it seems that slie 
was very acnsual, and after scparntion from Iter lover jinietiued maatur- 
tiation. After this tflip led a mmantie life. In onler to mrn a living, aho 
put on male clothing, and beeamen tutor; but she gave up her place Ikx-uuac 
her mistreiSH, not knowing her »ex, fell in lovu with her and courted her. 
Then she l-eeaine a railw!i3'*m|j|(iye. In the comimny of her com|ianions, 
in order to eoncml hc-r sox. she was competU^ ti» visit brolliels with them, 
and hear the most vulgar stories. This bemmi so dislastenil to her thst 
she f^vo up ,hur place, resumed the garments of a female, and again 
sought to earn her living. She was arrested for a theft, and on iieeonnt 
of severe hyftoro-epilepMy was ueiit to the hospital. There, inclination 
and impulse toward tbe samo sex were discovered. The patient became 
troubltsoiiu: ou account of [uisKionate love for female nnrses and patients. 

Her sexual pcr^-ersion was considered congenital. With regard to 
this the patient made fiome interesting statements: — 

" I am judged incorrectly, if it is thought tJiat [ feel mywlf a man 
toward the female xex. lu my whole thought and feeling 1 am much 
more a woman. I loved my coualn an only a woman can love a man. 

1 Coap. auUioHi Expcrioicatal gludy tn Uie DunuOu of BypuuUuu, X9SS». Q. P. 
rotoaai'* SoQB, Kew Tork. 





" Tile change of my foeling originate! in thJfl,that,in Penth.drcMiHl 
aa a man, I hod an opportunity to obsorvo my cousin. 1 saw that I bad 
ifbolly deceived mystilf in Iiiiu. That gavn nii; terrible benrt-paTige. I 
knew that I could never love another uinn; lliat 1 buloui^t-tl to tlio»« who 
love but oocf. Of nimilur ttFect wa» the Tnct that, in the socictj" of my 
companions at the rnitway, I vas cotiipellcd to hcur the most oifeusire 
language wnd visit the most dinrppiitabli^ houses. A s a r e yiilt ftf t^^ in. 
night int o, me n's piotive»._gained in J,his ytiiy, IjtooV _an_ imconquct^ble 
dislike to them. However, sinre I am of n very pansionnte nature and 
need to have some loving [ktsod on whom to depend, luid to whiim I i»n 
wholly surrender myself, I felt myself more and more powcii'uUy druwu 
toward intelligent women and girU who wt-re in »*ynipatliy wJtli ine.*' 

The cotitrary sexual itistinct of this patient, which was 
clearly aoqnircd, expressed itscH" in a stormy and decidedly 
sensual way, and was further auj;mented by nuisturhutifin ; be- 
eniisc constant ovcrsigliC in hospitals made sexual satisfuction 
with tlie same sex impossible. Clmracter and occuijation re- 
mained feminine. There were no manifestations of viraRiuity. 
According to information lately received by the author, this 
patient, aftx'r two ycjirs of trentmeiit in an asylum, was entirely 
freed from her neurosis and sexual [K-rveraion, and discharged 

Case M. X., aged 1!); mother nervous; two alKton) of mother*B 
ththcr were insane. Patient of nervous tcmpernmont ; welt endowed 
mentally ; well developed ; normally formetL WUeu he was twelve yean 
old, he was seduced into mutual onanii*nt hy itn elder brother. 

After this, the patient continued the vice alono. In the three 
yeare, duritig the act of mantnrbfltion, tie had had peculiar fanoict) in the 
sense of ''conlrjiry lu-xual instinct-*' 

He tiuicies hiniflelfa female ; as, for example, a ballot'tlaneer in the act 
of coitua with an olllcer or eireus rider. Thesp per\'erne fancies have ac- 
companied the act of masturltation Kinee the patient became ueunisthenic. 
He understands the harm of masturbation, fights de8))erately agninat it, 
but always gives up to the impulse. 

If be is able to withstand the impulse for n few days, a normal desire 
for si>xual interconrsc with femalea is awaki-neil ; hnt a certain fi'ar of 
infcetion hold^ these desires in ehcck, and always drives him again to 

It is worthy of remark that thia unfortunate's lascivious dreams 
concerned only female**. 

In the course of the last few months, the patient bad become ver}- 
ueurasthuuic and hypochondriacal. He fearod tabes. 



I advised trentmcnt or the neiinistheiiiA, auppree^ion of mnstar- 
tulmu, aiiil marital cobubitatiori, if {lowiiblt!, after imprormnuut of the 


Ctute 97. Mr. X, aged S5, single, otttcial ; mother insane, brother 


Putii'iit was healthy, Btroog.uf lively eeiisiial tciujwnnuetit. He 
hnd mniiircsted puwerful sexual instiiicL abuoiinnlly early, mid mimtur- 
li«tecl white yet a sioall boy. He bad coitus the first liiut; at llie aj;e or 
frmrtwon, he flays, witli enjoyment and complete power. When fifteen 
ypars old, a man 8oii^bt to scduec biin, aud pcrrormed niaiiustopration 
on bim. X. experienced a reeling of repiilnion, and iVeed biinsulf from 
the (li)4giiBLtii<; Biliiutiun. Al maturity be uomiiiiltud excesses iu libido, 
with coitus; in 1380 be becaine neurasthenic, being aHli^Leil with weak- 
nes» of erection and eJaeiiLatio prtecox. lie tbnt* becauiu less aud Jens 
potent, and no longer exi>ericnccf1 pleasure in the sexual acL At tlits 
time of sexual deeadcutrc, for a long time, he still bad what was prevl> 
ously foreign to him, and is stJII incomprehensible to lilm, — an inclina- 
lion lor sexual lutfircuui'Be witb iinuiature girls of Ibe age of twcLvu or 
thirt«!». Uis libido inei'cnsed ns virility diminished. 

Qmdiinlly he develo]>ed inclination for boys of thirteen or fourtMn. 
He was impelled to ng^proacb then). 

Qiiodsl ot occnsio data est ut tangere poaset pueros qui ei jilatfuere, 
;)enls vehementer xe erexit turn tnaxinu? (|uiiin crura pucrorum laiigcru 
potuisset. Abhinc rmniims non cupivit. Noununqnam feminns ad coitnm 
coCgit sed ereutio debilis. ejaculalio pra^mntuni. «i»e utla voluptate. 

Now only youtlia iiiterested biui. Uu dreamed about them and had 
pollutions. Al^r 18K2 be now and then had op[>ortun)ty concumhcre 
uuni juvenibus, Tlii» led to |Ktwcrfid scxnnl excitement, which he satia- 
ficd by masturlmtion. It was only cxci-ptioiLal for him to venture t^ 
touch hia bod-fellow aud indulge in mutual maaturbation. He sbunmid 
pederasty. For the rooet part, be was comiwUed to saLisfy his sexual 
needs by m«ui» of solitary miwturbatiou. In the act he c4»Ued up tUe- 
viaiou of pleasing boys. After sexual inti^rcourse with auch t)0}'8, be 
always felt strengthened nnd refrcshod, but morally depressed; because 
there was consciousnosft of having ptrfornird a perverae, indecent, and 
punishable act. He found it imioful that bis disgustiug impulse was 
more powerful than bis will. 

X. thinks that his lore for his own sex haa rennlted ttom great 
excess in natural sexnnl intercourse, .ind bemoans his 3itu.ition. On the 
occasion of a consultation, in December, 18S!), he asked whether there 
were any means to bring blm back lo a normal sexual condition, since be 
had no real horror femlnce, aud would vt-ry gUdly marry. 

This intelligifnl patient, free from dcgencnitive signs, presented no 
abnoimal symptoms except those of sexual and apinal neurasthcuia of 
DHNlerate degree. 



//. Ihgree.: Eviration aurl De/emlnatinu. — If, in cases of 
contrary sexual instinct tlius developed, no restoration occurs, 
then deep and lasting transibrmations of the psyclnral ()er80U- 
ality may occur. The process rompleting itself in tliis way nmy 
he briefly designated eyiratmn, The isiticiit underjjoes a de<!p 
change of cliamcter, particularly in his fechnf:;s and inclinations, 
which become those of a female. After this, lie al&tj feels him- 
self to be a woman diirinp the sexual act, has de!«ii-e only fo 
passive sexual indulgence, and, luider certain circumstances, 
sinks to the level of u prostitute. In this condition of deep 
and more lasting psycho-sexual tiunsformatiun. the individual 
is like the (congenital) uming of high gmde. The jjossibility 
of a restoration of the previous mental and sexual personality 
seems, in sucli a case, excluded. 

The following case is a clnssicnl example of this variety of 
lasting acquired contrary sexual instinct: — 

C«s« 98. Scb., nged 30, pliyeiciaa, one day told me the story of bis 
life and iiialady. nitkiTi^; vxpliinntion, niul advicu com-eming certain niiotn- 
alies of his vita seximlis. The following description gives, for the most 
part rcrbntira, the details of thi^ SMtoliioj^raphy ; only in gome (lortionH In 
it Hhortenetl : — 

" My jiarcntA wore lienlthy. As a child I waa glckly ; but wJib 
good care I thrived, and guL on well in suboul. When eleven yenm old, I 
was tauglit to inn>«turlwt<> t>y my jflayiuatea, and gave uiy»<.>ir u[> la it paa- 
sionatcly. Until I was fifteen, I learne<l eaiiily. On a<Toiiiit of frequent 
pollutions, I became less capable, did not get on caaily in m^hool, and was 
iinverlain and emIiiirm.sReil when calteil on by t)ie teAeher. Frightened 
by my ioas of ca|«il(ilily, and recognizing that the loss of semen was 
rectiMiuftMe for it, 1 gave up nuiKlnrlmtion ; hut the poltutionn liecnme 
even moru frequent, no Lbat I otlvu had two or three in a night. In 
despair. I now constiltt-il one physieiao after another. None were able 
to help me. 

'* Since I grew wenkor and Wfiftker, hy n-siHon of the loss of seman, 
with the impulse to Hexual iiatiBrntrtion growing more and more pow- 
criVil. I sought bouHos of proslitutJon. Bnt I wan there unable to Ijiid 
aatisfiiction ; for, even though the sight of a naked female pleased me, 
ncithiT orgasm nor erection occurred ; and even manusiupnitton by the 
piielhi wna not capable of inducing erection. Scarcely would I leave 
the hou>Hf, when the impulKi- wouh) Keixe me again, and 1 would have vio- 
lent erections. I grew ashamed before the girls, and ocaaed to vlalt such 
hou8«e. Thus a cvuple of years passcHl. My aexual life conaisted of 



pollutioDs. My iuclinatioD tuward the op|>o«itc sex grew lees and lesB, 
At niue(een I went to the Uuivereity. The tlieatre hiul more nttntctions 
for me. I wiahe*) to lipconu' nn nctor. My pnrt'iit* wiTt* not willing. At 
the Capital I waM ooinjfclled now antl then to visit girls with my I'M^m- 
radcB. I feared Bueh a situntion ; bccaasL' 1 knew that coitus was iuipos- 
Bible for mv, iiinl lietuinse my IVii'nils miglit clim'OViT my iinpoteiinv- 
Tbfreforu, 1 avoided, as V&r as possililc. llie daiigc-r of hecomiiig the butt 
of jokes niid ridicule. 

" One evening, in the oppra^hoiiac, an ol<l gentleman nat near me. 
He courted mo. I laiigbinl biiirtily at the foolish old man. and entered 
into bis joke. K\itin|>iiiHfii iri'iiitaiia men prebeiidit, (jiio fni'tu Ktalim 
penis mcas ac erta^it. Frigbtcned, I donmndc-d of him what be intuut. 
Ue said that be was in love with me. UavJog htnrd of henimphrodit«8 
in the (.'lini<-t4, I tboiiglit 1 liud one before tiie, and heeanie curious to »«h) 
bis genitalti. The olii man was very willing, iind went with ine to the 
watcr-eloHct. Sicuti ponem maximum ejus orccttun adiipexi, |>ertcr 
ritus effiigi. 

"TbiH man followed me, and made strange proposaU which I did not 
understand, xnil repellud. He did not (jive me any re»t. I leai-ned tbo 
secrets of male love for malos, and felt that my sexnality was exdt<-d by 
it. But. I re-sisted the shameful piwuion (aa I thi-ii regardi^d it), and, for 
the next three years. 1 remained free from it. During this time I repoat- 
tHlly attempted i»>ituti witli girls iu vain. .My attempts to free myaidf of 
my lm])Qtem7e by tucans of me<lieal treatment were also vain. Ouee, 
when my libido Ki.-xuuli» wan troubling me again, I re^-aUp<l what the old 
mnu bad told me: that malt^luving men were acciiHtouied to meet on the 
B. Promenade. 

" After a hard atniggle, and witii beating heart. I went there, made 
the acquaintanoe of a blonde man, and allowed myself to be seduced, 
The flmt stop wa» taken. This kiud of itexua] luve wna hatisfnctory to 
me. I always preferrerl to be in the urm.'* of a utrony man. The Katie- 
faction consiBted of mutual raanustupration; oci:a«JonaUy in nHcnlum ad 
pvtiem alterina. I wiut then twenty-thrcc years old. Sitting, together 
will) my comrades, on tJie bedH <if patientH in tho clinic during the lec- 
tures, excited lue so lutensrly that I could scanrcly listen to the lectures. 
in the !<ame year I entered into n formal luve-relation with a merchant 
of thirty-four. We lived as man and wife. X. played the man, and fell 
more and more in love. I gave up to him, hut now and then 1 had to 
play tlic man. After a time I grew tired of him, became unfaithfid, and 
he be<-amc jealous. There were terrible soi^nes, which led to tcmporarv 
scparntioD, nod Bnally to raptaro. (The merchant aderwaid 
became insane, and died by suicide.) 

" I imidc many ac(|Uaintances, and loved the most ordinary people. 
I preferred those having a full lieanl, and who were tall and of middle age, 
and able to pUiy tho active rtUewell. I duvclopud a proctitis. The pro- 



>r tboaght It was tlie result of sitting too mtic-h wbile preparing for 
ejcAiiiii]Ation8. I devclopert a HittuU, and hnil to undergo ftn operation; 
bul thU did not euro rue of my desire to iillow myself to bo used piuwively. 
I becitmc a physician, niul went to a provincial city, vhere I biul to li%-c 
like n nun. I ditvitlo[)ed il desire to Qiovo in ladies* society, and was 
gladly welcomed Ibere; bccnase it wnn found that I was Dot so om^-sided 
as moMt men, nitd was interested in lailelte» snd sucb feminioe things 
However, 1 felt, very unhappy ;in(l lonesome. Fortunately, in tbii* town, 
I made thti ac4|n:)intAnce of a man, a ' itiiiUT/ who felt like me. For some 
limo I was tiiken aire of by bim. When he bad to leave, I bad au 
attack of de8)>a)r, with depresKiun, which wan lu^uompanied by ttionghtB 
of suieidc. 

" When it became impossible for me to longer endure the town, I 
became n military sargeon in the Capital. There I began to live ngain, 
and often modu two or three awinaintances in one day. I had never 
loved iKiys or young iieo]ile: only fully -tie veloputi raen. The thought of 
fiiliing into the hands of the police was friglit(\jl. Thus I have («euped 
the clutches of the blndcmaik-r. At the twnie time, I coiihl not keep 
myself Innn the satisfaction of my impiUse. After some months I fell in 
love with an otlicial of forty. I remained true to him for a year, and we 
lived like a pitir of lovers. I was the wife, and wn» formally courted by 
llw lover. One day E wa.s tmnsf<'rre«l to a Hmall town. We wcn> in 
deK]tair. The butt night was spent in eonlinuully kis^iing and oarexhing 
one another. 

" In T. I was tninpi-.nkably unhappy, Jn spite of sonie' sisters' whom 
I found. I could not foi-get my lover. In order to satisfy my sexual 
desire, which cried for witin fact ion, I chose soldiers. Money obtained 
men ; but tbcy remained cold, and I bad no enjoyment with them. I wns 
Buccwisful in being re-trtinsfcrred to the Capital. There, there was a new 
love-relation, but much Jeidoiisy ; because my lover liked to go into the 
society of ' sisters,' an«l was jirond iind coqueltiwh. There was a nipt lire. 
I wan very unhappy and very glad to be transferred IVom the Capital. I 
now stayed in C, alone and in despair. Two infantry privates were 
broitght into ser^-iee, but with the same uniMitinfactory rt-nult. When 
shall I ever tlnd true Invc again ? 

"I am nvei' nie<lium heiglit. well developed, and look somewhat 
ftged; and, therefore, wlien I wish to make con<|uestB I use the arts of the 
toilet. Hy manner, movementa, and face arc mnscntine. Physically I 
fpel as youthful as a boy of twenty. I liive the thealn^ and especially 
art. My intei-cst in the stage is in the actresses, whose every move- 
ment and gesture I notice and criticise. 

" 111 the Rocicty fif getitlonicii I am silent and embarrassed, while 

in the society of those like mysell' I am free, witty, and ;is fawning as a 

cat, if a man is nym[>atlietic. If I am without lore, I become deeply 

LiDebinchotic ; but the favors of the flrst handsome man dispel my deprea- 



sioi). In Mhor ways 1 nni rrivMoii!) ; Dnytliing Ititt ftmhitioiin. My 
profesHJon U notbiug- to inc. Mnsciiliuc {mrsiiits do nut intorost mc 
I prefer novelft and going to tlio theatre. I not eircuiinau>, sennitjve, 
etuily movml, uaiiily iiijiircil, aiul iiurvuus. A Hiuldi'ii noitM> mnkiiK my 
wliule bud}' trvmble, aud J have tu coLleut m^'sclf iii urder to kv*ip I'rou 
crying out." 

Jirmarkif: The foregoing Cft»« is certainly one of »cqnircd con- 
trary ^exnnl instinct, since tbe siexiitil inntinct and iinpulfif Ti-cre origi- 
nally di^(H^t<!d toward the female ses. Sch. became ncurastbenic through 

Ah nil aurompuuying inariifoatation of the neurasthenic nenrosis, 
lesfli'iied iiuirrussionnbility of the erection-centre mid consequent rein- 
live impotence came un. Ak a result of this, sexual aenmhility toward 
tbe opposite sex woa le^i^'ned, with simtiilnneous persistence of libido 
hoxuhU:*. Tlie acquired contrary «exunl instinct must be abnormal, aince 
the lirst touch by n person of the siuiie sex is an adequate stimulus for 
clie ereetion>cciitre. The perverse sexual feeling became complete. At 
firnt ScU. full like a man In the sexual act; bnt more and more, as the 
elmngc progressed, the feeling nnd desire of matififacLion chnugeil to the 
form which, as a rule, characterizes the (congenital) urning. 

This cTiration induces a desire for the pasnivc i-5/*, and, further, for 
(pasaivo) j>ederAsLy. It m:ike» a deeper impress on the chafAcLer. The 
character becomes feminine, inasmuch as Sch. now prefers to move in the 
society of actual femnles, ho-s an inprenfiing desire fi>r feminine occupa- 
tions, nnil, indeed, makes use of t1ic arts of the toilet in order to ImproTe 
his fading charms and make " conqiieBt»." 

The foregoing facts, concerning acquired contrary sexual 
instinct aud effcmiiialiuu, tind an interesting eonfirmatiou in tlie 
ibUowiiig ethnological data: — 

Kven Herndotus describes a peculiar dleenso which frpfiuentl.v 
alTe{:tcd the ScytUiiine. The disease consisted in tids : that mtii beonmu 
elfciniiiate in character, put on female garnientM, did the work of 
wouiOH, and even bfccanie otfcinin.'ilc in appearance. As an expI»iiation 
of this iii«iinity of the SfiythiaMH,' Herodotus relntes the myth that 
the godde>4H Venus, angered by tlic plundering of the temple at AHcaUiii 
by the Scythians, had made women of these plunderers auil their 

> Comp. Sprvnecl, ".Apologle dra Hlp]»>Ura,t«," t.i>)pKl|*, 1703, p. All ; FrlM]r«lch, 
"UVr&rgt-Achlcbh- dn psjrcli. Kraiiklirtbiti," ISSii, \>. ^1 : Lnlli-miuiil. " LAt iH-rUa efiml- 
naltt," n^e, lt(3fl, 1, p. 581 ; NyBivii, " DkTk-iiu. <l« iii^iliHiiite," il i^-Olt., Part«, I63S, Art. 
"Eviration et MaImH*- <)« ji-ylbrfi"; MmuiiiIoh, " Dn In iiiti1adl« lU^i ^)tIio«"; *'Annal. 
nitdlco-paycliol-i" IS'7, Mai*, p. ISl ; Ilkiniiiuud, Amcrlcau Juurual ur Neurology umI 



Hfp|)oorat*«, not liplieviiij; in Mupcrnitlnritl <liseH8«ft, reeojjiiizc<t 
tbnt in){iotoiicR was iicrc a causative factor, an<\ cxphiinetl it, though in- 
correctly, ER due u> the cufitcim of the Scytbiims, hy »ttrilmting it to dl»^| 
CUM of the Jtigutnr vt>iiiK inrlnceil by oxcefisivc ridincr. He thought that 
these veins were of •^tvnl iniportuuec hi the prcserviiLion of the sexiinl 
liowvrv, ami thnt when they were severed, iinpoteuee was iiiducod. SinciH 
llie Sryllimn* considered their impotence due to divine paniBhraent, and 
iDcurahle, they put on the clothing of females, and lived as wonitii nuiong 

Jt is wortliy of note tliat, nccorrlin^ to Klaprotli (** Rpifte in dei 
Kntikasuii,'' Berlin, ltJl2. v, p. 285) nn4t Chotoin!«ki, even itt the prt'tteiil 
time inip<jl.t>nee i» very freiiueiit ntiiong the Tfirlnrs, an n re^^uit of ridiiig 
uiisaddled lioreon. The snnie in observed among lite A]>iiehes anr! Navn*-, 
jo« of the WeRtem Continent, who ride exceiwively. scfti-cely over goinj 
on foot, nnd are rcmnrkiiltlc for sniftll ^cnitnla und mild libido an( 
virility. Sprengpl, Lallemand, and Nysten recognized the fact that cx-^ 
ccssivc rifling rany he injurious to tlie sexual organs. 

Huuitnond reports unaiogous ubservntiunit of great interest con-' 
cerning tlu^ Piiehlo IndimiM of Ne«T Mexico. Tlie>»e doseeiHiant'* of the 
AxtecA cultivate fto-callcd " mnjerados,'- of wbicli cvcrj' Pueblo tribe r«-fl 
qnires one in the religious ceremonies (actual orgios in the sprinc;), in 
wliifh pederaHty plays an lnii]ortuiit part. In order to oultivate a *' mti* 
jcrndo," a very pOM-erfnl nmn is clio»en, and he is made to mii»tur1mte ex-^ 
cewively and ride coiistftntly. Gradually suuli irritable weskripaa of the" 
genital organs is engendered that, in riding, greiit 1ok« of somen its iaduccd. 
This condition of irril;il>ility [jiisses into pjiialjitic impotence. Then the "^ 
teaticlcH and pen itt atrophy, the hair of the beard Mia otit, the voice toseftj 
its depth and compass, and pliy.sical strength nnd energy decrease. IdoI 
dinations nnd disposition heconio feminine. The " nuijerado " lo^es liisJ 
position in society osn man. lie tJiketi on feminine manners and customsJ 
nnd associates with women. Yet, for religious renaons, he is held iaJ 
honor. It is probable tliat, at«thcr timen llinii during tlie fe^tivHls, be{ 
t» n»ed by the chiefs for pederasty. Hanininii<l iMtdan opportnnily toeXi 
amine two " mujeradns." One had l>ecome sueh iievcn years before, and] 
was thirty -five years old at the time. Seven years before, he was entirely 
mascidiiie and potent. lie had noticed gradual atrophy of the teoticlcs 
and penia. At the tuime time lie lost libido nnd the power of erection*-fl 
He dilToi-ed in Dowiee, in dress and iniinuer, from the women among 
whom Hammond found him. The genital hair wan w.-iiiling, the penis 
was shrunken, the scrotmn lax and pettdiilona, ntid the tcAticle-t were 
very mneh atrophied nod no longer oensitivo to pressure. The 
** mujcrado *' had l[ir<;e mamnuv tike a pri-gnant woman, and astierted 
that he had niir»ed several children whoi^re mother!* had died. A 
wcoud "'raujerado." aged thirty -six, alter lie bad l>een ten years rai 
the eonditiou, presented the same peculiarities, though with less de>| 



vviupiiM-iit nf tiKiinniA*. 
Tlie Imdy wait jtliitnp.' 

Like tlift first, the voice WHS higli nnd thin. 

///. Degree: Stage of Trannlwn Ut Aletamorphons 
Sexualix Paranoica. 

A furOinr ilrjjree of development is represented by (hose 
cases in which bodily seu«itioii is also traiisroir«ed in i)w sense 
of a inm^mvtafio sextis. In this i-cspcct the followuig case is 
unique : — 

' Tlie roUnvftfut ilMcrlptlon of tJi« " botn " U UJu-u from Dr. J. (J. Klpm*ii'B &rtic4e 
no"I{Mipnniill>Ilit]rliiSi-xu»1 iVn-rmidii," n-ud Wttiwe linCUraCf Mnlitnl 8ocicl>, March", 
1803: "III «i.-conUuH-« witli Mi<- wi'lUkiiowii physlnl»e<t'<tl luw, ttuii um fn^qucDt exclUtloii 
(>r k nrrTO cxIiimbU Uic rcwtirtn of that nevff to tliat txillaut. sexual cKcn* cxhawW thv 
iirtrm»l TMicUoD. whciite lloccHre llml Blnwrmal tllniului U wjulred oud lbf*lw Ivpeof 
MixuAl iterteniDD mulu. Suoli *!«■ lypts [^vp U|> aiumif; mtm^s. Dr. A. B. ItoM.-r (N. 
Y. M«l- Jtfur.. 1689) ilMvrllK-o a m-xubI i^rrt-rt •.■•llcil Ihi- ' l>nt* ' by Uw MuntJtiia •iid tbf 
■burdM-lj ' by Ui*i WiL«httii;ioii Imlluit. 9iicb a p^rv'Tt U Hmnil ^moiij; all the LrlbMof tlio 
NonhneMt. l.ikr all oUirr m-xu.i1 ixttitU, ilinw ' tH»U« ' ibu rctogrilw fJU'b Other. Dr. 
iltililer h&s foiiiiil Hint Hit ' boU- ' wean IIr- miuuw drrw, part* hi* hiUr like it squaw, aud 
aMumrs rcmliilrii^ f pri^rli aiid mnniirni. TUfIr Tr-aturvji arc ott4>n mssculluv. Tu cliflilliWHl 
frmlnlnt^dri'M aiKl nmiinere nrc anauini-il, ^uL not until piibi-rty 4« 't»ot«' pmeikw reault. 
Thne conaiit lu Mklni; tliu male ormii vf thi> active parly !ii tli« II[m oT tlii> * bi)l«,' who 
vzpvrlviivn tbe vcxual i>rua#ni «L thv tinnic tlmi*. A ' hole ' irxangtufd by l>r. Ilnldi-r wm « 
sp1«iiillilly funned fellow, of prvpoMra»Ii>g Tace, In pcrfori hi^ltli, arllfi- Id mfivi-niful, and 
bB|)|fy In dloiHuIil'iit. By uflVthif; lUYiii-til, lie ludui-rd him lo kiitnult hliuarll, tlioiigti wiUi 
cuDBtilerabk- tt-lucljner, l4k a Ibonnii;)) i-xiinilimlinD. He wtu Hti- fi-rl frli^hl tnrbf* Iilgli, 
wrl^hrd onr hnndn-<l and Hfly-riiiht ixntiid*, nnd bad a rmnk, lut«'llt)(i-'ut <W«,^tieln|> an 
Indian, or courN; bcArdkM. He vab lUlrty-tlircp ye^n nT agr, and had worn woman'* 
diTH Tor ivrciiljr-clelil yvan. IU» drvM wu ib<: urual drrtiB of the ludUn fcmali', coualst- 
liiS of ruur aiik-Ut,— I) dlu^U- drvts or p>wu of half a duccn ranis of elotb, tnade Ioom 
with widp kIivviv, and »ktrt rriirldnx tit thr anhW, the skirt and body ot oiiu piece, vety 
raiKli like ihv 'Mutiic] HubUutl ' ntgliffh worn bv indini ; a tx.'ndnl hcU. luoaL'ly riinfluint; 
tills at >bc wabl; iittH kings fruat ^{avrrunivnL animlly k""<1*' and buckskin imicoajilus 
uxtiindlitt: above tl\p ankloe. Tho lislr. twrntv-fmir nr lircnty-*ix loebtw long, was partr*! 
In tho »-nta- and hJIowm] m han^ Ioobc in two moMM hi-tdnd the •hoiiUli-ra. Sine* atnnne 
tlip Sluux and suuil- uilu-r trtbva li U uvitul for mm to w«ir tbdr hstr In thiB way, K te veil 
U> ubs«rv« iliat Id tlils Irlbo (Ahunilce) Hit men uKUully wfcnr llm hulr tn lone bntliln, and 
always jnvrt It mi Uid Mr and ' tiHu-b ' tlie frimt. His skin wa« snioolb luid. free from faalr, 
tlicTB )>i-lni,' alixdulcly none un Ibe le;^*, nrnis, i>r brpa*t, (ir In th<» nrm-i>lti>. This Is of no 
spei-lu] iil^nlfl(-ancr, as male and fi'i»al<.< IiHllMiiitart- liitili Ttwt from hntr on tluiip pnrta oftlic^ 
boil.v. Tlw innrains wens as rndlmi^ntttrj an thosr of llip male. Wieu liu removed Ms dr«w 
he tJirew lits thli:bs toirelticricna lo eompkwly ronci-nl tbi]OT)caiis, Hlu'thermaleor fetnate: 
aarh a tuovuneni U made by ilmkl women trndrroxomlntiilnn, — atnnrement tuimllyiue- 
cewful In the femak-, oirliiit to the non-prnjefllnit flmraeliT of the frentUls Kud to tha 
rotundity of tlir tlilnh* ; lint imt ninally casj-, fur ilie revti-se tvmsuM, In ilie male. In this 
the * bote *— ell.ticr frrnn tliv <?unrurmatlon of tlin thli^s, wIiIpIi had the fttmlnlnp mtntidlly, 
or from skill actiulrvd by lisbtt — sutcLx-dfil (-(rmpk'lely. Wben tio separaLi^it b!s Ihifibs, 
male nrcans rajne into view, In size perha[w not qultf so 1ar|:e as the physique of the inaii 
would lndkatt>, bat to po«tU»n and shape atlo|teLher normal. Tlie penis was flaield. The 
■ bote ' In liablls veir clmcly re«cniblri a class deBerlb<>d by IIlppoerat«a among the Scyth- 
l«Di of Caui-Hsus, called by the Greeks auundrvis, a word Itrlklufily similar lu meauluc to 
'bol*.'"— Thaks. 



Ca3g 99. Autdfiotfraphij. " Born in Hungary in 1844, for many 

1 was lite only cliild of my imrcuts ; tVir tlie oUiit cliililrfii Oieil I'or 
lie moflt |Mrt of gfluenil wenhiiess. A brutlicr cumc wtiu in Htill 

" I coin« of .1 fiiinily in wliich nervous nnH mental disensos linve 
tteen nnmerotis. It is ftaid tb:it I vaa very pretty a* n litttc fhild, Willi 
lilnndc locks niid tRmspnrcnt skin : very olieiiu'Ut, ciiilet., find modest, so 
tliiit I wiiit uiken everywhere in ihe eocit-ty o( ludies wUlionl any oflentte 
uii uiy pnrU 

"With a. very active hniigination — my enemy llirougli life — my 
tftlfnts developed Tfijiidly. T ooiild rriul nnd writp at the. a<^e of four; 
roy m«nii>ry rcaflic-s back t<i my third ycnr. I jilftrcii witli ovrry thing 
that f«ll into my bandn, — with l«ndeti M)hiier«, or stones, or ribbons from 
H rliildrcn's store; but a uimrliiuc Tor workini: in wood, thtit was given 
to me a^ a ]«resci)t. I did not like. I liked best to be at home with my 
mother, who was everything to rne. I liad two or three friendK.with whom 
I j(ot on jjoo<Unatiiredly ; bnt I liko^l to play witli llicir sisters <)iiite 
aa well, who always treated mc like a i-irl, which nt first did not rmiwir- 
rass me. 1 mns*t have nlieady been on the road to l)ccomc^Jnst like ^ 
girl ; at Iwuit. I can utill well reinonib^f liow it wits ajwuytj snid ; ' He is 
not intended for a boy.' At this 1 tried to play the boy., — imitated uiy 
companions in everything, nnd trieil to wnrpn^s them in wihlness. In 
this 1 sncccedvtl, Thure wns no tree or building: Wo high Tor me t^t 
reach its top. I took great delight in eoUIi«i-8. I svcidud girls more, 
becaast I did not wish to play with tht-ir pJay-tliings ; and it always 
annoyed me that itiey treat^-d mc ^4) mncli like one o( theiusclrefl. 

" In the society of mature people, however. I always modest, 
and, al«o. always regnnled with fiivor. Fautaelic ilresms abont wild 
aniniaU — whieh once di'ove me out of 1>ed witlionl wnkiiig me — fre- 
quently troubled mo. 1 was nlwnya very dimply, hnt very elegantly, 
tlrcHMd, and Ihns developed a tikste for bcntitirnl clotliing. It fteeins 
pecnlinr to rue that, from tlie time (if my HctiooUlnyH, I lind a partiality 
for laiiies' gloves, which I |)ut on secretly as often as I conld. Thns, 
when once roy mother wax iihout to give nwny n pair of glorcs, I made 
great opposition to it, mid lohi her, when she asked why I acted so, that 
I wanted them myself. [ was lau^ihed at; and frotn tlml time 1 took 
good care nut to dittpluy my prel'erenee for female thitijrB. Yet my 
delight in them was very great, i tciok especial plenHuro tn mnH<{iiei-adc 
costnnieH, — i.e., only in female attire. If I fl.iw them. I envied their 
owners. Wliat svemed to me the prettiest sight was: two young men, 
lieftiitifuUy dressed m white ladie;*, with masks on; and yet I would not 
have shown myself to othera as a girl for nnytliing ; I was s<i nfrnid of 
Iwtng ridiculctl. At school I worked very hard, and always among 
the llrAt. From childhood my parents fjiuglit mc that duty came Hvst; 
and they always set me an example. It was also u pleasure for mc to 



ftttenil Mchool ; for Llio Icaohfrs were kind, and the elder scholnra did not 
plaguu the yoiiiigor ones. We iel't my fifl- liome ; for my rntUur wrs 
cotn|n«ll«<), on ftncoiint of his linsintwfl. — wlik'li wa« ilenr to him, — to sep- 
arnie from liis IKinily for n ycnr. Wc moved lo GermAiiy. Here tliere 
ivn» a stricter, roitglier miinner, {mrlly in leac^hers atnl i>»rL)y in Kcholars; 
and I wnH HgnJii ridiculed on account of my girlishuuss. Hy school- 
raatos went so fur na to give n girl, who li»d exactly my rentare*. ray 
nnme, and me lierx ; so that t hatnl the girl. Bnt I later C3im« to he on 
t«rmtt of frieiidsliip with her hc.v marriage. My mother tried to 
dress me clegaiitiy ; but thia was rt-jiugnatit to me, because it made me the 
ohjecl of Joke. So, finally, I was deliglited when I bad correct trouserfl 
and coatfl. Htit with tlicac came a m^vr anuoyaiice. They irritated my 
genitnis, |>itrticularly when the cloth \\»ti rough ; nui) the toucli of tailors 
while iQensuring me, on account of their tickling, which almost con- 
vulsed mu, wa* uneiidtirahto, partic-ularly alioiit the genitals. Then I 
hail to [iractice gymnastics ; and I sinijtly could do nothing at all, or only 
indiBTerently the thinga that girls cannot do easily. While bathing I 
WAS troubled hy feeling nsliamcd to undress; hut I liked to hntlio. Until 
my twelfth yiMir I had a great weakness in my Imck. I le,*irncd to awira 
late, but ultimntely so well thnl I took long swimrf. At thirteen I had 
pubio hair, and wno about six feet tall ; but my faci; wa« feminine uutil 
my eighteenth year, when my heanl eame in abuuHance and gave me rest 
from re'*eml)!ance to woman. An inguinal heniia that aci}uired in 
my twelfth year, and cured whiui I was twenty, gave nip niucli trouble, 
panic. II hi rly in gymnastics. Besides, from my twelfth year on, I had, 
ul^er sitting long, and (jartictiliirly while working at night, an itching, 
bLiniing, and twitching, extending from the penis lo my back, which the 
acts of sitting and Bt,anding increnae<l, and whicli woa mode worse 1>y 
catching cold. Bnt I ha<l no suspicion whutuver that this could be 
connected witli the genitals. Since none of my friends sutTered in this 
wtL3', it seemed strange to mo; and it required the grenteat pntieuoe c* 
endure it; the more owing to the fuct tliat my abdomen trouhttrd me. 

" In Kexuaiih'tK I was still perfectly inrmcent; Imt now, as at the 
age of twelve or thiitcen, I had !i definite feeling of preferring to be a. 
young lady. A young lady's form was more pleasing to mo ; lu-r quiet 
mnnner, her deportment, but particularly her attire, Httnieterl me. Tint 
I watt careful not to allow this to be noticed ; and yet. I am sure tliat I 
ahould not have elirnnk from the eattlmtion-knife, could I have thus 
attained my desire. If I had been nskod to (wy why I preferred fem.ile 
attire, I coidd have Raid nothing more than tliat it attmct*il me power- 
fully J perhaps, too. I seemed to myself, on lu'connt of my itneommonlj* 
white skin, mure tike a girt. The skin of my face ami hands, particu- 
larly, was very senxitivc. Oirls liked my society; and, though t should 
liiivw preferred to have heeii with tlieni cuuslinitly, 1 a^'Olded them wheti 
looutd; for I bfld to exaggerate in ordernot to appear feminine. lu 



my boart I always envied tliem. I was )iiirtici)lHrly (•nvtoiiH when one 

of my yonn;^ girl frienfis j^ot long dresses mtd wore glovc« ami veils. 
When, at the age of flrtccii, I waa on a journey, a young lady, with whom 
I WAS boiirdin<;, proposed that 1 mask as a lady and ,«o out wUh her; but, 
owing to tlie fact tlmt shu wan nut idoiie. I did not iii-<|iiiesee, much as 1 
dhuuld huvu liktKl it. Ulliurs Htood on very iittlu vcrcmuny with uic. 
While on this jouroey, I was pleuuetl at seeing boya in one city wearing 
bl<iu»e» with short ^Iweves, and tlie iirms bare. A Itidy eliiliorately 
drefliied w»9 like a ^o''''*^**-'' to me; and if even her hjinrf CoiioIi^hI me 
coldly I wn» happy and envious, ami only too gladly would lutvc put 
myself in her place in tliu buautirul j^urmenlti and lov4.'ly form. Never* 
thclfss, I stuilicd assiduously, and pitssed thi'uugU the Rualschule am) 
the Qyinnaeium in nine years, passing a good final examinatioa. I 
remen))>er, when filteen, to Imve lirat expressed to a friL'ntl the wish to be 
a girl. In answor to his /juestion, I cotdd not give the reason why. At 
it«venlfcn I got into fast society ; I dmnk beer, smoked, and tried to 
jutte with waiter-girts. The latter liked my nociety, but tUey always 
troated me as if I wore petticoats. 1 could not lake tlaneing ksiiuns, 
they repelled nie so; but if I could have gone us a ninsk, it would have 
lieen dill'erent. My friends loved nie deairly ; I hated only one, who 
fteduced me into onanism. Shame on those days, which injured mc for 
life] I practiced it quite fre(|iiently, but in it .seemed to Tnyself like & 
double man. I cannot describe tlie feeling; 1 think it was maacuHne, 
bnt mixed with feminine elomQiita. I could not approach girls ; I feared 
them, but they were not strange to me. They impressed rue as being 
more like myself; I vnvivd them. 1 wonld have denied mv8elf ali 
pleasures if, after ray classes, «t home I could have i»een a girl and thus 
have gone out. Crinoline and a snioothly-fittins; glove were my idcala. 
With every lady's gown 1 saw I fniiincd tiow I should feel in it, — ^i,e.,aa(i 
lady. I had no i[icliiinLii)ii itmard men.. But I remember lliat I wa& 
somewTiat lovingly attached to a very handsome friend with a girl's lace 
and dark hair, though 1 think 1 had no other wish tbvu that we both 
might be giris. 

" At the high-school I Anally once liad coitus ; hoc modo aensi, 
me libentiua sub ]iuella conciilmisHe et pencm meum cum cuuuo mutatum 
malni&ee. To my astouishmetit, too, the girl had to treat me as a girl, 
and did it willingly ; but she treated me as if 1 were she (she was still 
quite iiicxperieHced, and, therefore, did not laugh at me). 

"When ft fitudont, at Limes I was wild, bnt I always felt that I 
ueumed this wikliiess as a mask. I drunk niid duelled, but I could uot 
lake lessons in dancing, because I was afraid of betraying myself. My 
flrieiidsLips wefi; close, but without other thoughts. Il pleased me most 
to have a friend masked as a lady, or to study the ladies' costumes at a 
hall. 1 understood such thiugs [>erfectly. Gradually 1 began to feci 
lilce a girL 



" Oil Accotint of uiilia(>|>j ciit-'uttiHtanccB, 1 twice attempted suicide. 
Witliout any cmifte I once itiept fourteen (InyK, li^d uintiy hallucinationa 
(viHiiiil fttiil iiiiililory Ht t)ie Riimi^ timt-], and ica^ with l)otli ttit^ living nnd 
the dead. Tlic Utter linbit or thuuj^bt rcmaitis. 1 hIso but a fticiid (n 
liidy) wbo knew my hobby mid put on my gloves for me; but she alwnyn 
looked u[>oii me »» u j^irl. Thus I uiideriituod wuiiiitu bvticr tliiLii utbur 
men did, aud in wbiit lliey dilfeit'd from iocp ; so 1 was always treated 
mo7-e feminaram,— ^9 if Ibey bad fuuiid jii me a Temale rrtend. On tUe 
wboU', I coubl not eniliin- olrsceiiltv, and indnljiod in it niy»eir onl^- o«t 
of hmggadocio wben it was necessary, I Roon overcame my iiverslon to 
foul odors and blood, and even liked tbem. I was irniiClng In only one 
re3|»e('t: 1 could uot (Unlerstaud my own condition, I kiiflw tliat 1 had 
iVtniiiiiio incliniitions, but believed tbat I was n miiu. Yet i doubt 
wbelber, witb tbe exception of tUe attempts at eoitn», wbicb never gnve 
me pleasure (wbtcli T Ascribe to onanism), I ever admiretl a woman Trith- 
out wisbing I were she; or without asking myself wbetlitr I sbouM not 
like to be ibe woman, or lie in Iter attire. OK'^tetricti t k'anied witb dif- 
Acuity (1 wtui osbuuied Tot' tbe exposed girls, and bad a feulin^ of pity 
for tlicui); and even now I have to overcome a feeling of frigbt in 
obf>tetrienl c»wn ; indeed, it liao linpptMied thai I tbouglit 1 felt tbe trau- 
tioH myHvir. Alter filling >ieveriil poHitious Kiiccc-ssfnlly us h physician, 
I went tbivngh a militnL-y campaign as a volunteer aurgeon. Riding, 
wliieh, while a student, was painful to me, because in it the genitala bad 
more of a feminine feeling, was dillicult for me (it would have boon 
oaaler in tbe furualu style). 

" Still, I always thought I was a man with obscure masculine feel- 
ing; and whenever I anitociated wtlii ladies, I was still soon ti-eated as an 
Inexperience*! lady. When I wore a uniform for tbe first time, I should 
have mneh preferred to have slipped into a lady's costume, witb a Tt'il; 
I waH iliHturlied when the stately utiiform attracted attention. In prr> 
%-ale practiue I wsis successful in the three prliicipa) braiu;bes. Tlien I 
made another military campaign ; ntid during this 1 came to understand 
my nature; fur J think tbat, sincn the Qrst ass, no beatit of bunlcn hiu 
ever bad to endure witb so mnrh patient* as I Ijav©. Decorations were 
U(ji wanting, but I was inditl'eient to them. 

"Thus I went through life, such as it wub, never aatiKfied with 
myself, full of disaatisfnetion witb the world, and TaaciHating between 
»entimenlality and a wililrie^s tliiit was fur the uio^t )»U't alfected. 

" My experience aa a enndidjite for matrimony wm very peculiar. I 
should have preferred not to marry, but family circumstances and prac- 
tice forced me to it. I married an energetic, aminUIe lady, nf a family in 
which female <;DVernment was niinpnnt. I was in love with her as much 
as one of uet can be in love,— 1.«., what we love we love witb our whole 
hearts, and live in it, even thoii;^h we do not sbow it as mueb a« a gen- 
uiuc man docii. We love our brides with all tbe love of a woman, almost 



a» II worono might luv« her bri(lc):rooin. Bui 1 caimot aay tliis lor 
m/iielf; for I fttiil helievc<1 thai. I was but a dcpreswd riisn, who would 
come Ui bimseir. iitiil ftiiJ himsell' nut l\v mnrringc. But, even on mj 
mntriuge-night, I Celt that 1 voh only ii womnn in iiinii's form ; sub reminb 
lui*iiiii meuni vn^v luihi vj&uni chI. Ou the whole, vm liveil cuutiiiited niid 
ha|)i>j', ai)(l for two yvurs vevrt: childieoN. Alter h (litliciilt pregtiniioy, 
duriHfs which 1 was in inortitl fenr or denth, the first boy was born in a 
(litHcult hihnr, — a boy on whom n mclnncholy ntilutr still liatign ; who i« 
titill of rnulant'huly diHpufiition. Thuu cittuu ii Mi^vund, who !» very qniet; 
a third, full of pcfutiaritiei ; n fourth, a tilXh ; aiid all have proiIiGpositiuti 
to neurasthenia. Sint-t' I nlway* felt out of my own plnce, I went ihiil-Ii 
ill i^ay »iocii^ly ; !>iit I nlwiivii worked hi* niurli m human Mtrviij.'t1i nuiild 
allow. I «liidii-d and opprntrd ; and I osppriraenlwi with mtiny drug* 
ontl methods of oiirc, always on myself. I left the rcj^iilation of tiie 
UoMHv to my wife, as she imderntood house-keeping very well. My mar- 
ital f)ntit!» I perroniiud us well luj I contd, but wittiont [K'ntonal satisfno- 
tiou. Siuue thi.' Qrst coitus, the maecutine puidtiou in \i h&s been repug- 
nant, and, too. dillicult for iue. I Mhoul'l have much preferred to have 
the other t-vlf. When I lutd to deliver my wife, it almost broke my 
heart; for J knew how to appreciate her pain. Thus we lived lonji 
together, until severe gout drove me to various baths, and made me 
MCiirai^theniu. At the »niuc time, 1 became so uuiemic that every few 
months i had to take iron for some time ; otherwive 1 would be almost 
cblorotiu or bysterical, or both. Stenocardia often troubled me ; then 
ctme Hiiiliiteml cramps of chin, nose, neck, and larynx ; hemicrania and 
cnmiM of the diHphmc^ and chest-muBcles. For about tliroe years I 
bad a feeling as if the prostate wen- enlarged, — a hearing-ilown feeling, 
as if giving birth to Hoiiietliiiig ; and, abo, pain in the liiiis, eutisuiiil 
IKitn in the l)aek, and the like. Yet, with the iHrciigth uf ttecpnir, I 
fonglit against these complaints, wliieh inipreuscil me ni* being feiniile or 
effeminate, until three years ago. when a severe attack of Hithritis 
completely broke me down. 

"But before this terrible attack of front occnrri'd, in des[»iir, to 
lessen the |Min of gout, 1 had taken hot Ixitlis, aa near the tenipei'ntun[f 
of the ho<ly aa possible. On one of these occasions it happened that 1 
BiiddtMily elianged, and seemed to be near death. I Kpniiig with nil my 
remaining atreugth out of the bath : I hnd felt exnctly like a wnmjui 
with libido. Too, at the time when the extract of Indian hemp came 
into vogue, and was highly prized, in a state of fear of a ihrtiiteued 
attack of gout (feeling perfectly iudilferent about life), I took three or 
four times the usual dose of it, and almost died of haschisch poisoning.. 
CouvulHive laughter, tt feeling of uidicard of strength and swit^neas. a 
peculiar feeling; in brnin and eyes, millions of Hpnrks streaming from the 
brain through the akin,~all tbcve feelings occurre<L But 1 could not 
force myself to apeuk. All at once I saw myaelf a woman from my t-oca 



to my breaBl; I felt, as berove wliite in tbe batb, ttiat tUe genitAls had 
aliruukeii, the pelvis tiruxduned, the broasls mwoIIbd out; a ftwiing; of 
tinftt'^nliEiblo tieliglit cnuio ovur nic. I closed my eyet, so that »t least 
I did not set: the t'ltce ■■han^t^l. My phymuisn luoked a8 if he hiul a 
giganlii; poUiloc instead of a lieiul ; my wife hml the TuU moun on lior 
nalcs. And yet 1 was strong eDoiigb Lu bnully ivtiord luy will in luy 
liotv-buuk wIk'H both left the room Tor u 8hoi't tiiue. 

" Btil wIh> coiiid dcftciilic lui fright, when, on the next mornintc. 1 
awoke am) foiiiid TnyscH' feellitgaH ircoiutiluttJy changed into a woumii ; 
an<l when, on Btaiidhig aiul walking, I felt vulva ami niammtel When at 
hist I rnisi^d myself out of lied, I felt that a complete tram^formfilioii 
lifLd tuktiii pliiee iu inc. Dnriii|j: my siuluiess a visitor fla'IU : ' Ui.- iii Loo 
patient forn lunii.' Aod the visitor gave me a plant iu bloom, which 
Beemed Atmiij:e. but pleased tue. From tli»t time 1 wns patient, nnd 
would do iiulliinfT in a hnrry ; hnt I liecxme lenaoious, like a cut, 
lhoni;h, at ihe name time, mild, forgivinj;, and no longer bearing ciiinity, 
— in short, I hod a woman's disposition. During the last siukiiefts I hai) 
iiinny visual aiul auditory hnllueiiiatioiis. — spoke with the dead, etc.; saw 
and lieanl familiar spirit*; fell liken, doiibk- |>ernoii ; but, while lying ill, 
1 did not notice that the man in tue li:id l:ieeii extiii^iiishuii. The cliange 
in my disposition Traa a piece of good fortune which came over tnc like 
lightninfT, and which, h;id it come with me feeling ns I formerly did, 
would Imve killed me ; but now I gave niyuelf np to It, and no longer 
recognised myself. Owing to the fact that I :«till oflon cnnfoiinded neti- 
ruslhc-nic symptoms witii the gout, I took mnny batlis, until an itohlDg 
of tlie tikiu n-ith the feeling of iteul.»ies, in^U'iid of Wing diminiKhvd, was 
an inui'eiised that I gave np all external trentmeiit (I wkm mude more and 
more auiemie by the bathii), and hni'doiied myself as beat I could. Bnt 
the imperativu female feeling remained, and became so strong that 1 near 
only the mimk of a man, and in uverythiiig elae feci like a woman; and 
gnidu.tlly I have lost memory of itiu former in<)ividiiality. What waa 
left of nie from the gont, the itiHuenza ruined entirely. 

" Prext^ut Condition : I am Udl, slightly Imhl, and the Ward is grow> 
ing gray. 1 begin Co stoop. Since having the intliictiza, I liave lout 
about a quarter of my strength. Owing to a valvular legion, my fitoeJ 
lookH Hotnewliut red; full Itennl ; {.-lironic conjunctivitis ; more muscular 
than fat. The lelt foot seems to be devclopmg varicose veins, and it 
oHeii goes to sleep; but it is not really thickened, though it seemR to be. 

" The miimmnrv region, thoni^li small, swells out perceptibly. The 
abdomen i.-t feminine iu form ; llie feet are placed like a woman's, and Um 
calves, etc., ara furaliitue; uud it ts tlm tunKj with arnia and hands. I 
can wear Indies' liosc, and glovoi), 7^ to 7 J in size. I also wear a oorstiC 
without annoyance. My n-uiglit VArit-s butwee]i 168 nod 184 pounds. 
(Jrine without albumen or sugar, Imt it contains an exceni* of uric acid. 
Bat if there is not too much uilc acid in it, it is clear, and alniost as 



clear bb water iittvr nti^ exciiciueiit. Bowels usiinU^' regular; but sliouKl 
thsy not be, then come all the s.viiiptoms of feionle obstipntion. Sleep 
;0T, — for wc«)c-( at 9. time unly two or tbr«e Lours long. Appetite 

^uoil ; but, on Uiw wiiok-, my fttomacli will not li«nr more than that 
ofaalrong woman, nnil roaclA to irritating food with cutniieous eruption 
and boriilng in the urctlira. The skin is white, and. for the most i»rt, 
feels quite eniootli ; there has hi-en unli^arable cutaneoufi iUiliinj^ for Uie 
laRt two years; hut during the luttt few weeks il has diiniuisbed, and is 
uow present only in the popliteal spaees ntid on the scrotum. 

"Tendenej' to perspire. F'erspiratlon was previously as good as 
wantinij, but now there arc all the odious pftiiiliaritles of the female per- 
spiration, particularly about the lower part nf the )>Ofly ; s<> ilmt I have 
to keep royself cleaner than a woman. (I perfume my band keruhief, and 
use perfumed so-.ip and eau-dfi-Coloyne.) 

" General Fceluig ; I fe»*l like a wornftn in a man** form ; and even 
though I often am sensible of the man'n form, yet It la always In a fem- 
initiL' itcnse. Tlum. for cxauipte, I feel the penis as clitoris ; the urethra 
as nrelhm and vagiual orifice, which alwiiVR feels a little wet, even when 
it Is seLuulty dry; the serotum as labia mujura ; io short, I always feel 
the vulva. And alt that that menus one nione ciin know who tevls or hnH 
felt so. But the skin all over ray budy feels feminine; it rt-ceives all 
impressions, whether of touch, of warmth, or whether unfriendly, as 
ferainine, and I have the sensntionH <if a woinnii. 1 otinnttt go with bare 
bandn, an both heat and rold tmuble oie. Wlien the time is past 
when we men arc jMinnittfd to carry aun-unibrulbia, I hnvu to endure 
great sensitiveuesfl vt the skin of my face, until sun-iinibreltns can agnin 
be used, Ou awaking in Ihe nioi-niii;;, I am confiined for a few moments, 
as if I were 8t«ktn}i for myself; then the imperntivp feelin}; of being n 
woman .nwskcn^. I feel the souse of the vulva (that one is there), and 
always greet tlie day with a soft or loud sigh ; for I have fear again of 
the play that must he carrieil on tlironghout the 'Isy. T had to learn 
everything anew; the knife — apparatus, everything — has felt dtfTercul 
for tbe last three yenm ; and with the change of muscular sense I bMl to 
Icaru everytbiiij; ov«r again. 1 liiive l>een successful, and only the use 
of the SAW and bone-ebisel are dilticnlt ; it is almost as if my strength 
were not qidte sotDcient. On the other hand, I have a keener sense of 
touch in working with the cMirette In the soft )uirta. It is unpleasant 
that, in examining ladb«, I often feel tbeir sensations; but this, indeed, 
does not repcll tlicni. The most iinpleasanL thing I experience is fstal 
movement. For a long time — several months — I was troubled by read- 
ing tbe thoughts uf both sexc^, and I still have to light against it. 1 
can endure it belter with women; with men it is repugnant. Three 
years ago I hail not yet i-onseioitslj' seen the world with a woman's eyes; 
this change In the relation of the eyoe to the hrain came almost and- 
denly, with violent headache. I vmt with a lad^' whose sexnal feeling 




was reversed, when suddenly I saw bcr cUaoged hi tUe sense I now feel 
myself, — viz., sbu an man, — anil I fett myseir a woman in contrast with 
her; BOtLat I led lier witU iil-uoDceale<i vt-xaliuu. At thai timu sbe liad 
not yet couie t« umJentlaad btr own condition |)eLfectiy. 

"Since Uieu, ull my seaaur]- iiapressions are as if tliey were 
feminine in form and relation. The eercbral system almost immedl- 
atoly lulJuHtud it»eir tu Lliu vegetnlire; so tbnl nil my ailments Treru 
manifested iu ti feminine way. Tbe tseusltirunetMi uf all nerves, imrtiva- 
larly ttiat of tbe auditory ntid olfiictory and trigeuiiual, iocrcasetl to a 
condition of nervousness. If only » window alitmnied, 1 was rrij^litenud 
inwardly ; for .1 man dare not tremble at sucU things. If food is not 
alHwlutely fi-o«b, I [>crccivQ a cudavcrous udor. I could never de|)enit 
on tbe trigerairiiis; for the pain woulil j(im|i wliim^ically from one| 
branch of it to unutbi.*r : from a tooth to an eye. But, sint'e my tranc 
formation, I bear tootliaehe and nii^ruinu more easily, and have less fceU^ 
ing of fenr with atenocardin. It Beem-t to me a strange fnct thnt I feel 
myself to be a fearfid, \vo:)it lK.-in<;, kjkI jvt, wiu-u dniiger tlirvatvus, I am 
mnuh ratbff cmil and collected ; nnd tliifl is true in d.ingcrous operations. 
The stomucb rebels against tbe slightest indiscretion (in fcmnte diet) 
tliat is oommitted ultlmut thought of the female nature.'eitber by ructus 
or other symptoms; hut particularly against utiut^e of iilcitbolies. The 
indisposition afler into2cicatiou thai n man who feebs liltu a woman expe- 
riences is much worse than any a stintcnt could get up. It Hccms to me 
almoMt a* if one feeling like a woman were entirely couti-ollcU by tlio 
vegetative system. 

" Snmll ati my nippiest are, they demand room, nnd T feel them as 
msnimie ; just us during the hegiuniiii; of pulK-rty , tbt-* iii|)plfs hwcIImI and 
paiueil. On tbis account, the white shirt, tbe wnistcont, an«l the coat 
trouble me- I feel at* Ihonnh thv |M.'Ivi» were female ; and it is the same with 
tbe anus and nntc^i. At Urst the senile of a ti-male alxlomeu was trouble- 
Bomc tome: for it t-nnnot trousers, and it always po<McsaeA or in- 
duces the reminim- li^iling. I jUho have th«i imjH'rative feeling of a waist. 
It is as if I were robbed of my owa skin, and put in a woman's akin that 
fitted nit; ijertfeclly.ljut which felt everything as if it covered a womtm ; and 
whose SL-nsfttions jinssed through the man's Uxly, and fxtt-i-minfttvil tbe 
masculine i-Ipuicril. Tlie t<*stes. even though not atrophied or degenerated, 
are still no longer tc-stes, and oiYcn eansomc pain, with the feeling thnt they 
l)elong in the abdomen, and !>huidd ttc fastened there; and their mohilily 
olleu i>others mo. 

" Every four weeles, at the time of the ftill moon, I have the moli- 
men of a womnn for five days, physically and mentally, only 1 do not 
bleed ; but I have tht^ feeling of a Io^^k of nuiil ; a fecHng that the genitnls 
aud abdomen are (internally) swollen. A very plean^nt periml comes 
when, alU'rward aud later in tbe interval for a day or two, the physiologi- 
cal deaire for jirocreation comes, which with all power jtermeates ttte 



woDMJi. My whole \iody is then filled with thia sensation, as an unmersed 
piece of RUf^r ift filled with water, or as ftill an a Ronked 8i>onf;e. It is 
like this: flrBt,a woman longing Tor lovc,nnd theu,for a man; and, in fhct, 
tl)u di-sire, as it Keoins tu ine, ih more a longing lo lie po^sestuvil limn a 
wish for coiiua. Tbo iuteosc natural instiuct or the rvminiuu c-onc'upis- 
cence overcomes the feeling of modesty, bo that indirectly coitus is 
d«tiireil. I have never felt coitna in n mjisculine wuy mori* than thruo 
times in my life ; and oven if it wore so in gencml, I wns always iiidilTei-ent 
about it. But, during tbe last three years, I have exporienfcd it paasivdy, 
tike a woman ; in fnet, oftentimes with the feeling of feminine ejiiculntion ; 
and I always feel ItiiU I am. im])reguated. 1 am always fntltinrtl as a 
woman ia ader it. and often feel ill, as n man never does. Sometimes it 
itued m« sv great pleasure that there is nothing with which I can com- 
pare it ; it is the most blissf^il and powerful feeling in the world ; at (hat 
moment the woman is simply a vulva that haH devonreil the whole 

"During the last three years I have never lost for an instant the 
feeling of being a woman, and now, owing to habit, this is no longer an- 
noying to mc. though during tliis perioil I ha\-e felt debased : for a iran 
could endure to f4)el like a woman without a desire for cnJoymL'nt; but 
when desires coniel The Imppiness vt-aaeH: then vwnv. the bnrning, tlie 
heat, the feeling of turgor of the genitals (when the penis is not in a statu 
of erection the genitals do not play any part). In case of inteiii^e desire, 
the fwling of sucking in the vagina and viUva is really terrible — a heltisli 
pain of Uist hanlly to Ik? endured. If I llien have opportunity to i>er- 
form coitus, it in Iietter; but, owing to defective senw of Iwing possessed 
by the other, it docs not afford complote satisfaction ; the reding of 
sterility eoroea with its weight of shame, added to the feeling of paNsivu 
copulationand injured luodeety. I aet-m ahuost liltea proslittile. Keasun 
does not give any help; the imperative feeling of femininity dominKl«a 
and rules everything. The ditHcolty in carrying on one's occupation, 
under such oirrumstAmres, is ejully appreeialeil ; but it )» piiKHtble to foree 
one's self to it. Of course, it ia almost impos^blc to sit, walk, or lie down ; 
nt least, any one of these cannot be endured long ; and with the eoustaut 
louvh of tile trousers, etc., it is unendurable. 

"Marriage then, except during coitus, where the mar has to feel 
himself a woman, is like two women living together, one of whom re- 
gards herttelf as in the mask of a man. If the periodical molimen fail to 
:nr, then come the feelings of pregnancy or of aeiual satiety, which u 
^man never experieuoe^, but which take possession of the whole being, 
just as the feeling of femininity does, and are repugnant in themselves; 
and. therefore, I gladly welcome tlie regtdar molimen ajnii". When erotic 
dreams or ideas occur. I hcg mytH.'lf in the form I have us a woman, and 
aeeorecti-d organs presenting. Since the amis feels fumtDioe, it would not 
Ik hard to bsoome u passive pederast; only positive reli^oua command 



pr«vu])l(t it, ae all oLbur ilirUTri'tit iOeju would bo overcome. Since sacb 
comlitioiid nre repugnant, :ie they woiikl t.>e to any one, 1 have « dcaire to 
»exlet>8, orto maku inytwirsexleHM. If I biul Ix-i-n single, 1 ahotild long 
po luivu taken iearc of testes, scrotum, and penis. 

"Of what UBO is t'emalf pleasure, when one does not conceive} 
Whut good C'omt-!! from excitation of leuude 1ovl>, when one hau only 
« wife lor grfitilic-Atiou, cveu thoiiyli copuUlion ii» felt an thotigb it were 
with a mAn ? What a terrible feeling of ahnme m cau^ted by the feminine 
perspiration I How the feioling for dress and ornament lowers a man I 
Even ill Lin t-hantiv^d form, eveii when lie can no lunger recall tlie uiast-n- 
liue sexual feeling, tie would not vrbiU to be forced to feel Like a woioau. 
lie still knows very well that, before, he did not constantly fe«jl sexually ; 
that he wns merely a hiiniitn bc^iiij; iininHuenced by sex. Now, »ud- 
denl}', he ha<) to rejfard hift former indlTidtiality axa miuik, and constantly 
feel Like a woman, only having u cbang;c when, every four weeks, he liu 
luM i)prLodii:iU siekhuHH, and in thu Intf'rrnla his in.sattable female deeirOiJ 
If lie euuld but awake without immediately being forced to feel like a 
wonmnl At last he lougn for a moment in which be might raise his 
mask; hut that moment dnea not come. He can only find amelioration 
of his misery when he can put on some bit of female nttlrc or finery, an 
under-gartiienl, ele. ; for he dare not go abont an a woman. Tu be com* 
pelled to fnlQII hU the dutiesf of a calling with the feeling of being a 
woman costnmwl as a raiin, and to nee no end of it. is no trifle. Religion 
alone saves from a great lapse; but it does not prevent tbe pain when 
temptation atTects the man who feels aa a woman ; and ao it munt be felt 
iukI endured I When a reapectalile man wlio enjoys an nnuaual decree of 
public conBdence.and possesuetiauLliurity, mu^tgoabniil, with h'm vulva — 
imagimti-y tliougb it be; when <me, leaving his aniuoue daily task, is eom- 
pelled til examine the toiltlte of the first lady he meets, and criticise her 
with feminine eyes, and read hei* thoughts in her face; when a Jonrnal of 
fashions posHeBsew an interest eqiual to that of a scientific work (I felt 
this M a child); when one mutit eonceal his condition from his wife, 
wbo!>e thoughts, the moment he feels like a woman, be can read in her 
face, while it becomes pi>rCeetly clear to her that he baa changed in body 
lUid soul, — what munt all this bel* The misery caused by the feminine 
gentleness that must bo overcome! Oftentimea, of course, when I am 
away altnic, it is possible to live for a time more like a woman ; for ex- 
ample, to wear female altire, cHptxiially at night, to keep glovc« on, or tO"* 
wear a veil or a mask in my room, bo that thuf there is rest from exces- 
sive libido. But when the feminine feeling has once gained an entrance^ 
it imi>eratively demands recognition. It U often satisfied with a modtr* 
ate conceasion, Bueh a« the wearing of a bmoelct aliove the cuff; hut it 
[m|)erati%'ely demands some conceesiou. My only happinetiH is to aee 
myself dres«>ud as a woman without a feeling of shame; iudeeil, when my 
&OC is veiled or masked, I prefer it so, and thua tliiuk of myitelf. Lik« 







every one of FuBliion's fools, I bare a taate for the prevailing mode; 
80 greatly am I tmntuftirmpil. To Ijecoine accuHloiiied to the thouplit of 
feeling only like a woman, aod only to rerauinbcr the prerioiw manner of 
thought to a cerlain extt;nt m coiitrast with it : ami, ut the Kamti time, to 
exprew one*s aelf as a man, — it requires a long time and an infinite 
,amoont of perflistence. 

" Neverthelws, in spite of everything, it will happen that I betray 
[wyBelf by f»ome expression (if reniinine fpeliiiu, either in w-xmWiAwx, when 
I say that I fwl an and so. fxprt-a^iiip whnt a mail irilhoiit tlio fi-nmU' 
feeling ttaunnt know; or when I accideatalty iKitniy that female attire 
is my talent. Before women, ot course, this docs not amount to any- 
thing: ftir a woman ih greatly llHttei'ntl when a nini) untliTStancis Dome- 
thing of her matters ; but this must not be displayed to my own wife. 
How frightened 1 once w»h wh^n my wife Kaid to a friend that I had 
[gi'ent tante in ladies' drew*! How « haugiity,((tylish lady wss antonished 
[when, as she was aliont to make a great error in the edueation of her little 
Idairghter, 1 detn-riltcd to her in writing iind verlHilly nil the feminine 
' feelingh ! To be Hnre, I lieil to Iht, saying that my knowleilge hnd been 
gleaned from letters. Uut her coulidenc-e in mu is a» great as ever; and 

■ the eliild, who was un the road to intiatiity, in rnlioua) and happy. She 
bwl eonfesaed all the feminine inclinations as sina ; now she knows what, 
as a girl, she miint bear and eontrol by will and religion ; and she feela 

■ that t^hc is biimiin. Both Indies would laugh heartily, if they knew that 
] had only drawn on my own aad experience. I muat also add that T 
now have n liner sense of tenipemtiirc and. besides, a sense of the 
elasticity uf the skin and tension of the JiiteKtineif, etc., in patients, that 
•Him unknown to me Wfore; that in operations and anto|>aies, poiaonous 
fiujda more readily i>enetnite ray (uninjurt^d) »kin. Every antofwy causes 
me pain ; examination of a pr.Tfltitute, or a woman Imving a diwhsrge, a 
canwrous odor, or I he, like, Ih aetitally repugnant to me. In all reepecte 
I am now umler the inftnenee of antipathy and Hynipathy, from the sense 
of eolor to my judgment of a person. Women iisutdly see in eueh other 
the periodii-at sexual diKpcsition; and, Ihereforp, a lady weAm a veil, if 
she is not always aeeu^tomed to weitr one. and uKually she perf^imcs her- 
self, even though it be only with handkerchief or glnvpH ; for her olfartorj* 
sense in relation to her own hp-k is inlfnisc. Odors have an inercdible 
effect on the female organism : thus, for oxmnple. the odors of ridlcte and 
rot*es quifft mu, while others disguet me; and with ihlang-ihlang I cannot 
contain myself for sexual excitement. Contact with a wonmn seems 
homogeneous to me; coitus with my wife seems possible to me bocauae 
she is somewhat masculine, and has a Arm akin ; and jet it la more an 
avwr la^'eue. 

" Besides, I always feel passive. Often at night, when I cannot 

sleep for eicitement, it is finally aeeompliBhed, ai femora mea distensi. 

^H babeo, aicnt mulier cum viro concnmbens, or if I lie on my side ; but an 



arm or the bed-elothiug must not touch the manimfe, or there is no sleep ; 
ami thpre must be nu preKsiirv on tlit* nlidomi^a. I sleep best in b chemise 
:iml night-rol)e, »u<l will) gloves ou ; I'or uiy Uiuids vaaily get ciil'l. 1 am alno 
comfortable in femnJe drawers ami iwtticoats, because they do not touch 
tbe genllAlB. I liked IVrmnIo dreiwe* best whvii crinoliue was worn. Female 
dresaes do not ftnnoj" the ferainine-feclinp for he, like ererv woman, 
feels thorn as belonging to bis person, and not n* something forvigri. 

"My dearest aswiciatw is a lady wirteriug with ntMirasthcnla, who, 
aince her latit eoiitinetueiit, feels like a man, but who, Huiee I explained 
those feeling? to her, coitu nbstinet n? iiiiieh as pofutible, a Ibiug I, aa a 
hiiiilMtnd, d;irc> not do. She, by htr ex»m)]le, tielpB me to endnre my con- 
ditiuii. Sliv hjis ft mom perfect memory of the feninli- feeling*, and has 
ott*n (liven me good adviee. Were ahe a man and I a j'Oiing girl, 1 
should sock to win her; for her 1 should be gind to endure the fate of n 
woman. IJut her jireserit apiiearanee in iiuite ililft'ri'nt from what U 
funnurly waa. She ia a very elegantly dressed goutleuiaD, not witbs laud- 
ing bosom and hair; she alsuj Hjx-iik^ (illicitly and concisely, and no longer 
taken pleHHure ill the thiiign that pk-aste nie, She has a kind of melan- 
choly diasatiirfaction with the world, hnt ahe be-ars her fate worthily and 
with resignation, finding hfr comfort only in religion and the ftilflUroent 
of duty. At the time of the nienstw, she nluKHit ditw. She no longer 
liken fenmle auciety aud cnnvenuitioii, and has no liking for doHcncice. 

" A youthful fViend felt like a girl from the very first, but be had 
ineluiiLtione tvward the male sex. His ttititur had the opposite cotuU- 
tion ; aud when the iitern* (lemnnded its right, aud abe saw beroelf an a 
loving woman, in spite of her masculinity, Rhe cut the mntter abort., and 
committed suicide by drowning. 

" Sin<»> tNimplett! etfeminatlon. Urn princijinl c'bnngoB I have observed 
io myself are : — 

" I. The constant feeling of being a woman fVom top to toe. 

'* 2. The constant f«*pling of having female genitals, 

"8. The periodicity of the immtldy moliinen. 

" 4. The regular occurrence of ft-male dt'siro, though not directed to 
sny particular man. 

" ,"1. The passive female feeling in coitua. 

" 6. Alter that, the feeling of impregnation. 

" T. The fenmlo feeling in tlioiight of coitus. 

" 8. At the Bight of women, the feeling of being of their kind, and 
the feminine intereut in them. 

" 9. At the sight of men, the feminine interest in them. 

" 10. At the sight of children, the same feeling. 

" 11. The changed dinpogition and mncb greater patience. 

** 13. The final resignation to my C»tt;, for which I have nothiog to 
thank bat positive religion; without it I should have long ago committed 



" To he a man and to \v) compelled (o feel tliat cbaquc fomme est 
ftita^ ou elle ddsire cl«tre, is Imnily to Ife endnrod.** 

The forcgoiiij; autoliiography, scientifically so important, 
was accoTnpanted by the following no less interesting letter : — 

" SiB: I must next beg your Indulgence for troubling yon with my 
coram tinicfiti on. I lost nil control, hihI tliii[i<!lit of myself only as n 
monsttir befori' wbirli I niynflf Hliiiddured. Tbt>n your work gave me 
courage again ; and 1 determined to go to tbe bottom of tbc mutter, and 
examine my [mst life, let the result Iw what it might. It seemed a duty of 
gratitudo to you to t*fll you I lie resiilc ofmy rL-colk-ctioji and observation, 
shira I had not snoen any (lenrription h}* yon of an »nalogoi)f> case; and, 
finftlly. ( ftltto thongbt it might iwrhapK interest you to learn, from the pen 
ill' a pliyKiriati, how micb u wortlik'--«.'< liuman, or masculine, lietng tbinka 
and feeU unUvr tbc wejgiit of the ituiierative Idea of being a woman. 

" It is not perfei-t : but I no loniier have tbe fltreui^lb to i-efloet more 
upon it, and have un deaire to gu into the nmtter more ileuply. Much is 
reppati"*! ; lint I l>eg yon to rememlwr that nny in.i*k may b«* allowed to 
fall off, paiticulnrly when it is not voluntarily worn, but enforced. 

" AfltT reading your work. I lio|>t-' that, if I fiilfiil my dntie.*) tut 
I'hvHii'ian. ritixen. liitber, and hnBhind, 1 niny still count myself among 
liuman la-ings who do nut deNorvi- rucn-ly to lie duspi«ed. 

" Fimilly, I wiBlicd to lay the reHnll of my recollection and reflec- 
tion iHjfore you. in order to show that one thinking and feeling tike a 
woman ean ntili )ie u physician. I c-onaider it a great injiiatice tu delNir 
vomaii fWrni Medicine. A woman, through her feeling, geta on the track 
of many allinents which, in Kpite of all skill in rtiagiiosiii*. renmin oliHcure 
In a man; at. least, in the dis+'awsof vronu-n and cliildrcn. If I could have 
my wny. I should have every phyBiciiin live the life of a woman for thre« 
months ; then lie wniilil have n bettcT niiden< landing and more eonuidera- 
tion in matters ullWling the buif of humanity from which be ctmiee; then 
he would learn to value the greutncM of wom«i, and appreciate the 
difllriilty of their lot." 

Itenxarku: The Imdly -tainted patient is originally psycho-acxually 
almormni, in that, in chnniet^r and in tbe »exual at^t, he Xvk\h aa a female. 
This abnormal fettling remained piintly n psychical anomaly until three 
years ago, when, owing to severe neurasthenia, it receiviKl overmHstcring 
support in imjM'mtive I'udily sensations of » irH»i«mi»/a(w»«?XK«, wbieli now 
dominate consciou.'^iiesH. Then, to the patient's horror, be felt bodily 
like a woman ; and. rmder the impulse of his imperative feminine sensa- 
tions, be ex|RTienced » complete trans for uia lion of bis former maaculine 
feeling, thought, and will ; in fact, of his whole vita sexualis, in the sense 
of evirutton. At tbe snmu time, bis ego is able to control theoe abnormal 
paycho-phyaical miuiifestations, and prevent descent to paranoia, — a 


psrrnopATHiA sexuaus. 

reui&rkulilb example of iiiipcnUivt! I'ei-liiigH hihI iik>H8 on l.b*> lnuiiti of 
uenrotic tjiiiit, wLieb is of grent value for a foiaj>r«lini(ti«)U of tlic way in 
which the iwyclio-dexuul traUBrurriiation may be uccomitliiihed. 

IV. Degree: Metamorphoitla Sextuiti^ Piirantnctu^A. final 

possible stage in this disease-process is the delusion of a trans - 

furmation of sex. It arises on the basis of sexual neui'astheiiia 

"that lias <lcvelo|>ed into neurasthenia uaiversalis, resulting in a 

mental disease, — pHranoia. 

The following eases show tlic development of the inter- 
esting neuro-psychoIo<pcal process to ite height: — 

Case lUO. K., n^cct 3(>, einglc, servant, rocoivod at tbe clinic oa 
February 20, 1889, is a typical ca&e of pamnoia persecutorin, resulting 
from netiraiitlieniA eexualia, vitti olfactory tiaUucinatioiis, setiMitioiii}, 
etc. He comps of a prodiapoRed family. Several hrotht^r« and sisters 
were payrhoputlilc. Pntit'iit has ati hyclrofcpbolit skull, iloprcflscd in the 
region of the right funtatiiellu ; eyes nutiropatbie. He hud always been 
very eeiiBual; U>gan to mai^turliatc at niuetc-cn; bad euitiw at twenty- 
three; begat three iUegitininte chilclrea. He gnre up further sexual 
intercourse, on acconnt of fear of bogotting niore children, and of being 
unable to provide for them. Abstinence proved very painful to him. He 
iilgo gave up mastnrl)!ition, and was then troubled with pollutioiw. A 
year and a half ago be became aesimlly neiiraiitbenic. bad diurnnl polln- 
tions, liccamu therenAur ill and miserable, and, aft^rn Lime, gem>raUy neu- 
nwtbcnic, finally developing paranoia. A year ago ho began to have 
pariestbetie Heii.HHtionii, — att if there were a grt'Ht coil in the pinee of bis 
gfuitalu; and tlien he felt thnt his scrotum and jieuia wvre gone, and that 
bis genilald were changed into tbow of a feinalo. He felt the growth of 
bis breasts; thsu bis hair wa-i tlml of a woman; and that fnuinino gar- 
mentd were tm liU iHidy. lie thought himi^elf a woman. The people in 
the street gave utterance to eorrespomUng remarks : " Look at Uie 
woman 1 The old blowhardl" In a half dreamy state, he had the feeling 
as if he played the )>art of a woman in coitus with a man. I'uring il 
ha had the most lively fet'lings of pleaaure. During hia atay at the 
clinic, a remission of the paranoia occnrred, and, at the same time, a 
marke<l iiii|)rovemQnt of the netiniMibcnia. Then the feeiings and ideas 
due to a deTelopiug metamorphosis sexaalis disappeared. 

A more advanced case of eviration, on the way to a trans- 
formatio sexus paranoica, is the following: — 

Ciwe 101. Franz Rl., aged S3; school-teacher; single; proliaViIy of 
tainted family ; always neuropathic ; emotional, timid, intolerant of aluo- 



hoi; beflfati to masturbflte nt eighteen. At thirty there were manifefttn- 
tiona nf aeunutthpnia nexnalfA fpoHutions with consequent fatigue, vbich 
Bt last began to occur during the day ; pnin iti the re^on of tbe saurBl 
plexaa, etc.)- (! mdually, spinnl irritatiun, {iruhHuru in the head, and cere- 
bnU Qounistbeuia were added. Since the lieginning^ ol' iHrib tbe patient 
bad givvD up coitiiK, in which be no longer exiwrienovd pleasurable fil- 
ing. He masturbated rrotjuontly. 

In 1888 he Iwgan to have delnsiong of fiunpteion. He noticed that 
he was avoided, and that he had unpleasant odora about him (ollkctory 
hallucinations). In thiR way he explained the altereil attitude of |>eople, 
and their sneeziuij;. coujrbiug, etc. lie Kmelled corpst-s and foul urine. 
He recognized tbe cause of bis bod smelln in inward poHiitifjns. He 
recognised these in a feeling he had as if a fiTiid flowed up from the aym- 
phyaiH toward the hrca-tt. Patient soon left the elinic. 

In 1889 he wns ajjiain received in an ndvAueed titnge of paranoia 
nastarbatoria pt^rHecutoria (delusiunR »f phyairal persecution). 

In the liegiiinini.' of May, IHH^. tbe patient attrncted notice, iu that 
be wa« crot** whfn be wan addre»!»e«l as " mister," lie protested :i^iLin9t 
it, bw-aufto he wa* a woman. Voice-* (old him this. He noticed that his 
breasts were growing. Some weeks liefore. others had touched him !n a 
BensDal manner. He benrd it said that be whs a whore. Of late, dreama 
of pre^naney. He dreamed tliut, ni^ a wuuiun, he indulged iu cotlu». He 
fdt tbe immiseio penis, and, during the ballucinalory act, uIho a feeling 
of ejaculation. 

Head straigbt; facial form long and narrow; pnrictnl eminences 
prominent; genitals normally dcvelopeil 

The folloivinf; case, observed in the asylum at Illenau. is a 
pertinent example of lasting delusional alteration of sexual 
consciousness : — 

Caae 102. MetamorphosiB Sexualis Paranoica. — N., aged 23, single, 
pianist, wrr received in the attyhim nt Illeitaii in tbe laKt part of f>ctot>er, 
IK6ri. He came of .i family in which there was said to be no hereditary 
taint; hut it waH tu)>erL'uluua (father and brother ilied of pulmonary 
tuberculosis), I'atient, a« a child, was weakly and "iull. though eR|>ecially 
talented in nmnic. He was always of abnormal cbaraeter ; siknt, retir- 
ing, unsocial, and sullen. He practic-ed n]a.itiirbation after llfteen. Aft«r 
a few years neurnKtbi-nic Hytuptoms (i>al]iilatioQ of th» h(>art, inssitude, 
occa^onal pressure in tbe head, etc.), and also hypochumlriacnl syup- 
toms. were manifetited. Du^iI1^ the last year lie had worked with great 
difflculty. For about six month)i neunisthenia had inuveiuied. He com- 
plained of palpitation of tbe bcart, pressure in tbe head, and slccp- 
leaanMS; was very irritnble, and Hecmed to lie sexrially excited. He 
dMland that be niast marry lor lus health, lie full in love with an 



Rrtist, but almost at Urn saiuc time (Sc--ptcinbcr, 1S66) h» f^ll ill vitb 
pamnoia peneciitorin (ideas of euemies, derision in tbc street, poieon in 
food: (ibtitaclui vtvie [ilnt'tHl on tliu brid^i« to kefp Iiim frviii goin^^ to biti 
inamorata). On account of iucreiising excitement and contliots witLi those 
about dim tlint he conHJdun^ iniinical to bim, bewait taken to the asy- 
lum. At first he prftftfntod tlip pirtnrp of a typiwil paKinoin persftcutorin 
with ftympt^inH of Hi-xiial, iLud Inter prfnernl. nc-urastht-nia, thongli tbo 
doluHioria of persiHttition did not real n[K>ii tliin neurotic roundHtion. 
It. wns only 0(H!tiHit>n»1Iy that ttm pntiuut licnrd sucb K(!ntcnci>« a« tliiti : 
" Now tliu Kciiivu will be drawn out of biin. Now tbu bladder wUl be 
cut out." 

In tb*.' course of tlu- years ISfiti liH, ibe deluHioiiH of perHociition l>e- 
came Ikkh and k:»» :i]>)ii(reiit, and were for the most ]>flrt rcplaood by 
cTotie ideas. Tlic (*otuatic ami nientiii ha.!*\» wiw n laMtinjj and powerful 
eXL'itntioii of tlie sexual spbert;. Tin? (Ki-ticnt fell in love with vwry 
woman Im mw, heard voices which told !uni to approach her, ami begged 
to W allowed to nuirry, dfcliiriiit; tlint. if be wn« not given a wife, he 
would waste away. With rontiniiance of masturltotlon, in ISGfl, Bigns of 
Oitiirc eiremiiiiition iiiiifle tliL>mselv(M iuninrc;dt. " He would, if he hhuuld 
got a wift'. love her only jiliitouically." The patient grows more «ud iiioro 
pCDUlinr, live" in a circ-le of erotic iduait, »ei'i* prontitution practiced in 
the aeyinm.nrKl n<iw and then bears voires which impuk* iinmoni] eon- 
duet with women to liim. For this reason he avoids the society of 
women, ami only associate'^ with them for the sake of music when two 
wiliu!*i»H-'s an.' with Iiiiii. 

in the foume of the year 1873, the neuraitthenic couditiou became 
mnrk4-dly inerc-aaed. Now paronoin jiersecutoria aj^in comes iiit.o the 
fon-'^ronnd, and takes on n rlinlcnl colorini:,' iVoin the neurotic basif*. 
Olliiftory liallnr-inationK occur. Magnetic inHiienees are at work on him 
(falsi> interpretation of scnvntions due to spinal iiotUenia). With eou> 
tirim**! and intense scxnal excitement and excels in mnslurliittiun, (ho 
priN-eiiH of cllViuiimtion eon!*tantly |>roun:-sia.-s. Only episodically is he a 
man and liuOtned toward a woinaii, coniplriinin^ that the t^hnnielena proH* 
titiition of the men in the bouse makes it ini])i)ssihle lor a lady to eome to 
him. He i*» dtinfi of maKneticaily poiwoned air and iiutKatiulied love* 
Without love he cannot live, lie is poisonecl l>y lewd poison thai alfects 
his st!Xtial dcfdre. The lady that Uc loveM is niink in the lowent vice. 
The prostitutes in the house have fortniie-ehaina ; that is, chains in which, 
without nmvinj:,a intin can indulge in lustful ph>iu4iire. lie is ready now 
to sntisfV' himself with prostitutes. Qc i»t possessed of a wonderful ray 
of thou|i;ht that eraauatei* from his eyes, which is worth twenty millions. 
Ilia compositions are worth oOi),0()() IVniies. With these indications of 
delusions of grandeur, thci-c are aUo those of persecution — the food is 
poisoned by venereal exerement; he tastes and amctU poifion, heats 
infamnufl aecusatiuns, and aska for instnuneuta to close hia ears. Frum 



k, 18*12, howcrer, the »\gn^ of effemioation bePomv more and moro 
freqnetit. He ncU somewhat airrcte<1, di^lnrint; that ho cftn no longer 
live luunng men tJxftt drink awl smohc. lIl^ thiuka and feeln )ik« a 
woDinu. He miiHt theiifeforth tie tr«nted like b wuintin uiitl transferred 
to n feiunic wntd. He lusks for eonreelioiii* and delicate Uessorta. Occas- 
ionally, ou nccouot of tuncfmus and ej-i^tospnHiD. he a^ks to be transferred 
to a lying-iu hoHpilAl aixl trented a^ a woman very ill in pregriaiicy. The 
ntiiiorninJ mfignctifm ft' mAAcnline attendaTitfl has an nnfavorahle effect on 
liim. At times he still feclB liimself ti» he a man, but in a way whieh in- 
dicntej4 his ubnormiLlly altere<I sexunl ftH.'lnig. He [ilcaiU only for satift- 
taetion liy iih'aiib of maHtiiilxiUon, or for Diumagc irithoiit eoittin. Mar- 
riage is a seiwual institution. The girl that be n- on Id take for a wife 
murt beamaKliirljator. About tbe end of Pec«nitwr, IS" 2, hi» personnlity 
Ijfcame comidetely feminine. From lliat time he remftined a woman. He 
had always been a woman, bnt tn hb bniiyhood a Frent!li Quaker, an 
ftrCiBt, hwl put masculine gonltnlK on liiin, anil by rubbing an<l di^tortinf? 
bin tliuriiK bad iireveiit«>i) the develi>iiiiient of bis liivaHtn. Alter iHIh 
he deninnded to be tmnsfcrred to the female department, protection I'rora 
that writhed to \'ioliitehini,aniI a)*ked for female elothiiig. Eventually 
■ also desired to he given employment in a toy-ahop, with crocheting and 
embroidery work to do, or a place in a drenf^muking etitablishmeut with 
female work. From the time of the trfinslommtio sexus. the jMitient 
begins anew reckoning of time. He coneeivcH bi» pn-vii>uH jiersomility 
in memory as that of a eouHin. 

He idwiiyti K|teink0 of himHelf in the third pemrm, nnd ealU himself 
the Counte«i» V., the rtean-st friend of the Frnpn-SH Kugenio; aiika for 
jierfumes, corsets, etc, EIo takes the other men of thewnrd for girls, tries 
to raise a head of hair, and demands " Oriental Hair-Uemnver," in order 
that no one nmy doubt liift gender. He takc^ delight in praising onanism, 
for ''she had l>een an onanist from fifteen, and had never desired any 
other kindof Hexual salinfaelioii." Occwsionally neunisthunic i*ymptoin», 
olfiiftory hRiltjeinntioiis, and jiersecntory delusions are observed. All 
the events up to the time of December, 1872, belong to the personality 
of the oonsin. 

The patient's delusion that he is the Countess V. can no longer l>e 
oorreeted. She proves her irientity by the fact that the nime has ex- 
amined her, nnd finds her to l»e a Indy. The conntess will not marry, 
Itccnuac she hates men. Since he ta not provided with female clothing 
nnd shoes, he s|i(>nds the greati'st pari of the dny in bed, acts like an 
invalid lady of poriilion. atfeetcdly and modestly, and asks for Imn-bons 
nnd the like. Uis liair is dune up in a knot as well as it allows, and the 
Innird is pulled out. Bpea>*ts are made out i>f bisenitft. 

In 1X74 caries liegnn in the lert knee-joint, to which pnlmonary 
tulfercnlosis was simn juhleil. Oititli on I>eeember 'J, IH74. Skull 
normal. Frontal lobes atrophic. Bralu anieuuc. ^iuroiicopical (Dr. 




Y \ St'hiile) : In the superior layer of the froTital lobe, ganglion cells nonie- 

4 wbst Hlininlcen; in llie ndventitin of tbe vessels. numerouo rftt-cori>oscIe« ; 

^lia QDohAii^^tl ; isolfltoti jiiffment particles and (rolloid lioilieit. The tower 

layoM of tUe cortex iionual. (lenitals very large ; tusticles HnuUI, lax, 

and show no ehntige luacroHcopically on Hoctiou. 

The delusion of sexual transformation, display(>d. in its con- 
ditions and pliases of development, in tlie rcregoiiii^ case, is a 
manifestation remarkably infrequent in the patholojjy of tlie 
human mind. IJesides tlie fore^ing case-!, personally obscn'cd, 
[ liavo seen such a ease, as an episodinal phenomenon, in a lady 
liavin^ contrary sexuality (Case Q2 o\' the sixth edition of thif; 
work), one in a ^irl iiHeeted with orii^iial paranoia, and another 
ill a lady sufferiiif; ^vilh ori^nal paranoia. 

Save for a case briefly reported by Amdt, in his text-hook 
(p. 172), and one quite superficially described by S^rieux 
("Recherchea Cliniqut;," p. 33), and the two cases known to 
Ksqnirol, 1 cannot recall any*s of delusion of sexual trans- 
tbrmation in literature. Anidt*s Ciise maybe briefly yiven liere, 
though, like £squiror$ cases, it gives nothing conccming the 
genesis of the delusion : — 

CatR 103. A midrlle-afi;e(l womnn in th« ftfiyhim nt Oreifxwald 
thought she wna a man, aud acted out bet- bc-Iief. Sbe eiit her haJr short, 
and pnrtt'd it on one Hide in tlie military fnshinn. A Hlmrply-**nt pro- 
Sle, a nose somt-what larjze, and n certain heuvlm^es <if all the fuHtiirea 
ffnve the fnue something ehametcriHtic, and, in combination with tha 
nhnrt hair combed •tiuoothly ever the eHr;:. ^aro the whole head a deeid- 
e<lly maaciilinw nj»pi*ji.rRnrp. .She was tnll and lean ; her voice low and 
rough; the larynx angularly prominent; her altitude erect; her jput, 
like all Iter nio%'ementH, hea\*y, bnt not awkward. She looked like a man 
in renial<> drcsti. Attked how slii* had come to think she wsh a man, ahe 
would almost always cry excitedly : " Juflt look at mc I Don't I look 
like a maul* 1 feel like u man, too. I hare always felt so, but I only 
(rradually «imc to underntand it clearly. The man who should be ray 
hiighnnd it* not a real man. I raised my children myself. I always fell 
somewhat like this, bnt I came to understand Inter. Did I not alwaya 
work lik(' a man? The man who passed for mj* husband only helpedT^ 
He did wlint I planned. £rQm^iy_ ^oiitb I have l*en more masculine 
t boti, jLmifl ip _ e. _ 1 have always bad nioi% liking for the garden and fann 
than for work in tbc houM and kitchen. Bull never uudervtood the 
reason. Now T know I am a man, and I shall bear myself like one. It 
is a shame to make mc always wear women's clothes." \ 



Case 104. X., uged 26, tKll, and of liaudHume apiiearaucu. Siucd 
Ilia earlieHt youth ha his \ove4 to wi?Ar fenmle Attire. As be grew up, be 
mjinajiffi it m that, whf^n he was n isartioiimiil in th*'atricals, ln> alwHyo 
hul a rimuUe part AUlt an attiM-k of mental csuitfmeut, he imagined 
that he vrnn iiultiully a woiiiiui, uuil trli-tt U) cuiivinuo utherei of it. 

IK- liki-<l to undress himself, und dress his hiiir aud {iiit on female 
clottiiiig. Ill tliis state he wtHhc^l tu go out on the etrcet. In other 
rMp«ct« he wa* perfectly reft^onnhle. He would speud Iht' whole day 
arrangini; hin Imir and looking at hlnisclf in the glasa, costuming himseir 
in a night-^lrcas as much like a wumiin as poiwiblc. In iralkinj* hu 
imitated women. One day. when EM(|uiroI ai-teil bh if ivhoiit to Ilfl up 
bis druHH. hu fiuw into a pmsiou aud upbraided him for his want of 
modesty (Esquirol). 

Oase 105. Mrs, X., widow. Owing to the dtmth of Iier husband 
and loi« of forttme, she Irnd lieen greatly trontiled in miml. She heeame 
disturbed mentally, and wna admitted to the t!nl]ietri&re aft«r attemptin^f 

Mrs. X., lean, thin; eoustanLly maniacal; she believes hcr&elf n 
man, and flies angry if nhe itt uddre»i«v)l m» " madam," Once, when male 
cl(»thing waa placL-d at her di-spowil, she wa.s betide herself with joy. She 
djef], in )S(>3, of a eotmtimptivc mnla'ly; and uhe expreAwd her delusion 
of being a man until shortly before her death (Ksquirol). 

T have already mpiitioned the interpsting relations existing 
between the facts of delusional transroriiiutiou of sex and the 
so-called insanity of the Scythians. 

Mamndon (•' Annates medico-psyclmlogiqufs," 1877, p. 
161), like otliers, liaa erroneously presumed that wiUi the aiirimt 
Sc-ythiaiis there was an actual delusion, and that the condition 
was not mendy tliat of eviration. According to the law of em- 
pirical actuality, tlic delusion, so infrequent to-day. must also have 
been very hifrequcnt in ancient times. Since it can only be con- 
ceived as arising ou the basis of a [)aranoia, tliei^ can be no 
thought of its endemic occurrence; it can only be regarded as 
a superstitions manifestiitiun of eviration (the result of anger 
of the goddess), as is also evident from the statements of 

The facts of the so-called Scythian insanity, as well as the 
facts lately learned about the Pueblo Indians, are also note- 
worthy anthro|jologifally, in that atrophy of the testes and geni- 
tals in general, and appruximatiou to the lemale type, physically 



and muiitaliy. were observed. This in the more remarkable, since, 
in men who have lost llieir procrcative organs, such a revci-sal 
of instinct is quite as unusual ns in women, jtiutatis mM/<iru/t«, 
after the iintuml or artiliciul climafteric. 

II. /fonio-Serual Feelmtf as an Abnormal Congenital 
Mtoti/e^liitioH.^ — The essential feature of this stiaiige niauifesta- 
tion of the sexual lile is the want of sexual sensibility for the 
opposite sex, eien to the extent of liorror, while sexual iuehna- 
tion and impulse toward the same sex are present. At the sannT^ 
time, tlie j^enitals are normally develoiX'd, the sexual glands j 
jH-rforra their functions properly, and the sexual tyjxf is( 
cotnpletcly differentiated. 

Feeling, thought, will, and the whole character, in cases of 
the complete development of the anomaly, correspond with 
the ]>eculiar sexual instinct, but not with the sex wlticrh the 
individual iepix*sents iiiiutomic-ally iitul pliysioloj^ically. Tliis 
abnormal mode of fwliny may not infrequently be recognized 
in the manner, di-ess, and calling of the individuals, who may 
go so far as to ylrhi lo an impulse to don tlie distinctive clothing 
coriTspondiug with tlie tiexual roh in wlii(--h they feel them- 
selves to be. 

Anthropologically and {^linicjilly, tins abnormal manifesta- 
tion \nesents various degrees of devL'lopuient : — 

1. Traces of hetero-sexual, with prt^domiuating homo- 
sexual, instinct (psyciio-sexunl hermaphroditism). 

2. There exists incliuatiou only toward the siimc sex 
(homo-sex ua H ty). 

> ltibIi<<KTft|>by (bfHt(lt> work* lucutloneil Uuanfl^r) : Tnrdk'u, Drs atti^iata >az 
mnciii*, 7HU , ItJM, p, 211),— HdfmMin. Lehrb, d, ncr. Mf.l., S Ault., pp. IW, »«.— Oley, 
Rfivuti tilill(utn|ilii(|ur, ism, Nr 1.— MaKiiiin, Atinnt. imil.-ptiyclKil., 1^'$, p. 4A8.^^liaw Mill 
' PprrlB, Joiimal iif Nervous iLiiiI Mi'uliil LMnc'iisi', ISSit, A|irll. — BHriibnnU. Met UratiUuiuK, 
Berlin (VoIkntiHcliliun^luni;), ISSi.—^Jti cruller, Ih- L'liivri»l"n <)r rinAtlmt i.i-kii*1, Parlii, 
ISn5.— KIta, II«K. bi>lxlnni. fir nii'<lceia>> tide cliii'un^., 1S7S, 4. Jknuur.— TnmaMU, UlvUMk 
eperlm. iH'H, |»|i. B7-L 17— l.'imhnMto, ell Palchlnlr., I8S) . — Charcot er, Mb^ui, 
Archir. tie iveumlogle, IMi, >"r. 7, 13.— M«ll, Wu coutrfiri; 8fm»leiui>flnaiitii:, BarUli. 18D1 
(iiumoruiu li[li)|iij*ni[>h]r rufrix'tiic*). — Clii'valkr, Arrhtvi-* ile ruiitLri>polo[;lv vrhulnellc, 
Tol. V, No 27; viil. vl. No. 31.— Ruukii, " AburmUmiii ilu lu-nnK'^iiJ-rlqur," Antiultw (I'hygtta« 
publlquf, 18S0.— Saury. £lude clttilqiie aui- la follr h*r.^.l Italic, 18811.— Br. ■UB.nU-l, Qm. Am 
bAgiltntiiK, I'^sn Mil) ISS7. — TUIi'i', L'tiiatliirt M-xurl rlicc riioiiinRi cl> rUrt lea uilniAax, 
inW— CuriliT, l^-b i]<'iix iminUiutioiis. lt(S7.— LocauAene, art. " I'tU^raaile/'lii the Dlctioti. 
eocTclopMlqui:.— VllMrt, an. " Fed6nutUc," lii Uie 01cti»a. m^a. t-l <le chlniretu. 



3. The entire mental existence is altered to eorregpoud 
with the abnormal sexual instinct (effenii nation and virugiuity). 

4. The form of the body approaches that wliicli corresponds 
to tlie Hl)nortnti] sexual instinct. However, netual tnuisitions 
to hermapliroditea never occur, but, on the conLrai-v, completely 
dttferentiaU^ genitals; so that, just as in all puiliuiuj^ical per- 
versions of the sexual lU'e, the cau«! must be sought in the 
brain (androgyny and gynandn-). 

The first (ieflnit(! t'ommunications ' concemintr this otiijiinatica) phe- 
nomenon of Nnttirc nre mndo by Caspar (" TcIht Nothznrht iind i'iider- 
astle," Ciis|jar*s Vierle{jahr«achrift, iy.'i2, ij, who. it is true, classes it 
with pederasty, Init nmkes the pertinent romiirk tlmt this anomaly is. In 
laoitt t'aae4, coiigonital, aii<l, tit llie muw time, to be regnrded an a. uuutal 
liermaphroditmm. Tlicre exista here an actniil disf^^ust of sexunl contact 
with women, wliilc the tmn^inntion ih lillrd with lieniitiliil young men, 
nnd with utivhu-s unci pii-turt-s of ihem. It did not cseniic Caai>er that in 
8Dch cKBcs pmissio pen'm In nnnm (iiedt-rosty) in not th« rule, but tbal, by 
nteanH of other Koxunl avta (mutual onuuism), ecximl satitifaeUun is 
sought and obtained. 

In his "Cliuicftl NoveN " {IS63, p. 38) Cnsiwr gives the interesting 
ooafeSKion of a man i4howin^ thifi pcn*erRion o1' the tiexuHl jniitiii(.'t, nnd 
does not heailato to as?.crt tluit, aside IVoDi vicloust imjij^'i nation and vice, 
as A result oC over-indnlgence in normnl fiexun) intercourse, there are 
iHimcroits vtuwft in wliirh pt'dcmHty hnn itH ori-fin in a n>innrkal>le. obscuro 
impulse, whieli in von^enitnl nnd iocxplienble. About tlie iiiidillu of the 
"sixties," a eertain asseBstjr, I'Irirhs, hituself Bulyi3i*t I*) this pcrvereo 
iiutiuvt, came out nnd dvehkred, iu nuuieruLnt nrtieies,^ tliat thu tiexual 


» IJr, MftU. ftf Hi-rlln, fftllwl mj nttcDtlon to thf ftpl that In Mortla's Muiriulu f. 
Erfalimngv^ci'IciiliiiDdc, toI. v1H, Berlin. ITOI, tiiiTu* lire rvfe^-uii'B ui cuiilritry Mxaiil 
luUnct tu itiHit. Jd Tiict. ilit-rv twu l>ii>);ni|>lili» of dicu arv rqiortvi] who manircaled uri 
riiUiufclwtUu )»VH fiv )ii-rituijt> of Ibelr onti «wi. In tltn Mmuid ciuif, wlik-li In lurllcutarly 
IIDtrwiinliy, tlio patli-iit hfrnm-lf pvplalim bid nbprralluu hy IJiv fuel tltul, aa a chllil, lii- wii» 
rainaMl iJiily tiy Kniwri {vriii>ii«, ami, na a Ixiy "T ten or Iwrlvc jran, only tiy liiit virliixtU 
frllitwa. "Tli(», ami lti<- want cif tiMncUlinn with pcreoii* of thi' np|)oslLi> aox, In mt, 
rniMcd Uic naltiral Iin-UiiHtion tiiwnnl Iliel^niale sexto bo OUUrvtydlvcntd to tbo male fex. 
1 sm Rllll qu!i« iBdlflcri'nl t.. wonii-ii." 

It Guinot bv dvtdmtlri' il uht/ilirr mchacaie U one of conKvnltal (twyvlio-n-xutl 
iM-rmapbrcMliibin I) or actiuin-il cotilrary R^xua] |iT»tliii'l. TIik ulilmt ra« nf cotilniry 
»(-(iial liiMlmt, ItiRt )inK Lima far Ih'i-ii pnifril In (ji^riii&ii.v, la thai of a wiiiimu whu Nan 
uiarriod tu atiuth<-r, aiiil i^rutilti^ lii^nn'If bcxuuIU' wltli a tullirni prinpiu, A liiMC uf Vlra- 
glullj, liUtoricall; ami k'lfally JDlrrvnt )■>){, iU-rivrd fn'tn Ut(> tefpil [in»i>Mllng«, whli^li took 
pl«c« wrljr In Ui« clghlMitlli cfnitunr, 1» rc[K)rU<d h]r I>r. HlUler (Ak-xATidprsbad), In PrlMl' 
rtcti'a BUUcr f. ^t-r. MewHcId. idOl. purl Iv. 

* ■■ Vtmk'x.IuvIuMB, Vlriillctn, Fifniiairl>, Araepcl, GUdliufunma, krUbchc Ffetle," 
LelpsIlT (Otto u. Ksdluf), liMM-lDOO. 




mental lifu vrns not cuuiiectt^l wttU lliu ■■'Utlily >wx ; tliul tb«re were male 
inciividiuils that fclt like wuiik'Ii tuward men ("jiiiima mulielirid in fori>ore 
virili iiu^Iusa"). nociilki) these iH-oplt.- "iirrii'iifrB/'iiiiil (Icuii^iided nothing 
Ic88 tiinn ttie lefful ami socliil rwcognition of this HestiiU love of the urn- 
iugg^s coni^aital autl, ttiuroforu, ns right; uud the pcrmitwion of iiuir- 
rinjfo Rtaoiig them. ITIrichs Qiilcd. however, to prove Ihtit this certainly 
coDgoi)it»] Hnd jjaraduxical nexuai feeling wa^ phj biological , and uut 
patholngicnl . 

(iFicsiiigor f^lrc^iu /. Psyckiatrie, i, p. 651) threw the first ray 
of light on tht.»ie faets,, at)tlirii|>ological]y and clJiiiutilly, hy puinting out 
the uuirked hure^litary taint of the individual, Eu a catto which came under 
his own obsvrvatiuii. 

We have We»*tplial (^rcAit; /. Ptychialrie, », p. 73) to thank 
for the first [*yst<'mntit; eonsidcmtiou of tlie manifestation in question, 
whieh he dL-fliied &a " i-oiigenital rcversid of the susual feeling, with 
eonseiciuHnetiS of the abnormality of tho manifestation,'' and designatetl 
with the name, since generally ueeeptird, of contrary sexual inxlincl. At 
the itame time, be began a series of eaxcs,' which, up to tliia time, has 
reached niuvty-three, those reporte^I in tbia monograph not being included. 

Westphal leaves it nndeciHed as to whether eoiitrsiry sextml feeling 
i» a symptom of ucuroiiatbie or of a pLiychopathic eonditiou, or wlivther 

11d ranlo Itiatvldunli: (I) Casper, Klu. No tb I Ion. p. M (hthrh. A. gt,r. M«d.. T 
Aull., p. ]7li)- {-i) Wraiplinl. Arulilv f. IVjeh.,11. p. 73; <S) SilimlDlii', id., m, [,. ajJi; 
(*)8.-hoIi, VlcrU-IJalinwehr. f. gcr. M«l., six ; <5) (Jock, Arch, I", P»yi.-h., v., p. fitM ; (6) Ser- 
T^M. W., vl. p. HH ; (7) W.-»lphftl. (li.Tl.flM; (8,«. 101 SUrlc, Z.-Iuch, r. P«j<.Wolrie, 
Bd. CI ; (II) l.lninn (C«9pt'r'ft Lehrb. dot g«?r. Mcd.,8 AuB., p. MH), p, -mi ; (ia> Le^nuKl 
dn Saullf. Aimol. ni W.-intycUol., 18T8, toy ; (13) Slere, Jnhib, f P.y. hiatrio. 111. EeftS ; (U) 
Knwtr. Bn«to, 1««, Ov\. ; (15) CtiBMOi et Mspiao, An!i. ilr nciin.r.iK , 1**3. Kr. ft; (IB, 
17, 18) Klni. Zp|i*.hr. f. P.yi-li , B<1, 30. p. ilQ ■ (10) Rnijow. KrI»-omcyrr'6 Cr.itiiilb.,'l8».l| 
Nr. 8; (an) Blunter, Aincrlc, .ruum. .if lt(»*riUy. !«83. July; (31) SM»gc, Jouni*! tif 
Menul Sclrnc-, 18«, Clct*>bt.r . (JJ) SclnilR, VI«-rt«IJi|irMchr. f. per. MmI., N. F. Bd.4S, 
Heft. 7; (i^) Mopmn, Am.. niW. p.yohol., !d«,^, p. Ml ; (3*) CberaJlor. 1)^ I'hivmlon 
do I'lDHlhurl Kxuol. rnrle, ISSr., p. IW ; (3.1) Momrlll. 1 j, Rlforma raedtcn. ly, Marrh ; (26) 
Lwnpwhcr, Frlpdreicli*» BlfilU-r, 188«, II. 4 ; (97) HollSudrr. A\\^. WIbikt Jdcd. Zrttg,. 
1883; (38) Kr»-lec, Erleoroeyer'* CeiiirBlblati. ISSS, Vr I9; (•,*«, :w, S|. S3) ». Kr«dt, Psy- 
ufapiAlhU «;xii«li., » Aull., B«-ol>. .«, 3d, «. -13 ; (33) (;,.lpnko. Rum. Aivlilr f- Psyi-Watrte, 
Bd. U(,H.»(v. It&Ujo, Zi'll*dir.r-P«yclil«tH*>; (Aj) ?. KradU lr.l.-nmliu(wlM CenlnUhlaU 
f. d. PhyM'tl M. Patholdjrfr dtr fluni-M. Spxttdloreaue, Bd. I, H. I ; (S5) CanUrano, La 
PalchUtrla, 1887, v., p. la's; {:sfl> gfrk-.ii, R^lirn-li« cl(titr|uii! lar lea anomallrii d« 
riiwUiiiil tflxwcl. Part*. IS-W, oba. 1.1; (.17-12) Klrnian, The Medical SUndard. ISSS, 7 
oawa ; (iA-iD) Babow, Znlucbr. f. kiln. Mertkln. B.i. xvU, Suppl. ; (47-51) v. Kiafll, No'uo 
Ponwhunnipn. Bcob. 1, -l, 4, 5, 8) ; (53-«|) v. Kratrt. PtiycL*.p«Ui. ftpxaalU, 5 AoJl Bvab 
58, 61, (A, M, rt, 7.1, 7S, M, 85, »7 : («3-fl5) v. KraffY.. Nr i..^ Knr.c!,u..Kea, a Awfl., Deob. S, 
4, 5, d; (Bd. (17) naiiiin.»nd, 8*i..iil Iinpoienue; ((W-71) (Jarol.r. .Xnumaltn M)xa«llM 
lOStf, Oba. 837, 23H, '£». 330; (73) MWlrr. Fri^rclcira BlitUr. IWI ; tTSSI) y. KrmMl, 
twjttmtmthiii Bexuaitf. B Aull,, H»-nil.T8,81.8B,ft4, SS. Sfl. 87, 8fr, fiS, W.W, «. W, IBJ, ins! 
In fcmalo iiidlvliSuAla : (1) W«.l|,l,a], Arcb, f. l-.ych., II, p 73 ; a«ck, op. «i,', Nr. 
J 1 ; <S) Wlae, 11.0 AJleuUl and Neurologist, IHSl, Jannarj' ; (.4) CanUranw, La PdctilatrU, 
1888, p. 901 ; (5) Sfriunjt, vp. rU., ob*. U; (6) Kl^ritao. op. tit. 



it may occur a» hd ittolatwl manifesUtitin. Ue hoXtls rfist to the opitiion 
that Che condition is rongciiital. 

From tlie cases published up to 1877, I liave designated 
this peculiar sexual iV-eUtij,^ as n fuiictioiini s.\^n of* dej;onemtioii. 
and as a partial nmiiitestntioii ol" a iu'uri*-iksyrlio|KilIiic state, in 
most cases hereditary, — a suppcisition which has fuuiid renewed 
coufirrautiuii in a eonsideration of additional cases. The tnllow- 
inj^ peculiarities niny be given as the signs of this rieurt>- 
psycbupalliic laiut : — 

1. The sexual Mfe of individuals thus oi^anized manifests 
itself, us a rule, abnormally early, and therealler with abnormal 
power. Not infrequently still otlier jHrrverse rnatiirestatious are 
prc'wntcd besides the abnonniil method of sexual sntisfartion, 
which in itself is conditiouetl by the pwuliar >exn!il H'ldiiit;. 

2. The psychical love manifi*st in these men is, for the most 
part, exaggerated and exalted in the same way as their sexual 
instinrt is manifested in consciousness, with a strange and even 
compcUing force. 

3. By the side of the functional signs of degeneration 
attending contrary sexual fe<>ling are found other fuuctiuiial. 
and in many cases anatomical, evidences of degeneration. 

4. Neuroses (hysteria, neunisthenia, cpilcptoid states, etr.) 
co-exist. Almost always the existence of temporary or lasting 
neurasthenia may be proved.. As a rule, this is constitutional, 
liaving its root in congenital conditions. It is awakened and 
maintained by mastuvlmtion or enforced abstinence. 

In male individuals, owing to those practices or to congeni- 
tal disi^wsition. there is finally neurasthenia sexnnlis, which mani- 
lest« itself essi'utialiy in irritable weakness of the ejaculation 
centre. Thus it is explained that, in most of the eases, simply 
embracing and kissing, or (?ven only the sight of the loved |»er- 
son, induce the act of ejaculation. Frequently this is accom- 
panied by an abutirmally powerful feeling of lustful pleasure, 
which may be so intense as to suggest a feeling of magnetic 
currents passing through the body. 

0. In the majority of cases, psychical anomalies (hrllliaul 

endowment in art, especially music, poetry, etc, by the side of 





bad intellectual powers or original eccentricity) are present, 
which may even ^o so fur as prunciuDctMl coiiditiuiis of mental 
degeneration (dementia^ moral insanity). 
|— ""^ "" In many umings, eiliier IpmjKtrurily or (M?rmauently, in- 
\ sanity of a degenerative clmjji.ctOL(i>atliological cniotionid states, 
\ periodical insanity, ])aninr)ia, etc;.) makes its apiieumncc. 
L - 6. In almost all eases where an examination of the physical 
(jind mental prcniiarilicsof the ancestors and blood-relations has 
\ been possible, neuroses, psychoses, degenerative signs, etc., have 
■^ been found in the families.' 

The depth of congenital contrary feeling is shown by 
the Jaet that the lustful dream of the male-loving urning has 
for iU eontf lit only mate indi\idua!s ; that of the female-loving 
woman, only femalf individuals, with corresponding situations. 
The observation of Westphal, that the consciousness of one 
congenitally defective in sexual desires toward the opposite sex 
is painfully affected by tlie impulse toward the same sex, is 
true in only a number of eases. Indeed, in many instances, 
the consciousness of the abnormality of the condition is want- 
ing. The majority of urnings are happy in their jwrverse sex- 
ual feeling and impulse, and unhappy only in so far as social 
and legal barriers stand in the way of the satisfaction of their 
instinct toward their own sex. 

The study of contrary sexi^l feeling ^wints directly to 
anomalies of tlie eerehml organi/jititm of the affected individu- 
fals. Ciley (/Serine y/AiVtwoy*/*., January, IHS-l) l)clii!ves that he is 
able to solve the riddle by the tlieory that tlic indlviiluids liuve 
[a female bniin and male si^xnal grlnnds; and, further, that path- 
lological brain conditions determine the sexual life, while nor- 
liually the sexual organs determine the sexual functions ofthe 

< Tnnmwiky<np. cit.,fi. :H)ri>canb it cmh^ which ahow» UuAeontnuyMXUU toMitg, 
ifl K con«amlUnt muiircsiAlloii wilh nouroUc dogporraUiiij, mvf kJK ntTcct the dcaiwnduila 
(>r p&rvnU tiKVlnjr uo nvuiutlc tiitiit. In t|j1« liinUim'. luea of Uig pnn-nCd plajiil a put, mi 
In a •Imtlar cue gf SclioU (VleitrlJnhrMflir. f. cer. Mc4.}, lu which ilgr pcrvt-nlon ol Uie 
HKunl dnIrvR ■touil in cumaI rcUlfou with ua arnwt gf paychlu&l developnieut, caused by 



explanation of original contrary sexual instinct. He started 
with the artual bi-scxuality shown by the Icctus niia torn i cully 
up to a certain age. While iiarinally tlie organs wliirh atlairi 
i,'om[»lct<! development exclusively condition and deteimino the 
sexual ty|>e, and the influence of the op[)uiiit« organs, which 
remain ntdiraentary, is h»7, it is conceivable that, under the 
influence of a factor inimical to the normal development of 
the brain (liert^ditary taint, etc.), these rudimentary ni-gans like- 
wise exercise an influence which, under certain circumstances, 
may be even greater than that of the fully developed organs 
which determine the external sexual type. 

In a similar manner, Kicrnan (Metlioil Sfmuhird, 1888) 
and Ci. Frank Lydston (/%//«. MtxL and A'r'r*/. Jle^>or(er, 1888) 
attempt to explain a jMirt of the cases of congenital sexual 
paranoia. Magnan, too {Amt. mSd. ])Ai/cftol., 1885, p. 458), 
writes, in all earnestness, of the brai nof a woman in the body , 
of a man, and lUce versd.^ 

*■ The attempted explanations of congenital timings are not 
less wiperficial ; for instance, that of Ulrichs, who, in his 
** Memnou," 1868, speaks of an " atiima mulit^bris virili corpon' 
inclusa (virili corpori innata),'* and thus tries to exjiliiin the 
congcnitul origin and the female character of his abnormal sex- 
ual instinct. The idea of the {patient, the subject of Caise 124, 
is original. He supposes that when his father begat him he 
thought to beget a girl, but, instead of a girl, a hoy resulted. 
Oue of the strangest explanations of congenital contrary sexual 
fettling is made by ManU'ga/.zji {o/t.,, p. 106, IHM()). 

Accortling to this author. In such individuals thei^e exist 
anatomical anomalies which, by an error of Nature, consist in a 
distribution to the rectum of the nerves intended for the geni- 
tals; so that only In this situation the lustful sensiition is 
nrouscti which otherwise results from stimulation of the geni- 
tals. But how does tliis autliur, in other ways so acute, ex- 
plain the great majority of cases, where ])ederasty is abhorred by 
those affected with contrary sexual feeUng^ Besides, Nature 

' TliU ailiipiMUiori in nvrrllinvwh hj Cbr rrnuil of tlio pOKUrnurt/'m nf my l'smi (IIS), 
wti4>r«! tbe bratn-welghl wu ur>u (^nmmM, and of Cue LSu, wbcn tt wu 1 175 £runtn<«. 



never makes sudi leaps. MaiiW^nizza rests his hypothesis upon 
the statements of an acquaintance, a celebrated writer, wlio 
assured him that he was not sure that he took a greater pleasurp 
in coitus than in dofcratiun ! Allowing the correctness of liis 
experience, still it would only prove that the man was .sexually 
ahnormal, and ttiat his pleasure in coitus was reduced to a 

An explanation of congenital contrary sexnni feeling may 
jM'rliaps lit- Hinnd in the fiict tliat it represrnt.s a peculiarity bred 
in descenilants, but arising in ancestry. The hereditary factor 
might he an actpiired abnonnal inclination for the same sex 
in the ancestors (y. in/rn), luund fixed as a congenital ab- 
normal mn in testation in the descendants. Since, according 
to ex])eriencc, acquired physical and mental pccuHnrities, not 
simply improvements, hut esBcntially defects, are transmitted, 
tlm hypothesis becomes tenable. Since indiviiluals nftccted 
with contrary s(?xnal feKsling not infrequently Iwget children. — 
at least, they are not absolutely impotent (women never are), — 
a tmnsmission to descendants is i>ossibIc. 

Tliis supposition is decidedly favored by Case 124, in 

which the eight-year-old daughter of an individual affected 

., with contraiT sexual feeling, pnn^tieed mutual masturbation — 

p. a sexual act — iit an age which permits tlie prt-sumption of con- 

t trary sexual (eeling. No less significant is the communication 

'J^^made to mc by a young man of twenty-six, wlio belongs to the 

I _ third group of contrary wxiuility. He knew with certainty 

^ti '^**^ '''* liitlier, who had died sumo years before, was also sub- 

rji " ject in cijutnin* sexuality. Ah niformant assured me, at least, 

^ ,\ that he knew many other men with whom his liither had sus- 

(V^ tained " reUitioiis." Wliether, in the case of the father, it was 

an acquirr<l or a congenital contrary sexual instinct, and to 

what group lie belonged, could not Ik? ascertained. 

The foi-egoing hypothesis scorns the more plausible, when 
it is considered that the first three degiiees of congenital con- 
tvar)' sexual instinct correspond exactly with the developmental 
stages which are discoverable in the development of the 
acq^uired anomaly. One, therefore, fecit- uiclined to design ate 



the various doynec s of conij;pnita1 contrary scximl instu tct-i« 
vari ouB degrees oT~an hereil i Uyllj-iiuliiaMl . sexiinl m^gtnaly., 
acqu ired from th e protrenJtqg or otlierwisc cipvcloiicd. Here, 
too,' the law of progressive heredity must be takoii into con- 

The sexual acts, by means of whioli male umtngs seek and 
find satisfiirtion, artr niiiltiliirious. Then? an? itidividnals, of tine 
feelinf^ and strength of will, who sometimes ssitihfy themselves 
with plalonic lovi% with the risk, however, of bocomini? nervous 
(ncurasthenir) and insane, as a result of this enforced alisli- 
nence. In other instances, for tlio ssxmc reasons which may 
lead normal individuiUs to avoid coitus, onanism, /ati/'/c mUitx, 
is indulged in. 

In nmini^ with nervous systems congenitally irritable, or 
injured by onanism (iiritahh^ wrakncss of thr ejaculation 
centre), simple embraces or caresj^cs, with or without contact ol' 
the genitals, arc sufficient to induce ejactUation and consequent 
Batisfnction. In h?ss irritable individuals, the sexual art consists 
of manustupmtiou by the loved person, or nuitiial onanism, or 
imitation of wiitiis between the thighs. In urn ings morally 
perverse a nd potent, quoad ercctioiiem^ the a exual desire is satjS'. 
fied by pederasty, — an acfTTiow^everj whi ch is rep iignant to per- 
verted individuals thnt are not JelectTvr nior nTlyl much in TFie ^ 
same wa^ns it is to uormaTmi'Hr Th(; stat. ment of urnings is 
remarkable, that the sexual art with persons of the sume sex, 
which is a<lequate for tliem,giv<*s them a feeling of great satis- 
faction and accession of stn'ngth,' while satisfaction by solitary 
onanism, or hy enforced coitus ivith a woman, affects them in an 
unfavorable way, muking them miscral>lc nnd inciensing their 
neurasthenic symptoms. Tlie maimer of satisfaction of tlie female 
liming is little known. In one of my cases, the girl masttu^ 
bated, and during tlie act felt liersclf to be; a man ; anil her 
fancy created a lieloved female jierson. In another case, the act 
consisted of practicing onanism on the person loved, and fond< 
ling her genitals. 

Amor Imbicus is presumably not infrequent here, for which 
an enlarged clitoris or an artificial piiapus nuiy be used. 



N. V. 





As to the fn!quency' of the omirrcncc of the anomaly, if 
is difficult to reach a just conclusion, since those iiff«:tcHl with 
it break fi*om their reserve only very iiifre^iucntly ; and in crimi- 
nal cases the timing with iwrversioii of srxnol instinct is usuiilly 
classed with tlie person given to (jcderasty for simply \iciou8 
reasons. According to Casper's and Tartljeu's, as well as my 
own, ex)M>vienct^, this anomaly is much mure fn^uent than 
reported cases wotilJ lead us to presume. 

Ulrichs ("Kritisclie Pfcile," p. 2, 1880) tJecInres that, on 
an average, theivi is one person affecU'd with rontmry sexual 
instinc:t to every two hinidred mature men. or to e^ery ciijht 
i< hundred of the population ; and tliat tlie (x^rcentuge among the 
Ma gyrs and South Slavs is stil l greater, — statements which may 
Ben*gardod as un trustworthy. The subject of one of my cases 
knows personally, at his home (I3,()()() inhnhitnnts), foitrlocu 
uniings. He further declares that he is itecpiainted with iit least 
eighty in a city of 60.()00 iuhahiUuits, It is to be pwsnmed 
tlut this man, otherwise worthy of helief, makes no distinction 
betwwm the congenital and the acquired anomaly. 

1. Psycfiirxtt Ilermaph Wf TJTr»m .• — The characteristic mark 
of this degree of inversion of the seximl instinct is tliat, by the 
side of the pronounced sexual instinct aud desii-e for the same 
sex, a desire toward t])e opposit<? se;x is present; but the latter 
is much w<"aker aud is manifested episodirully only, while the 
homo-sexuitlity is primary, and, in time and intensity, fuims Lite 
most striking feature of the vita scxualis. 

> That In version of thoMxaalliietlnctl* not tiilVoqiientb tJrovc'1,atiioii{[oiTi''rlhlTi^, 
by Uie pircmniilaiici' Ui«i It l» rrw| k liubJpcL Id tiovcU. Chovmltw (op, tit.) poluU 
out io Pi»-iitb UUT»lHre,hi»lilfsl1ii-in>veliur BuI^hc, llkt^ " [^ Vaulim au Ut-M-n" (trraUiig 
of Imllallty) and "8iiiraKhi(-"(lrfutiiii!iirtli<' lov<-oriiwoni«ii fomriinnili), Dldemt'a" L« 
HellgirQite "(iitU\Ty of ant-iflTciita amor !t*birnt}; Hh\tiu'i."lM rilli>aux Vi^uxd'Ur" (omw 
UMau); Til. Gauttcr*B"Madcmf.lwllp(leMnupln"; FrViImh'b " UCoTniasitodeChtllB" ; 
Flanbvrt'a "8«l»miufc('."i-U'. licl<it'*"!)liul<.'ini.i'l*(.'IJoGlmud,HnFcmiRe"inii3ralBobPiDen- 
Uoncd (now lr«nalBt«iil (niu EiikcHitti). UU InWrrkUngthat th<>]ieTola«a of UiHutLwIriAn) 
nnv«1s B|itH*Ar li> tbr rhiirHrli-r aii<) i^a of Llir linalinii'l of n tnvnr of Lhfi Bitm* wl, suil that 
tlitir liive la e-xln'tiicty ginaBluDjalv. M<irt-avi;r, tJii- i><'ur<i|jnllik- fouri Jstluti ttf lliU ■■■»■] piir- 
v>-ntfoii Aor* not f*!?*!* Hit wrtlrra. Thl» tlimn- It. ttralvi], In aernittii HUTnlun-, lu " Fri- 
dolIn'B bciinlkho Rhfl." by Winmnd ; In " Brlrk nad KrncH afler Li.-1>t In SotiattrB," b; 
EnicrtcbGruf $uiltnji. Tlic olilcHiuni1n^'BroaiBiir4* Is probably that pnbliahod by PetniDla* 
U Bome, under Uw Emptrv, under thv tlUe Saiyrlcou. 

■Comp, auUior'Bwrtrk," Vcbor payrb<wi-xuAlmZvrltt«nrthtini," lathe 1nt«rn«UQTii]«a 
Ontralblatl t. d. PliyaloloKk u. Patbologle dcr HatD uiid 8exu»lorgaue, Bd. I, B«a 3. 



The hetcTo-soxual instinct may be but rudimentary, mani- 
festing it.«clf simply in unconscious (dream) lilb; ur (episodically, 
at least) it may Ik» jwwerfully exhibited. 

The sexual instin<:t toward the opposite sex may be strength- 
ened by the exerciBe of will and self-coutrol ; by moral IraUment, 
and possibly by hypnotic suggestion ; by improvcnirnt of the 
roii<titution and t!ic removai of neuroses (iieurastliciiiji) ; but) 
especially by abstinence from nuiHturliation. However, there is 
aUvay» the danger that hnmo-M;\ual feelings, in that they are 
the most pitwerfid. may become pernmnent, and lead to cndur- 
nig and exclusive contrarj- sexual instinct. This is especially to 
be feared as a result of the influences of masturbation (just as 
in acfjuiretl inversion of the sexual instinct) and its noiniistheiiia 
and consequent exacerbations ; and, further, i t is j p be foun d 
as a eonsequeiiee ^j" uiya\^Tn1>[p_exi>cn(nices in sex u al int er- 
course with persons of the opposite sex (defective feeling of 
pleasure in coitus, failure in coitus on accoiuit of weakness of 
erection and premature ejaculation, infection). On the other 
Imnd, it is possible that jesthetic and ethinil fiym|Mithy with 
persons of tlie opposite sex may favor the development of hetero- 
sexual desires. Tlius it hapjHms that the individual, according 
to the pn;dnminancc of favorable or uiifavonibh; influrnecs, 
exi)erience8 now hetero-sexual, now homo-sexual, feeling. 

It seems to me proI>al»lc that such bcrmaphrodites from 
constitutional taint are not infrequent.' Since they attract very 
little attention socially, and since such secrets of marric-d lilc 
are only rxreptinnally bmiight to the knowledge of the phy- 
Bcian. it is at once apj^anrnt why this interesting and ]M'acticHlly 
lm|)ortant transitional group to the grnup of absolute contrary 
sexuality, has thus far escaped scientific investigation. Many 
cases of frigiditas uxoris and mariti may possibly deix-nd npon 
this anomaly. Sexual internourso with the opjxjsite sex is, in 
itself, possible. At any rale, in cases of this degree, no horror 
sexus alti'riua exists. Here is a fertile field for the applioition 

' Till* Ult^ h »uppnrt<sl liy th«- aUt«ni<MiU fif nii uiimftriiiil iirning whIHi Dr. Mall, 
nf hvtifa.kUi'iiy ctttimVHilc^uil tutofl. He could ropofia nnm^t•rorcMfMof lilna^oaint. 
uiee, ta wtilcti owrrled iucd at Uie Mmn time had " relfttJanj " irltb men. 



of medical and moral therapeutics (v. in/ru). The differential 
diajjpiosis from iicqiiircd contrarj' sexual instinct may present 
difficulties ; for in suc-li tases, as long as ilie vestiges of a 
n ormal scxi ml instinct am- not absolu tely lowt^^thc^ cttial sy mp- 
Jjo na are the same ( v. infra). In the first degree, the sexual 
satisfaction of homo-sexual impulses consists in passive and 
mutual onanism and coitus inter femora. 

Cftse 106. Pti^c/iical Unrmaphivdiitifm in a Ladif. — Mrs. M., ftgod 
44, exemplilJen the fac-t that rq iDVcrted niid a uoriual »exiinl instinct 
may be iiiiitod in one {ter»on, be it in tiinn or womun. Tliufntlicr of tliii* 
la<ly was very miisical, itnd very tslented as an artitit. He Wok life easily ; 
and to his cxtrnordlnary beauty was added a great admiratiou for the 
opponite »ex. After R«veral apoplectic Attacks, he died demonted in an 
asydmi. Fialier'e brdtlivr wii» iiiMivu-psyt'liopstliicnnd wliuti n child watt h 
somnaiiibtitiBt ; and all bU life he van atUlcti.*d with byitcrtesthesia sexualia. 
Thus, nltlioiiiih lUArried and the father of mnrried sons, he tried to seduce 
hisi niece. Mr^, M., with whom lie was wildly in low, rthvn »\i^. was 
eighteen years old. Pather'a father wns very eccentric and a difltin- 
guishcd actor. ITc first studied theology, Itut, as a. result of partiality 
for the dramnlic miiHe, he Itocnnie nn actor niid singer. He coinmittud 
excGBBes til baccUo ut venere; wn>) a Hpiindthritt and Iuxiifioiih. He died 
at forty-nine, of apo|)lexia L-crcbri. M<»lher'3 father and mother died of 
tubcreuloKis of thu lungs, 

Mr>« M. W1L8 one of vlewn children, of whuiu six are still liv- 
ing. Two brothers, who reseniMcd the mother ptiysiciiily, died, at dix- 
teen and twenty, of tulicrculoais. A brother HiifTers with laryngeal 
pIithiHiH. P<Hir livhi-^ sistem and Mr«. M. rcscmhle the father physi- 
cnUy,and the eldest is nntiiarned, very nurvouH, anil sliy of lu'ople- Two 
younger sisters are married, healthy, and have healthy cldldn-n. The 
other in imiimrried. and aiilfers with nervous eoniplaints. Mrs. M. Ims 
foiii- ehildreii. «ev«ml of whum are deliwilc and neuropathic. 

The patient can tell nothing of importance concenttng ber child* 
hood. She lenrnrd easily, and whh rustlic-tically and poetically inclined. 
She was Considered a little high-«lriing, and too mnch given to novel- 
readJDg and sen time ntality. Her uaiisiicntion was neiiro|mtbic, and she 
was extremely sensitive to changes of temperature, souietiiiies haviii|r 
annoying cuti** annerina as n result of slight drnitghts. It is renjiirk- 
alile that one day, when she wna about ten j'^ara old, she thought tltat 
bcr mother no longer lo%-cd her; and she put matches in her coRee 
to make herself really sick, that Rhe tnight thus excite her mother's 
love for her. 

Pnberty lM*g«ii. without diffleiitty, at the age of eleven. Thenyiftor 
UiQ menae" were ivgular. Before i\iv time of puberty sexuality mani* 



fbsied itBuir. mill, iu^cordin^ to tlic opinion ori,1i(> p;itit!nL, ils pmuiptiii^s 
haw W«ii a^jiuMiniilly iiitciiiie nil livr lire. Tlic Or»l fucliug^ tiiKl iiupiiUes 
were dccideitl^' iuv«rt«<l. Slie vonovu'eit n jHuisioimte but plntonic Inve 
for a young lady. Site wrote vfi-»*«8 mnl sonnets to Iter, atid wii« per^ 
fectly bivppy if »be could ailniim " tUe entrancing ctmnns " of lici- god- 
ilmB in ibe Imtti, or 8t(»l u gltmpac of her neck, shoulders, nnd 
breast wliilu aim wa» drebsing. The wild iiiipulKe to toiioli tliese pliyfiU 
ca! cLnrms wns always overcome. While u youutj yiri, she bad uctiinlly 
bevn in lovi; with Madonnit^ of Itnphiiel Aud Ouido Reni. In all kinds 
of wcsthi-r shi^ Would run nlXeP pretty girU »«d Iiidic* for hours at a 
time, admiring their beauty, losinii no opporttmity lo ple&se llicni, offer- 
ing tliRui liontiHots, etc. The pntient asserted thnt. until the ««;e of nine- 
tfi'ii, she w,^» iiliHoIutcly without a sut^pLcion of a ditfcrcncc of sex; 
becan»e she Imd lietn ednoRled as in a oloititer by a very prudish aunt, 
who WHS tin old maid. As ii ivsuU of tliii* {ire:it i^iiionmcu. the iwitient 
iK'eanie the; rietim of a man who was jiassionatcly in love with lier, and 
who Imd CHiitiiH with her by means of utrntn^m. She hocame the wife of 
this uinn, hurv uiio child, and lived an " eccentric" t^eximl life with him. 
She lelt perfectly sftlifcliud with married iuteryuursu. After a few yearn 
she becaniu a widow. Siiicu tlieii, women have again bueii the object of 
her Uivc, priinarilj-, .-w the piitivot thinlts, from feiir of the rcBultH of 
sexual intei'coiirse with a man. 

At twenty -seven, fteeond mnrringe, without lovo, to a phthiaical 
bylmnd. I'atiunt was three times confined, aud fultillcd her niaternid 
duties. Her physical betdth failed, and in thi< later years of this mnr- 
rie^l lifi' *>he bad an ini-reasiiiR aversion for her luiHliiLiirl, partly due to 
a Sense of hia diseHse, thougli, at tliu same time, Ihi-n- w:i^ cimstanllji' 
present an int4!n»c desire for sexual indulgence. 

Three vuars after the deatli of iiei second hnsliand, the patient dis- 
covered the fact tluit lier nine-yoar-ohl daughter, liy her first hutilmnd, 
was given to miii^tiirliHlton, and that sht* wa>« failing in physical health. 
The patient rejul of thiH vic«, and vould not overeoine the impidae to 
indulge in tin.- praeti^^e, heeoming, in consequence, an onanist. She is 
unable to bring lier^trlf to give the details of thiH pi-riod of her life. She 
aays that she watt IVightfulIy excited av-vuiilly, and hiul lu t^end her 
daughters fWim home to t^ave them from terrible consequences; but the 
two Ih>^« she was aliie to keep ut lioiue. 

Patient became neiirasttieuic ex maatnrltationo (spinal irritation, 
feeling of preasure in head, wcnrineas, lack of mental <x>i)ti'ol), and, at 
time)i, bad dystliymia and iinlnriil ta'dinm vita-. HtT sexual feeling 
would liedireeted at one time to women, at another to men. Slie was 
able to restrain herself, and sulfered ninch from abstiaeiivo, especially 
l>MnUSD, on ivccniint of her neumnllienic tn>uhk-M, she sougbl to obtain 
relief in maKtnrliation. though only in fase of great neep«>sity. At tlie 
present time, though fort}'-lour years old, and menstruating regularly, 



sh« stifTers tnU.>ii«i?ly n \>n»niun for n y<'iiii;j iiinii whofte presence 9n4i 
Cjtonot Hvoid on iiccoiiiit of the cxiKencies of occupation. 

Paliciil presetiLs nothiiit; rcmnrkalile in external a[)])e»rHUcc. She 
Isgneeftilly rorrn^d, tint tlu^ miiM'-iiliu* M^iUim is iiuL sti'uiigly ilcvclojtecl. 
Pelris is, in all rL-d[>tieU, that uf u Tviualu, but tbc nniis mid legH are «)e- 
oidctll>' large and of masculine toTxn. Lmlies' sliue<t do nut fit liei-, but, 
l>clng opposcil to vxcitiii;£ attention, she forccR lior U-H into femnln aIiocs, 
anil they are, therefore, much deformed. Oooitfils nnrmnlly dfvploped, 
mid pnrsetit »o other alinomiulity than desfciit of lUf uterus, with liy[>er- 
trophy of the vagina! portion. On tlii)rou<;ti examinatioi] it is »eea that 
the ixaticnt ih eHst-ntinlly hrnno-hi-xniil, and Lliat thu desire foL the opix)- 
»ite flex ie but cpisuiliciti itnd seusunl. Thiit*, nl preeent, •'he '•ullera 
intensely with sexual deKireH for every man with whom 8h(^ corner in con- 
tact, hut it is a more refined and higher ploa^nre for her to imprint n kiaa 
on the soil, round clirek of a m:\iden. Tliis pleaRnrc is one Bhe oltcn 
enjoys, l»ecftu*e she is muRJi Iwlovcd as the "dear niuit" by nil the 
"sweet crcntures'*; for ahe volnntwily does them the naoBt var ious 
cliivrJrouH fnrorB. n lwavB feeling lie rflulf at biicU tJiiiua as a man . 

Cnse 107. Cojitrarif Sexiuil IruUinct toilk Sexual Hatis/acHon in 
Belero-Sexual Intercourse. — Mr. K.,»ged Sfi, Hollander, couaiiltcd mc, In 
18S8, on ftcoontit of an anoiriiily of hln sfixiial fcelJnijs, whirh had Iwcomc 
a matter of anxiety to liim iu connection with an intended iimrringe. 
Pnltcnt'n fntlicr was rtciiropnthic, and <«nffercd with nightuinrc and ntghl- 
terrnra. Gmiulfather waA mentally iinBonnd ; father's broth^T an idiot. 
Fnlieiit'e mollKT nnd her family were healthy and normal nicutally. The 
patient had four KisterH and one brother, the latter beiu"' Rubjeet to moral 
iusnnity. Three eistent are healthy, and living biippy married lives. 

As a child, th** jmtient waii wo.'ik, nervous, and subject to ni;ilit-ter. 
rora, like his fnther ; tint be never had any severe Biekness except coxitis, 
an a result of which lie limpH fllightly. Sexual impulses were mnnifeflted 
early. At eight, without any tencliliig, ho began to mnstiirlmto. Vntm 
bis fourteenth year, ejaculation. Ilewns mentally wv^'ll endowed, and Ids 
principal interest vrn9 in ni't and IJtemture. lie n-as always weak inuscu- 
larly, and had no inclination Tor l)i>yish sports and lat«r for unnly occu- 
pAtions. He hud a certain iiitt-n-st for female /oi7frJfi»ti, ornament*, and 
oociipations. From the time of puberty the patient noticed in himself 
an IncxpHeabIc inclination toward male persons. YoutbH of the lowest 
classes were especially attractive to him. Cavalrymen esjwirlally excited 
bia interest. Fie experionced a luHtl'nl desiiu to press biuiKL'lf n^t'dnBt 
such iiuliviiin:dA from Itehind. Occasioiinlly, in crowds, it was [H>SRil>le 
for him to do Ihis; and in sticlt iin evsnt nn intent fading of picnsure 
]ias«fti1 over him. After his twenty -second year, on such occasions, he 
uow and then hud an cjiu-ulaiton. Fniui Hint tiriic ijaculation ocrurrod 
when n Bym|>nthctie man laid bis hand on the imtieut's thigh. He was 
now in gn.'!Vt auxiety \v*\. be mlj^Lit eowuliuic assault a man suxualljr. 



Profile of llip lower <-lA-i.ipa. wejirinj; tight, brown Irousers, were especially 
ilftn^iTOUa Tor liim. Ili^ irri-sitost. plftasure woiilii he: In fliilintcc *ucti « 
miiti nn«i presR liiiiiseir on iiim ; hiih^ iinforMiiiiitfl v- tin* luonilii^of Jiis 
t:aiuitr> dHlii(>t_^iuxf a u uUa tUiug. Poilfi-nsiy scenKKHnsgiTsUiig to him. 
gnve liim grcnl |)lt:nKiirc to gulii » »\i:hl of tliit {jeiiitnln nT tnnles. 
Hi! WRS slwaya cnn)|<clle(l to look lit tij*; gciiitfili* of every iii'ui lie met. 
In circii8i''*, lhejitrc»*.elc., only m«le perrormei-s interested liim. Patient 
hofl nercr noticed .iiiy uiclinntioi) for women. Ilv i1ol-h not iivoid tbt'iu, 
I'Vi'ii dsmt'cs witli tlicm on occasion, hut he never feels the aUglitest 
seuHunl i>\(?Ujttiun iiuiler such circumstances. 

Al tlio af^ of twenty-eight Ibu piitient wns neniiiHtlienic nan result 
of bis excessive mn.stiirljntion. 

Then frequent polhiUori* in sleep occurred, wliicli weiikenetl liim 
very much. It waa only occiiHionnlly llmt hv (Ireninorl of men when he hscl 
polhiCions ; ami never of women. A lnseivioii.i dream-pictiire (ped»Tnsly) 
hnd nccnrreil hut once. lie drenntcil of dving-sccm^s. of lR>ing nttnc;kcil 
by doj'.'^.etc. After Ihese, as hefore. lie Hiiffered witli jrreat libido sexunlis. 
Odeii tlierc c»me up before bini kticIi Inf^civioiiH lhoii^lit!i nsi^limting over 
the dcntb of nniinnls in the slftujibter-lioufte, or nllowing himself to be 
whipped liy Iwyjt; but he ■Iwnys uvei-cAuic such desires, ami aUo the 
ImpiilHC t'l drcftA in a militi<.r3- uniform. 

In onicr to cure liiinseirofmiwturlmtion, and tr> thoroughly satiafy 
hiii liliido, he ilcterniitiod u> frequent lirnthelB. Mu first attempted 
eexuiil inti'rcoin-Ku withu woniim when cwenly-onu, after ovcr-indiilgence in 
wine. The beauty of the femnle form, mid female nudity in (^cnvntl.mRtle 
no imprcKHion on liim. However, he was able to enjoy tlie act ol'coitns, 
And thereafter he vi-^ited brolln'In r«'<'iihi.ily for " purpose* ol liejilth." 

From tliia time lie took great pleiLSiire in hearing men tell stories 
of their sexual ivlalions with the opposite sex. 

Ideiui fif flngollation would also eonie to liim while in a brothel, but 
Uie retention of such fancies was not essential for the pei'fo nuance of^ 
ooitns. lie considered sexunl intercourse with prostitutes only a remcly 
a^tuKt lh«' ilesire for iniiimnrtKilioii am) men, — a kind of wifely-valve to 
prevent comproti>isin|r himnelf with some man. ^ 

The juttient now wislic* to marry, hut fears not only that he could 
hare no love for n rlccent woman, but also that be might l>e impotont for 
Enlercntirae with one. Ilenec his tlioiigia and need of medical mlvice. 

The patient is very inteltigent, imd is, in all respects, of tiiaacntine 
appenrnuce. In <Ire»a and mniiner he prenenta nothing that would attract 
attention. Gail, voice, and skeleton, — the pelvis especially, — roaaculine 
in chfinictcr. Genitals of normal <lcvcIopmeiit. Tlie mirmal (;rowili of 
Iiair for a male is nhumlnnt. The jMvtieiil's relatives and friends have not 
the slighU'st su<4pieIon i>r lii« sexual finomalies. In his inverted sexual 
faitcie^lie ha*) nerer felt iiimseir in the I'd/f of a woman toward a mati. 
Far souiv years h« has bueu entirely free Qrom neurasthenic troubles. 




The qupHtirtn rh to ivhetlitT lit' coiiskU're*! Itiinseir n aiilyect of pon- 
fCenital inversion of sex tin I iii»tliiir| he cuiikl not hiikwct. It sevinx jirob- 
Ablu that tttci'e ita») a coii!:!enitit1 weak iitdiinitioii for tlie (ipi>ntiite kcx, 
with a givatur ftiic for tlie Biimc bcx, which, as s result of early mastiir- 
batloti ill coti-seqiicncti of the liomo-eoxiinl iiit^lincl, wns still more wcftk- 
ei)0<l, but not niduuucl tu nil. Willi lliu iie^wtilioii of miLHturbiilioi), the 
fecliii]^ Tor tvotticti bfcuiuo hi u uiwisurc more uatural, but vu\y in a 
Coarsely sunsiinl ycay. 

Since the patient explninml tbnt, for i'CH»oi)it of furaily ;iud bnsinuBB, 
it was nftcessjiry for him to miirry, it was iinpoKnitile to avoid Ijiifl delicate 

Fortiinntcly, the patient limited Itis inquiries to the tjiieiition as to 
his virility iis a hit»ilmncl ; and it was nucoswiry tu rojily tli:il hv was virile, 
Hiul thai ho would pi'olnibiy be so in conjugal inteveourttu with the wife 
of Ilia choicv, — at lenni, if she were tv be in mental Hynipnlhy with him; 
beaidoR, that lie could at all tiinos improve bis power by exercising bis 
imnginatinii in the ri|;l]t direction. 

"^ Tiic main thin^ vrtm to atrengtbcn the soxual inclination for the 
opposite sex, wliirli was directive, hut not aliftoliilcly wniiling. Tins 
Udiild hu done by avoiding anrl iipposin^^ all lioiiiu-«cx urd feelitigs auil 
imputftes, pof>«ilily witli the hel]; of tlie artificial irdiilntory inlluences of 
bypiiotic su^i^eHtioii (removal of homo^esiial desires by ^u^geation); by 
tht; cxcitalioii and i^xercisu of normal K»xiial dettires and iinpiilHea; by 
eoniplulf !ibstiiiL-iii:e> from intustiirlialion, and emdlcalion of tho rcrananla 
of ibb ncurnstlienic condition nf the nervous system by menus of Ii3'dr0' 
them|)y, and poHBlhly general ranidixatiun. 

lam indelik'd to a physician, aged thirty, for the following 
aiitobiof5ni])hy, wliich in atiotlier respwrt is iioU'worUiy : — 

Case lOfl. Mtiital Iffrmaptn'odifism ; Abortive Contrary Sexual 
In«ti»rl. — " In my nnce-ttry I am Moiiiewliat jiredittpotted Jiei-e'Iitiinly. Mv 
grandfather on my fatheiV nide was a high-liver and a spci-iil.-ih.r. My 
GLther wua a mjtn of character, but for mure than thirty yi-ar^ bo baa 
solTored with folic idivnhdre, witlmnt. however, iKiiiifr iniicli liindcred by 
it in bitsiiie*8. My nnjUu-r. like hur father i'efore lier, suirert? with steno- 
cardinc nttackfl. My niotlier'a lather and hrutbur arc said to have been 
acxually hyiMnestbetic, My oidy sister, about nine years older than 
myHclf, was twice «id)j«^t to attacks of eclampsia, and diii-in}^ pidjcitv was. 
religiously exalted, ami probniily also sexnally liypcnestbctic. Dnrinjf 
many yearn she had to siiifer with a severe hysterical neurosis, but she ia 
now com]»lelely well. 

" At* ;iii only »on, and bom Itite, I wiw Llic apple of mv luother'd 
eye; and I have her indefalisHble care lo thank that 1 survived cbildbood, 
after having passed tbrougb all the |x>asible <]isease» of cbildreu (hydro- 



cepliAlu!>, me.islcfl, croup, smnlUpox, and, nt thirteen, chronic inlcs^liiinl 
catarrh tli»t la»tcil n y«ir). My urnther, Iwinir herself very roligious, 
nisod ISC, without .'^ixiiling tiit!, in ii ruligiotis way, ninl iiuplnnleil hi mc, 
as ihe guiding moral i>riiiutptc, ao unyielUiiif; dcvotiou to duty, which 
WiLS further curried to tiu extreme in urn hy a tenclier whum 1 !<UU cull ii 
friend. Owiiijj tu my delicate henllh, my childlio««i, in jjroHlor |»«rt, 
wns 8|)ent in Iwd ; »nd I vrna thtiH ^ivcn to quiet occiipatiuns, eHi>ecinlly 
reading; and thua as n boy I cnnic to be — if not bjaai — premature at 
least. As early nit ci;;lit or nii)e the piirm of huokfl Lliat ext-itcd ine 
iD(H«t won- thotie where injuries or uiicrntiona tliut had to lu undiircd 
by jjeautifid girln or Iiulies, were dyscribed. Thu« I waa tlirown into 
great excitement by a story in which was picturetl a maiden thai Jiad 
run ft Ihorn into htr foot, with a. boy takiii": it out for her. Indeed, 
ervry titoe that I looked upon thiti picture, wliirli wns in nowise las> 
otvious, I hail iiu tiruotiun. Whenever posaibic, 1 wunl Ui see chickens 
killed; Hud if I had DnH»ed thitl, I looked at the spots of blooil. and 
stroked the warm bodies of the hints, with pleAHorable iihiidders. I 
would emphnsixe the fact that I have always been n ;;reHt lorer of nni' 
maU, and have felt disgnat and pi tj while killing larger animals, and 
even iu the viTi»eution of frogs. 

"The killing of cliickens U still a gi-eat 8cxunl titiuiulus for me, and 
especially holding them, iluring which t have pslpitiition of the Lcart 
and preconlial oppre«t8ioi). It i» of interest that my father had a passion 
for binding together the liantl.<« of girls itnd young wumeo. 

'* I think that another of my sexnal nbnormalitieit is attributable to 
tbid strain of cruelty. Aa I shall clearly de>u^ril>e later, one of my fa- 
vorite games was that of an improvised doll theatre, whern I preserilH-d 
tlie ]>nrts of my companions. Almost alwiiyn it wrn n young girl who, 
tX tlie command of lier papa, whom I repre»ent«d, hiut to have ii painful 
aiwiiition done on lier foot. The more the girl cried, the more s/itisfac- 
tton I Imd. How I eante to hit upon the foot aa the constant object of 
operation will he Hecn fn)m Uie following ; Wlnni a very young boy. I 
bappenod to avv my eldest sister change her stockings. When she hastily 
bid her feet, my attention wa--' ivLtmctud, and imniedintely the eiight of her 
biire feet to tho anklea came to ite the ideat <if my longing. NnttirnJIy, 
thid made mj* sister very careful ; and thus there was oecasionetl a con* 
fltant quarrel, which, on my [tart, w;is kept up with all the wiles of cud- 
ning and Jlatt4;ry.and with even explosions of anger, until my aeventeentb 
year. In other respects my sister was ver3- imlitferent. Indcetl, her kiss 
is repugnant to me. Fnule de mieux, 1 made use of the fc«t of ser- 
vanttt; niaficuline feet hikd no elfect on mc My greatest desire would 
have been to cut the nails, or. sit oenia verbo^ the corns, on the Iteautiful 
foot of a woman. My lustful dr^-nmn were concerned with these things. 
Indeed, I rippliwl myself to the stndy of mc'licitie really in the expec- 
Ittlivu of gaiuLUg uu opportuuity tu satisty uiy desires, or cure tlium. 



Thank Ood, I nttaine<l the Utter. After undetLaking; the Srst diMeutioa 
of the lower cxtreniitv uf a remnlc, this iinhnppy dotire wan ruutuvtrd' 
ftom me. I vua iinbitppy because I urns always deeply niiliamed of this 
impulse. I tbinb I may iipnre further detniLs concerning it, since tliis 
peciiliiir entliiisiaKiu, wljicli even inspired nie to write verses, lioa been 
HufficieiiLly (lt:soril>L'(i by utUcre. 

" Now, concerning; tiio last phasoi of mj sexuftl errors : 1 was aboat 
tliirteen, find Imd jii<)t hi>gim to mature, wIumi a xrhool-mnte, wlio hnp- 
jienwl to 1»! our guest, ten-ifKl me one nighl by kickiujr lue with liis liarc 
feet under the coverB. I Beixud hia foot, and immi-diAtely Ijecnme grettUy 
exeit^ii. and Imd a pollution aftiT it, — the Hm that 1 ha<L The lM>y wai^ 
puculiarly girlish in roni). and wuh iilso ni«utally ftlViniunte. Too, nuotlitT 
eommde who had very small and dolicnte handtt and feet, whom I onco 
saw in a bath, caiist-d nnnsnal ejccitcment in me. I thonght it a gi"cat 
pie<:e of good fortune to \^c in bed with either of theite, though any 
nearer sexual inter(.'oun<e than cmbraeing them never came into my 
mind. Moreover, I alwayc lliruHt i^ni-li tlionghlH uiiide with avt<rHiou. 
Hume years later, when about sixteen or eighteen, I made the ocijuaiut- 
snce of two other Ijoys that awaki'ii«<l my sexual feeUng. When I played 
with citlicr of these, I iittraediutely had »n erection. Both were very 
energetic and lively, but delicately forme<l and chi]d>likc. At the ocuur- 
renec of puberty I lost interei^t in bolli of thi-rn, though a warm friend. 
ahipwft!* preJHtrved. I shonhl never have allowed myself to have indulged 
in vioiuus practices with them. 

"When I went to the University, T forgot completely these errors 
of my libido scxiialifl, and from principle I kept from Sexual intercourse 
until I wan twenty-four, in apite of the contempt of my eomfwiniona. 
When pollutions biicamc too fri^quent, and I iHsgiiii to fear cerehral neu- 
rastlieuia ex nlmttuentin. I gave niy»cir up to normal sexual indulgence, 
though BumewUat meubauienlly ; and it wan, of course, very benellchd 
to me. 

"The especial Geld of work to which I have devoted mysulf is re- 
sponsible for the fact that I am almost impotent with pneliiN polilicis, 
an<l uIho for Uie fact tliiit the naked I'urm of a woman di^gu>it^ i-ntlier 
than excites me. The net always satisKes mo the most, if, during it, 
I can keep thu viitiun of the face before nic; but since, on the other 
hand, the idea tb:it tlie girl near nie is vnjoyed by another is unbcamMe, 
for years 1 hare found it absolutely necessary for my mental comfort, 
in spite of lijc i»ecnniary Racriflcc, to keep a tnistrcss, and, indeed, a 
virgin. UlherwiHc the mont terrible jealousy made me aUsolutcly in> 
capable of work. I must also mention that, at thirteen, I fell in love 
platonicnlly for the first time; and Kinco then I have olten pined in 
chaste love. Wliat distingui>^he9t nry cat*e from all others is the fact thai 
I have never once tnn-Httirhiit^'d in my life. 

" Some weeks ago, in sleep, I was frigbteueJ by a dream of a naked 







bo3*, from which 1 nwoke wiUi an erection. In conclusion, 1 venture to 
undertake tlie dilllciill taBk ordesoHbing my prcfient condition : Medium 
beiglit, gTuocfullj fomictl. Skull doiicliocvplialic, witU |)roinTtionce in 
llie oooipiul region; circumfcrunue, 59 ueiitiiuetrvB; rruubtl iironiinence 
miukud; ghiiiuu buiuowLkI uuurifpntlitc ; pu|Ml8 medium ; ti-vtii very dth 
fttutive; iDiiijculutiii'e Bti'oijg iiud leiisc ; nbuiulnnl liitii, blonde. Viirieoecle 
on tUe lefl side; rreitulum too short, wlitcli hiudvred me in coitus. I 
BCTcred it myself tliree years n^o. Since then tjiiciilntion is rcl«rde(I, 
aiid plcnisiii-altlc reeling raucLi diminittbed. Tom pern met it choleric. Quick 
of comprehension; good tit drnwing ooiicluKionH ; energetic; Tor one 
berediUirtly predisiKmed, very irersevering. I lenrn langnnges ennHy, 
uud have u good car for u)u»ic, but othern-isu I liave no tuKint fur the arts. 
I uui nlwuys umbitious to do my duty, bnt 1 am (.-ontttantly Iroubted witli 
teediuui vitH-, aiid only ke]>t from :itt«iupts ut suicide by my religion ivnd 
the tbouglit or my mother. Otherwise I nm n typicAl candidate for 
flulcfde. 1 aro ambitious, Jealous, have ii fair of (Kinilyais ; lelVhiindcd. 
I am filled with socialistic ideoo. I like adventures, and 1 am eourngeons. 
1 bave decided never to marry." 

CiMe 109. Pitychical JBermnphrodilitm. Auhihtograjihtj. — " I was 
fiorn in I8fi8. The famllicB of both my piirt-nls are bcnltby ; at any rale, 
mental disease has never occiiri-ed in them. My father wan a merchant; 
be is now sixty-five yeans old, :iml for years has been ncrvoiie and e8]H> 
uiuliy inclined to be iQelniicbolic. Before his marriage, my father is said 
to have lived fast. My tnothcr i» healthy, though not very strong. 
There are two other healthy children. 

" I waH very early developed aexiially, and in my fourtocnth year 
wa8 ao much troubletl by pollutions that I was frightened. Under nimt 
uircum»tnnee.i they occurred, particularly the Mature of the dreaiuo that 
were connected with them, 1 am no longer able to atiit«. The fnct is, 
that for yi'fii's I have only felt rayftclf drawn toward men stximlly ; and. 
with every clfort lutd a terrible struggle, I am still unable to overcome 
tbis niinaturid impidae that ia ao repugnant to me. It ia aaid that I htul 
y aevertj illnesKuii in my ehildhood, and that my life was often d«- 
irud of. To this was probably due the fiLct tijat 1 wiui Kpoilcd and 
made very tWlicute. I wav always much in the house, preferred to play 
with dolU rather than with soldiers, an<l [ liked to play quietly in the 
houtte l>ettev than to play noisily in the streets. I entered the Oymiia^ 
slum at the age of ten. Though I was lazy^ I wilh among the best 
acbolara; for I learned very eaaily, and was the favorite of my teacher. 
From my earliest childhood (seventli year). 1 took pleasure in littlv 
girls. I rememlier that, even until my thirteenth year, I had formal lov«- 
aflKirs with them, and was JBnIoiis of those who associated with them ; 
tlint I took pleasure in looking under the petticoats of my sister's friends 
and the servnnt<i; find that T had erections when t^iuohing the [>crsons 
of my female playuiatet). I can, however, ruuull with certainty that boys 



attracted nod excited me soxunlty Just ax early and pQwerfulty. I always 
took grent <lclij:lit hi rending and in the tlieatrv. I bad a dolUllientre, 
with wliicb I i>l:iyed by iirefcronce. I knew wltole pieces by lienrt, ami 
copied the flctorfl I saw, tAkiiig cflpcH^iftlly the female parta, in whicli I 
wan deli(;lited to put on remiilu nttini. 

" As my sexual lire be^-uine more pronounced, my inclination for 
boys won tlio up)>er liand. I fell cottipletcly in tovc with my cumtmn- 
ionft, And had tuatrul feeling if one of them who pleased me touched my 
body. I liecfimc very shy, and refused to take gyinniistic and swimming 
Icasons. I thouglit I was dill'erent from my uommdes, and did not like 
to undroas before them. 1 liked tu louk nl tlic pciios of my compnuions, 
nud easily had erections. I nmMturlwtud bnt ont-e. and thut in my youth. 
When a friend told me that one could have pleasure without women, I 
likewise tricil it; but I found no pleasure in it. Al tliat time, ntso, a 
1)ook foil In my linnds which warned ngainst tRc ctTccts of onanism. 
After that one trial I never did it again. In ray fourteenth or fifteenth 
year, I made the actiuuinUuivu of two younger buys who exeiti'd uiv kux- 
ually to the highest degree. I was especially in love with one of them. 
I became sexually excited in his presence, and wms rt.'Mtle'tK when 1 did 
not have hill) near me. I waft JcidouM of tiiose who luutociated with him, 
and emimrrasjied in his presence. Uo bad no suspicion of my condition. 
I felt very unhappy, and often wept ^dfidly, feeling thcu relieved. Yet I 
could not iinderfitaiiil tluH feelin[i;, nrul always felt its irresularity. I was 
also eHiwct.illy ntdmppy because my iibiltty to work dinjipiieared all at 
once. I, who before linil learned with ea^c. suddenly hiul dilUeulLy ; 
my thoughts were never on the aubject. Only by stniining every nerve 
could 1 get anything thron<i;h my liejtd. I always Uh<1 to study aloud, lu 
order to keep my attention on the matter in hand. My memory, wliich 
■waa previously excellent, often left me in the lurch. Nevertheless, I 
continued to Ih.' a gooil scholar, ami I still pass for a t,iIentod man ; but 
I Inive ten-ible difUculty in learning anything. I exerted all my energy 
to free myself from this sad condition. Daily I went swimming; 1 
prncticLMl turning, rode much, and practiced fencing, in alt of which T 
enjoyed myself very mucli. i still like to be ou u horse's back, though I 
know nothing about horses, and liave no particular talent for phyaicai 
exercises. I was never absent from a drinking-pnrty, and I smoked. I 
was much liked. In eafre I oKHociated much with wailreH»e^, and liked 
to amuse myself with titem, wlthmitf however, being sexuidly excited by 
them. Aiuoiig my friends and teHcheiv, I passed for a man who was 
iiiueb with women, tuid spoiled by lliem. Uiifortunnluly, this was not 

*' At the age of nineteen I went to the University. My first semester 
was spent at the TJniverBity of B., and it '\» still terrible to recall it. 
My sexual jippotitc |K>wcrfnlly cxeiled me. nnd at night, for hours at a 
time, I ran about looking for mun, especially when 1 was intoxicated. 



Tbe next morniog 1 woalil be cmzy ubotit loj'Bvir. Fortiiimtcly, 1 Ibuod 
no one. In tlie seounJ semester, I went to M. Thin wus tuy liupiiiest 
tinif. I lind |ilL'Mnunt I'nBiKi!*, and, fur ii wonder, Look itlt^ni^iiie in wonivu, 
iiiid Was vpvy Impjiy nlioiiC it. I lirul ft Uivc^lTnir witli » >*(iung ;;irl of 
Kpullcd (rtmntcter, with wlirtm I spent wild iii^^lits. I v/i\>i extmordinnrily 
virilu. I, wtio Imd t'oruierly bveii cliaste. nl-^ nstiuviuted with otlmr 
women, an never l)«rui'e. I felt fresli »nd well nft^r coitus, I wrs not 
clianiK-d "O mindi l>y the feumli' lijiiiri-, wliicli wua m-ver iK-itutitttl to me, 
IIS Ity — I know not what, la short, I know women wIioh(! toiicli iintue- 
diately induced erection. This joy and state of doliglit did not last 
loii^. I wiui mt rouliiili •'Ui to tuki: nMUiiti willi ii E'riend. We hiid one 
slee|>ing-i'oom. My friead wu)i very lulenteil and umiiible, and u favoritu 
with women; and it was by tlieve chnrautorititios that be nt first bo 
Htron^ly Httrnc-ted nw. In fact, I love only lii^hly-cdiieated men : iinedii- 
cati'd, iiowerfid |>or»oiis are able to excite uw inton8ely only for tlie 
moiiit'iit, and eainiot retain my nlfeetionH. I soon re*ll in love with my 
rricnd. Then uame the terrible time that deatfoyad my bcnith. I slept 
in the !?nnie rouni ivilb my fi-iiind, and Imd to see him iindrcsB daily ; i*o 
that it required all my »>treu)^th Lo kcc]i Trtini betraying myaelf. 1 bt-- 
came neivoim, cried easily, luid wast jcalou»^ ortliDB« wlio associated with <« 
my friend. 1 still ft.'*soci»Led with women ; but it was only with diUlculty^^" 
tli.1t [ could perform coitus, wliich, like woman, wax repugnant to me. | 
The same women who bad excited me intensely, no lonj^r had Any effwl 
on me, I followud my friend to W., where he met an earlier friend, 
with wboni be associated. I lieenme jealoiia and siok with love and 
lunging. At the sitmc time, I HSttociated with women aj^ain, but seldom, 
and only with diflU-ulty, indulged in (.•otliia. I became terribly depressed 
nrrd almoH insane. Work wa« out of the iiuestion. I led a foolish, 
wild life, and Kj>ent a. f^reat amount of money, ahtinHt thri>wiu|; it away. 
Then, after silt wo«k» of it, 1 bn>ke donm, luid had to risit a water-cure, 
wbcro I spent mnny month*. There 1 came to mysfir again, and soon 
}teenme much liked ; for I can lie very gay, ami 1 Luke gnrnt pirattnre in 
the Kocloly of educated l.'wlies. In coiiveraation, I prefer married women 
to younger girls; I am also very gay in the society of gentlemen nt tlie 
Ijeer-lable and bowling-alley. 

" At this sanitarium I met a man of twenty-nine, who was appar- 
ently o<HiHtitul<-d likt! myself. The fellow forced himself upon me, aiid 
wanted to cmbraee and ldi«8 me ; but he was veri' repugnant to me, though 
be exciti-d me. and his toUL'h caused erection, and even ejaculation. One 
evening he got me to perform mutual onanism. An.fir it I Hpent a mo^t 
fHghtfuI, sleepless night ; I was terribly diagasled with the whole af&ir, 
and thought t should never do such a thin£; with a man a^ain. All day 
long I could get no ntst. It waa terriMe to me timt, in spite ofthiH, and 
agaiDft my will, this man so excited me sexually; yet, on the other hand, 

it gave mu satisfaction that hu was iu love with m«, Hud a[>parvntly bad 





to go through titrnggles sirallAr to my cnrlicr onus. From tlint time I 
WBB succc^Ail ill kwping him nway frtim mo. 

" I ftgoin w\.-ut to vitrious Cuiv«rsil<ivs, nml iiUo viditvii many wat«i'- 
uures, witb IvnipunLry, bul lU'vcr ponmtriL-iil, livuictll. 1 fell in lovf, too, 
with nuiny IriuiKl:*, but never so 4leei>ly ha with tb» fVlciid at M. I nu 
longer hnd scxuaI intercourse, ncttlicr with wonii'ii — I wub ineapnble. ul" 
it — nor with men ; for I lisd no umiortunity for it with the latter, rikI I 
forcpil myself to u%'oiU It. I still ufteu met my Memi of M. ; wc vsa us 
good friunds as ever, and, much to uiy delight, hu no longer exoitvs me. 
It is usual ly so; when for a long thue I havi* not *Kva a person who 
exuit«» imi, the scxuftl inHuencc dlsappp-ars. 

" I jwwsed iny cxttminationH with distinction. Purlng llie lost yeAr 
beforu thoy took p)u4.*e, — whou I wii« tweiity-threc, — 1 bcgnu to practiuo 
nuisturlMitiou; for I could tind no other way iti which to pnitifv my 
burdenisoniu sexual apjjelite. Still. I did it very infrequently; for afler 
it I W118 always disgusted, and npent a sleepier night. But when I 
ha.v« drunk murh, I lost? all »tivngth ; luid Ihfii t run alioul for hours, 
seoking lUL-n, and Anally come to onanituni, to awake tlie next tiny with a 
dull hoAil and a horror nf myself, and go aliout all day in a mehinoholy 
state. As lunt; »« 1 have control of myBclf, I use all uiy strength to 
combat my iifltiire. It is terrible when one can Imvo no pleatmre in hhho- 
oiiting with friumU, and every erect soldier or butchei^boy make** one 
tremble and tlirolx It i3 frightful when night comes, and I watch at 
the window for some one to urinate against a wall across the way. and 
give nic iiii opportunity to see Iuh genitals. These thongiits are terrible; 
and besides, tln^'e Ih the cousciousiicHs of the inuimralily and iTimiaivtlty 
of my state of mind and my longing. I have a repugnance for mysi>lf tiuit 
I oaiiDot describe. I cuusider my cundltiuu abnonua) ; 1 (.-aiinot think that 
it is cougenital, but I lieLieve tliat the impulse Lii-yd in uit- by ttvulty 
education. My sutt'cring makes me rcoklcAS and cgotiatical ; it takea 
away i^'l kindness of ilispctHition, anil makes me carelesa aitout my family. 
I am mooily, and often slruuKt insane ; oltun i am ao depreHHtHl that I 
ktiow mit what to do, and then nm easily moved to tearit. And yet I have & 
horror of sexual intereuui*Mc with lueii. One evculng when I eame from 
a drinktug-|HU-ty, drunk :um1 exeiteil and in a half-iroimcioUH eUite, and, 
tUll of dexiiv, wart wandering abuut, I met a youog man, who got me to 
perform mutiuil masturbation. Though he excited me. after the act I w.ia 
beside myself, To-tUy, whim I gt) by the phice, I am overeonie with 
horror; and lately, when riding by it, without any onusc, I fell fhim my 
gcutlc horse, tliat 1 know ao well, — i was bo overcome by tbi; niemory 
of my unworthy deed. 

" 1 love family life and children, and social intcrcimrse ; and, with 
my position in society, I nm united to have a family. But I must givo 
up iJI that ; and yet, 1 ciuinot abandon hope of cure. And so I ruoiilnlc 
belweei) hopeful gaiety and frightful hojXilGaiinew, and uegl«ct biisinQm 



and rstniljr. Iiidecd, I do not »sk tli»t I maj' marry and fonnd a family ; 
I wish only to overcoinc tli(^ terrible inclhmtioD for the idhIc bcx; only 
to associate r]uieCly with my frieud^, anil to leani tu rcspi'Ct tiiysvir again. 

" No one has any Buspicioii of ray wiriditioii ; I jKiaa nitlier for a 
great tvu^,— a repiitntiuti I try to jimiiilaiu. I orieii try to buvo rulaliotia 
with giritt, fur which I oflcii Lave opportunity. 1 li:ive known uao)' who 
loved me, atid who would havu sAcriflccd their honor fur m« ; but I Unre 
no love to olFer tliuiii,aitd nothing sexuid to give. And yet I can love n 
man. I am fxctited only by young men, — 1>., aged from seventeen to 
twcnty-ltvc, without fUll lieards, and pi-eferably with uo heanls at all. I 
cnu love only those tlintare edutrnted, rtiHpecttalile.and aniitihle. I am. in 
short, vury proud, aud i^uiuk ; I :tm uUo cuthui^iii^ittu, ami vaiiily kil by 
persons wliu plunsc mc. Tlie»e I trj' to imitate, but I am very veDsitive 
with them, Eiiid eaiiily hurt. 1 put much value on np|)earnnce8, love 
bejintiTul I'liniitiire ami dres-^t, and a}i.<itimc a distlngniiiliod manner and 
elc^iit addresg. I am unhappy in that my neiirnatUcDic condition Uecps 
me from doin<* and leiiruing what I fliiould lik*.'." 

L[u<t Tail I made the patient's ncqiiaintnnoe. He ia destitute of 
degvuemlive signe*; and of iwrfet'tty masculine niJjMiRniiico, evuti tliuu^li 
he 18 tlclicaU^ly formed and slender. Oeuil:iU iierfet^tly noi-mal. Appear- 
ance distingui.<tl)ed, with nothing striking. Ho is much troubled about 
his sexual perversion, and wishes to Im freed from it at any price. In 
Bpite of the greaCeHt ctfort on the part uf both physieiaii ami patient, 
only a alight degree of hypnoais, insufHeient for suggestive treatment, 
could be induced. 

CuHe 110. Psychical flermajthrodHigm — ifoulh-felickism. — "I nm 
thirty-one year* old, and s» otttcial in a manufaetory. M.v parents arc 
healthy, and have nothing abnormal nlniut them. My piiterniil grand- 
fatlier ia HAid tu have had brain <lIsc!L»iu; my maternal granilmothor 
died melaneholic; a consin of my mother was given to dntik; several 
other blood -relations are abiiurmnl mentally. 

"I WH-t four years old when my sexual appetite awoke. A man 
between twenty and thirty years old, who plnyol with ii» children, and 
took UH in hia ai'm», exeitnl in uii' the duKirc to embruee ami k)»iH him 
pcissioniitely. This desire for sensual kissing on the mouth is charaeter- 
isttc of me, and it still Corm^ the eh ief charm of my sexual gni Lit] eat ion. 

"1 ex [writjnced a simiUr excitation in aiKtut my ninth year. A 
toan who whb ngly and dirty, and bad a red be^ml, likewise excited in 
mc this desire for him. Here was manifested, for the first time, a char- 
acteristic prcniinr to me, which ia alill prcHcnt, — i.e., the ])ecnliar 
stimulus which coarseness — the fllthiness of a person in dress and eoii- 
dnct — is to my senses nt times. 

" While in the Oymnasium, from my eleventh to my fifteenth year, 
1 was atrccteil with a passion for a comrade In this case, it was also my 
greatest pleasure to embmcc him, and klsa him on the mouth. I was 



often ittgized witli a ilesirv for Uim a« inlenst; an tlmt I now bave for per- 
sons I lore. 1 tliink, huwcvei*, llmt 1 first had erections in my tlitrteenth 
year. t>iu-in)i; tliuM VL-ur», as I have said, 1 lind only cbc desire to 
eiubnteti and kitts ; cupiditiLs viilciidi vul tungondi alioniui genitiilia niiiti 
|ilane deurat. 1 was a jit^rreutly innuuiint, niiive boy, utkd, until luy Uf- 
teeutU year, did nut know tlie uiuuning of lui iTCCtiou ; indcud, I never 
once ventured to kisH the beloved person; fur I felt that it would be 
doiuf! »uriiL-tliin^ ^tntiige. I felt, no dusire to masturliate, »iid also had 
the good fortune not to Ite seduced to it by older coinradea. 1 Imve 
never ycl masturbated ; I feel a certain repuguancc for It. 

*'ln my I'oiirti'enth and IUli:<;nl.b years I was seized with a passion 
fi>r several young jtei'Souti, &unie ol' whom slill attract lue. TIiiim I was 
very miielt in Jove with a boy with wboiu 1 bad uvver »i>oken. It was 
even a delight to meet biiii on the sti'<?et. 

" That my pussioDA were ol' a ttenitual natiiru is sboirn by tbc Tact 
that, when 1 prc8.-4L'd and caressed the bands of those I loved, I bad )h>w- 
errul erei.-tioiiH. Kiit it bas alwayH lioen my greateat pleabure aniplecti 
«t UK usenbiri ; I detdrei) iiutbiu^ eUe. 

" I did nut know tliat I experienced was flextial love; 1 only 
aaid to myself tliat it was iinpositihle that I alone felt Burh stimnli. 

"Until my [iltccnth year a wuuiau tiad never excited nie ; but one 
evening, wlien I waa alone witli our hervanl^girt in a ruutu, I experienced 
the aauiu deuire that 1 had for many boys. At fir^t I played wiUi ber; 
am), when I foiiml that lilie liked to 1<e kiHscd, [ covered her witb kisses. 
I felt &ueh «ienHu:il pluaonre in it lut I now seldom experience. Moiilh to 
luonti), we ki^seil each other, and after about ten luiiinles ejaculaliun 
occurred. Thiu I gratified myacirtwoor three tinieit a week, 1 »uon 
began ik similar relation with onr cook, ami with other iiervant-girls. 
Efjaciilation always took place niter kinging for aliont ten minutes. 

" In tbe meantime, I bad taken dancing-lessons. Tberc I was first 
charmed by a nice ^i^l ; but tliiH luve soon diKnpiieuix-d. and 1 fell la 
luve with aiiotJiei' girl, with wlxint I nev«r bt^uftnie ncqieiiiited, but at 
the sigbt of wbora I felt an atlrai-tion bke that of boyit, and unlike tlie 
pnrely brutal paHsion I felt for other girls. At this time my impulse 
for girU wa» at its acme; 1 wati |ik-axed hy abunt an e()u:d nnudier of 
girts an<l boys. As mentioned nl>ove, 1 grutilled my setmuatity by kiaa- 
ing the servant^irl aud inducing ejacnlution. Thuts 1 spent tbe time 
from my xixteenth to my eighteenth year. The departure of the servaut 
deprived me of opportunity. 

'*Tlieu came two or three ycara during wbicb I bad to give up 
sexual pleasure. In general, girls pleased mc less ; and, too, now tlmt I 
had grown older, 1 was iMliamed to surrender myself to tbe servant-girls. 

"It watt not possible for tae to obtain a mistress; for, notwith- 
standing my years, I was carefully watched by my parents, and asso- 
oUted but little witb young men, and thus had but little independence. 



With the (liininution in t be desire for women, the ntlrnctircness of yoiilhB 


"Since I liiiH bii*l, since my siiteenth year, frequent pollutions at 
niglit Willi drcftms, — in part of women niul in part of men,— wUieli weuk- 
ened and depreHseil me exeeedhigty, I det^ired to make un end of Llicm 
by monns of nornml coitiit;. Bill urrupIcK mid Um iK-Huf lliut prostilutce 
wonld liRvc no etreet on me. kept me from the brothel until my tweiity- 
Jirst year. For two or three yearn I went ttirougli a diiUy struggle (if 
tlifi-e Ii«d lieeii male Iioiiscs of prostiliitioii, no scruples would have 
hindered ine). Finally I viftited a brothel. T could not even induce 
erection; for one reason hi-ciitiso tlie ^^irl. though sim was unuHiinlly 
frp-rth and pretty for a prostitute, did not alfecl rue ; but reidly lieeauKe 
ghe woidd not kiee nic on the mouth. I was very mucli doprcsged, and 
thought I WHS iniiwlenl. Three weelti* afterwartl I visiteil stiotlier pros- 
titute, iind ulie iniint'diately induced erection by her kiss. She wns 
eret't and hnd Iliirk lips, nnd was* nincli more senjtii-il than tlie fir>it 
one. .4fler only three miniil4.*8 of simple kidstng. mouth to montli. ejac- 
idiition was induced. — of c(uii"se, ante portnni. Tims it wn.t only after I 
had vibitcd proKtituti-tt about seven time-H that I w;ih Hiieci-ssfnl In coitus. 

'* At one time I wonld have no ei'ectioii at all. because tlie girl made 
no impresHioii on me; again I wunhl ejaculate prematoit-Iy. The first 
tiltteR I w«*» n-liirtnnt pi-nom iiitntdiicere ; and, too, even after I W!i« »iic- 
eesafid in normal coitus, 1 found no pleasure in it. Sensual Hatiafac- 
tion comes with ktMing on the mouth ; for me thia la the prineii>al 
thing, coitus serving only as annipthing secondarj' to embracing. 
Cfdtug, no matter how mncli the woninn might clianu nie, would lie 
nn imiltrerent matter without kissing; indeed, erection disiip|>eara, or 
dovN not occur at nil, when llie wnrnaii will nut kiss on tht- uiontli. Yet, 
I (.-unnot ki«s every woman, \ml only such av, have fiict-K pleDsing to iii«; 
n prostitute, the sight of whom is rr-piiguniit to me, willi an}' amount of 
kissing, which then only di^gu^tta mc, eannot excite me. 

''Thus, during the lust four yi-rii-!«, I have visited brothels about 
ipvery teu dnys or two weeks. Only celiloui dot-s cuiluK fail ; for I have 
learned my pecnlinritied, au'l in the choiue of a [»ro8litiile know imine- 
diatel^' whether nhe will excite m*" ov have no effect. Of late, however. 
It has again hnjipcned tlmt I rhoughl the woman wmdd stimulate me, and 
yet no erection occurred. This happened when, the day before, I had to 
repreaa ton forcilily die desire for men. 

"At first, when I went to brothels, the seiutual pleaviiru wus very 
alight ; only » vi-ry few time)* diil I linve true litit fnl fi^eling (as in kisa> 
Ing previously). Now, on the contrary, for the moat part I experience 
sensual plca.*nre. The lower bonsea have a particular charm for me ; 
for of lal« the conrsene.'is of the womoti, the dark cntraucc, the yellow 
light of the laraiie, ami all the iturroundings, have a pecuiiav charm for 
me; probably becaut^e my sensuality ia unconaciously excited by meet- 



ing Boldtcra, who fVcqueat such placea, anil who at the aame time lend a 
oertnii) oUiirm tu thu woidgd. If 1 but find a womnn whoRe Tnoe attmctB 
lUti, I uiLii liiiv(> iiiteiiKe luatful pleasure. Besides by protititiiU>»4, 1113' ile- 
siro eiin be exciU'ii bv pwisaiiUgirle, «crvjiiil-girU, workiug-woriifii, niid 
^rls of the lowur clnnsea. — in f^eneral, by tlioite in comiuon dresfs. Reil 
lOwt'lcR, Uiick lips, and creel Torms plojiw nic piirticiilarly. I am abso- 
lutely indilVcrpnl to re-spectalile woin*?ii niid young Indiott. 

'* My pollutiniis art" iisuiilly wiihoiit lustful pleasure, mid of^n occur 
with dreams of men, but very seldom — almost never — wUb dreams of 
womun. As is »i1iown by the iiuttcireuiDstance, in Hpite oC regular coitun, 
my desire ib utill Tor young men. Indeed, I msy tiny Hiat it has ouly in- 
crenaed, and tlisit very niii.rkedly. Thoiij-b immediately afl^r euitu» 
Ibe girls have no ebnnn for me, yt^t the kiss of a pleaAtn;; woman could 
immediately induce erection agniii. For tlie first ftsw diiys after coitus, 
young men Bcom the moat attractive tu me. 

" Sexual uougress with women doe* not aatisry all my eeustial dcaire. 
I have days when I frequently liare crcctionn with an intense deKire for 
yoniig ini'ii ; then come quieter days, with moments orcnmplete inditTer- 
ence for women and Intent desire for men. On the other hand, too great 
Benaiinl rent makes me melancholy ; vii;., when eueli rest fullowa moments 
of rppreascil excitKment. Oidy, then, when the lliouglit of beloved 
yoiitliB again t-aiises erection, do I feel lighl-henrtcd agiiin. Then the 
rest changes to intense nervousness; I feel depressed, and sumetliucH 
h.ive headache (:ifter repressed erection). This nervoiiRness often in- 
creases to ungovernable restlessness, which 1 tbeii seek to overcome by 

" Last 3*rar nn eaacntial change took place in my sextinl life, when 
I dared to etijoy male lovo for tlio first time. In spite of iilensnrable 
coitus with women (more correctly, pleasurable kia»ing with renidtant 
ejaculation), my desire for young mou gave me no peace. I determined 
to go to a lirnthul mncli frequented by soldiem, and, in extremity, to 
buy a soldier for myself. I hiul the good lock to meet iinmwiiately one 
like myncif, who, notwithstanding his ranch lower fltatinn, in charaoter 
and behavior was not unworthy of me. What I exiterienced (and still 
experience) with this young man Is something did'erent from what I feel 
with women. The sensual pleasure is not greater than with prostUutea, 
whot»o kisses and embraces excite me exti-aordinarily ; but I can cxperl- 
enoe biBtfut pleasure with liim at any time, and fur liini I have n feeling 
that ta wanting for women. TTnfortQnately, I hnvc been able to embrace 
and kisa bim only about eight ttmen. 

" Though we have been separated many months, he having been 
sent to a garrison in Hungary, we have not forgotten each other, and 
keep up a regular mrroapondence. In order to posseaii him, I dared to 
go to a brothel and there embrace him, bctitg in danger of being 



*' Early in onr ncqunintnnce there came n time wlieo 1 hmni 
nothing inon- of liim ; Tor lie did not ttiiiik be couUI trust me. Buriog 
tbe«o weeks 1 ondni-cd nnxiety nnd pnin timt hrouglit me into a state of 
depression and anxious restlessness, sul'Ii us I lind never before eiipt- 
rienee<I. Swircely to have foiini) n lover and tlicii to be conipetled to 
lose him, seemed tlie grpmcHt inifirortiiiie to me. Wlien, tlmnks to ray 

leffbrle, wo ntct agniii, my joy was unbounded ; iiidcer], I was so excited 
tliikt. in tiis embrace nsnin Tor the tirst time, in spite of my sensual lust, 
I couUl not induce ejn.c;u!ation. 

" Usufl sexuAlia in osculia et amplexionibus Rolis Ron<ititit, pcnc 
men ludero ei licebot (wbile the touch on it of n womun's hnnd is unen- 
durable to me, itnit I never ultow it). It is ulno to be uoteit tbitt, in the 
oompnny of my lover, I imine<li»tcty hnve an election ; the pressure of 
his bund, or even bis look, is siiHieient. Eveninjra, Tor hours nt r time, 
I h.ive ijone about with him, never tiring of his soeiety for » moment, 
despite bis inferior stittion. With him I feci hnppy, anrl the sexunl 
« ant is faction is merely the crowitinjT of our love. Altlioiigh I Imd flnnllr 

|foun(l the man like myself, whom 1 bnd so Ion); sought, und I could at 
st enjoy m:de love, yet I bnvo not become inHensitire to women ; and I 

(visit brothels when 1 am too sorely troubled by detdre. I liRtt hoped to 
able to spend this winter in the city where my lover is ; iinl tliiB is, 
infortnnntely, impossible, anrl I nm now forced to l>n se(wir«tei1 fi-om 
liim for .in indcflnitc period. Nevertheless, we shnll try to see eaoli 
other, if only for a short time, anrl only nnce or twice r yenr; at least, I 
liopc that in the fiiliire wc may n^in t»e lo;reUirr for a lonj^er time. 
ThuM, for tins winter, I nm ngain compelled to be wiLlinnt a friend like 
myself. 1 Imd. indeed, retjolvod, on uocount of the danger of dlscOTery, 
never to try to Itnd nnotbt-r iirnins ; but llii« is impossiljle. Sexnn! 
inleveourae with women docs not juitisfy me, niid my desiie for young 
men constantly increases. I nm often nfmid of myself; afhiid tlutl. in 
asking nil prostitutes, as I do. whether lliey know others like me, I 
might \h'. difcovereil. Yet. I ennnot keep fi-om seeking a youth like 
myself; indeed, I know that in case of ncfo-sitj- I shidl buy a soldier, 
though I know .perfectly well tlie [>enalty meted out to one caught in 
Biieh clrenmsUinces. 

•* 1 can no longer do without mnlc love; without it 1 hIiouM nlwayi 
bo out of harmony with myself. My ideal wouhl be to lie nssoclnted 
with a numlier like niywir; Tint I should ho sntisBcd if I coolrt have 
unreiAtrnined intereoursR with- one lover. 1 eould eixsily dinpense with 
women, if I liad rcgiilfir mule sutiaffictlon ; hut 1 think that »t Ions i"ter- 
taIs I should emhmce n woman for the sake of rnricty, as my natnre is 
alMt>lutA>ly benna|]hroilltie In n psyelio-sexual sense (women I ean only 
desire M4!usmtlly, but I enn love and tiensually desire young men). If 
there were mnrrintjc Itelween men, 1 think 1 tthuuld not avoid a life-long 
union ; while marriage with a woman seems to me something impossible. 



For, in the first place, thoug;)! the wnmnn cliarmml mc, the charm would 
BOOH be lost in regular iDtercourse, mid tlicti all Bexunl indulgence, if not 
iiiipoA'«il>le, wniihl certainly l>e ilevoid of pleasure Tor me; and, in the 
second place, true love for the wife would be wanting — the attrnotion tliat 
I feel yr'ith young men I love, and which makvn tlie ititerconnte that ift 
not ainiiilv !*en»«n!»I i«eem de«iraMe to me. The constant aRsnciation with 
a youth i)hyf*«-«lly piesL'iinir and in mental liarmtmy with mc. and who 
could niulerMand all my feelings and bIisto ray intellectual opiniona and 
desireH, would, it eeeme to me, be tlie greatest happiness. 

" TLe ytnuif" lucti who please me must he tictwcen eighteen and 
twenty-eight. As I have grown older, iho limit of age in those pleasing 
to mc has inrreased ; otherwise, 1 nm pleased with the most various 
forms. The principal r6le, if not the exchnsire one, is played by the face. 
BlondcK excite mt< mure ihiin dark {lentuiiK ; Ihcy mUKt have no beunl, 
hut merely a Kmail moustache that is not too thick, or none at all. As 
for the rest, the only thing I can say is, that certain kindit of faces please 
me. Faces with ijirge, stmiglit noses ure excluded, .*»« are also jmle 
cheeks; hut there arc exceptions. I regard soldiers with favor, and 
many please me when in uniform who do not affect me when in civil 
dress. Just as in wonirn certain ordinnry arlicles of dre^s (like light- 
colored jackets) please me, eu the uiiliLary eot^Liuuc attracUt me. To go 
to dauce-liidlsf — iipiially hcer-lmlls — where there arc many soldiers, and 
mix with the crowd of soldiera nnd lioye that please me, and try to get a 
kisB iind cnilin»ee, — this mingling with ihcui would, of course, be an 
excitant only of sensn:dity ; intellectually and aucially, everything com- 
mon in speech and conduct is repugnant to me. 

** Willi young men of higher position, my aonsual desire la lesa 

'^ Wh:it I have said of the attractiveness of eertitin kinds of dres« 
in not to be imdcrstood in the sense tliat they attract me in themselves. 
This charm «nly metnm t.hnt tlic dress may help to strengthen or make 
prominent t)ie attmction exerted )>y tlie fnce, when, perhaps, tlin aamc 
face ill itself would not nttrnut mc to the same extent I may say the 
same thing, though with a different meaning, of the ^dor of ]i<-hied 
cigars. In inditU-rent persons the odor of cigars is mtlier repugnant 
than pleasing to me', but exciting in those sexually attractive. The k<ss 
of a prostitute smelling of cignr-tmoke. affni-ds greater pleiisure (Iiecause, 
even thongh in [mrt itncouaciouKty, 1 am reminded uf the kis.s of a man). 
Therefore, I took pleasnre in kissing my lover just after he Imd smoked. 
{It is to be noted that J myself have never smoked a cigar or cigarette, 
and have never even tricl to 8niokv.) I am tidt and thin; my face ts 
uiasciillne; my eyes aie restless; nnd in my whole form 1 odun have 
ftomelhiug girlish. My health leaves much to be de-sired. It is much 
iiiHuenced hy tny sexual nnoumly. As previoual}' mentioned. 1 am very 
nervous, and I otteu have ^Kiruxysms of uuumatuwunia. At times, I also 



baTC tcrriHc ilnpreRRion nnd inetniicliolin, wlieii 1 see ttio. d)fl!cult.y of 
gratiQcntiou corresponding witb my male-loTiiig iialui'c; atid nljeti 1 nm 
gre»tly exvitt^i sexually, And bnve overcome tlie desire, owing to tui|)os- 
siliility of mible gratiliimtion. In sucK conditions, often the dfpression 
Is nsfiocinled with aUsoIuic Inck of scxtinl desire. In wcirk I nm indiiB* 
triouB, but olXen too nnick ; Tor I nm inulined to work too rnpidly and 
Tiokiitly. I Unvc a lively interest in iiri and literature. Among poets 
and writers of liction. 1 prefer, for tbt; most part, tlio»te wbo dcscrihe 
refinod feelings, peculiar pii»Bions, »ml far-fetclied impreHaioiis; nn arti- 
flcial or Iiyper-Artificial style pleases ue. Ifikewise in music, it is ih« 
nervou*, excitJnjr mnsic of n Cliopin, a Snlitimnnn, a SohiilH*n, nr a 
Wagner, etc., tn in most p^erfeet harmony with me. Evrrytliing in 
art that is not only oHgiiinl, but bizarre, attracts ma 

" 1 do not like pliysicid exercise, and do not practice it. 

" tn clinractLT I am kind and oompa.s>^u>nAte; and, tliotigli I liave 
tnucti to fttitfer with my anomaly, I am not tinliappy bccnnse I love 
young mon, hut because the satiitfaction of such love is eoiiBldcred 
improper, niid because I cannot gmtify il without rcKtminl,. I cannot 
regard male love an a vice, chough I can well umk'r»itnni1 why it is 
considered vicious. But, since this love is re^rdcd as criminal, in 
gi'atifvini; it I nm in liiirmony with my»?lf, Itut not with our »^e of the 
world ; and, therefore, I iiiiist. nocessfinly, I»e somewhnl depiV4«ed ; ih« 
more, si nee I have a frank character that hates a lie. The pniti of havin*; 
always to hide it all in myself has induced me to confess my anomaly to 
a few friends, of whose silence and apprecMniion I am (-onfident. Never. 
theio»K, my situation often seems e-id. On account of tlie difUculty of 
gmtillcation and the general abborrence of male love, 1 am often a littlo 
proud tlint I have sucli aiiumalous feclingH. Of course, I »iiidl never 
marry. Tlds does not seem any misfortune, even though I love family 
life, and have thus fsT lived only with my parents. I live in the hope 
tlmt Inter I shall have a lover ; I muxt bitvc one; wlUioiit one. Ibc future 
twems (lark and barren, and all the nndntlons UHintlly eherifsbed — honor, 
position, etfl. — seem empty and tiniittnictive. If I should not have this 
hope lullllled. I know 1 shall by unable lo long devotw myseirio my busi- 
neHS with pleofliire, and I Bh:dl ftoou be in a condition to Hacritice every- 
thing to olitnin male lova, 1 no lons,'cr have any moral scruples on ncoount 
of my anomalous inclination; I have, In fa«l. never been troubled 
tiecause I felt attractcil to boys. I nm much more inclined to Judge 
morality and immorality in accordance witb my feelinen tlinn in nccord- 
aucc with fixed princiipleit ; for I have always be<.-D given to 9kej>Ucisio, 
and liavu never yet studied out a fixed Ix-lief for my!*olf. As yet, only 
wliat injure.i others seems 1<j rac to be evil and inuni.rnl, and that that I 
woidd not have inflicted on myself; and, in this direction, I may say that 
I try to infringe on the ri^htH of others as little as |)OHs!hl«, and that I 
am callable of great indignation at injustice inflicted on anolber. liut, 



wliy lore of men shonlfl be Aomething immArnl, I cantiot iinderstnnd ; 
piir|)i>Be1css activity of the acxual inatinct (if llic immornl is to l)c seen 
in all tliul i» iiBel<-H» niit) uinitLtiirnl) i^ aIao round in itiLvrcoiirHe witli 
|H'OKLiLut.t!it, and cvuii in iii:iri'iug<! wIiltl' miniiiM tu piiivvul C'r>nocpll(in are 
iiHed ; nnd it seeni» to mc thnt tbe Keztitil intcrcoiirse of lueii must be 
plitecd on the t«une level vritli all sexual c-ongreiw tltut litis not procreii- 
tioii itn nn cntl. But Unit otily scxukI gratification tlmt \ms this [tur- 
pAW id morn), fteonis to mo to lie qiiefttionAlile. Certnlnly, nextial flatis* 
fiicliiii) lliHl is not (lii'ootcd to prot; rent ion \h not contrnry to nature; and, 
wbetlmr it h»» nnL nllii.>i' pitr|>oH<-fi iitilinowti to uh, in [iiu'ertnin; anil. 
even if it vreiL- [tiirtiosirlcss. it would not nenessnrily lie despicable (it is 
not ctirtniii tlint llie meuHurc of a niorid act is its nHernlne.«sj. 

" 1 am very certnin tlint iire^cnt prejudice will 4]i((ap(>enr, ami that 
wben on re siirli iiidividiiali* ex|M>riftiei' ntrib'-love.tlie right ol' unrestricted 
love will Ii(! ncUnowledgcd. For tlie possibility of siicli rcrogintion one 
need but reunll tlic Greeks ntid llioir friendsbipH, which were notlilng but 
at'xnnl love ; and one Iihk otdy to tbiiik iJiat. despite hiicIi iinimttirnl vice, 
practiced by tlicir groatOBt men in inlolltieHml and lesthetie matters, the 
Greeks lire still regarded as an uiinttninablc example, and liold up for 

"] linve already tlionplit of liaring my anomaly cured by hypno- 
tism. If it were to lie of any use, which 1 doubt, yet I should eertuinly 
de«ire to lie assured of a lastliif; lovo for women. For oven Ihnugb I 
cannot satisfy mysflf with men, yet 1 jireler to feel this cn|xibility of in- 
ordinate lust ami lovG, even ungratifiwl, to being Rbsolutely without feci* 
in^r. ThuH I Htill liave the hope thnt 1 almll find opportunity to satisfy 
the love I dcKtre, the lore tliitt woidd mnke me happy; and T »houh1 not 
prefer the sutrs'^stive removed of liomo-fH^snnl reelin<;s. without the siimil- 
tniieous substituliou of a betera-«iexiial e(|iiivaleiil, to ray present con- 
dition. Finally. I should like to add. in contrjisl with the statements of 
iirnipiu« in the pnlilished hiopraphteR, that I, ftt least, find it very dilRt-^idt 
to reeoijiiize those like myself. Though I Imve de*M.Tibcd my sexual 
anomnly aoinewliat in detail, it sccma to me llint the following notes are 
important for :i bettor uiidenttandiiig of my condition^— 

"Of late I have ^ireo up immisnio [lenis, and confined myself 
to ooitua inter feuiomc puellfe. Kjaeulatron occnra earlier than with 
conjiinetio mpmbrorum. and I cxperienee a certain Itwtfnl feeling in the 
penis itself. If this luaniicr of Hexnal iiitcrcoiirs-e is quite pleasant to 
rae, it is, perh!i|)B, in part to lie referred to the fnet that in this kind of 
sextml indulgetree the sex is quite indillerciit. and I am. perlmpa. nnoon- 
8ciou*.ly reniiiide4l of uissculinc embi'ace. IJiit Uiie meniory is nlwo- 
lutcly unconscious, ami hut obscurely felt ; for I iim not indebted lo my 
imagination for my pleasure, hut it is due immediately* tfi kisatng the 
womnn'fl mouth. I feel that the charm wldcb the brothel and prostitutes 
bftTs for me also begins to fiule; but I nm sure oertaiu women wiU 



nlwnya he kMc to exuito me by tboii- kisscH. Still, no woman is, or ever 
will lip, so nltniclivc »« to intUtcc ttic to overcome obstacles lu winiiiiif; 
tier; but even tbc ilanger or discovery ntid dittgrace could only nitb 
diUiuiilty iitstRiiri me fruin Hi>ekiii}j; « man 'a einbniceti. 

" Thiiii I InUily alloffml inyB4>If to Ite induced to bit}- n soldier ftt a 
prostitute's lioiise. Tiie lustful pleiifiure wiw very prent, but tbe subse- 
quent feeling ofKNtii^ritction was especially very cxliilnrntlng, Tlie next 
dsy I I'flt srmilnrly •trenplJieiied {wipnble of t;reclion nt any moment) ; 
iuid thou};li I Itave not yet lieen nbfc to meet the soldier again, tbe 
ttioUfjbt llint 1 ftlmll venture to purcliaRc another given uie |>ence. But I 
conlil lie [icrro<>tly ttatiafied ouly in fludliig one feeling like myself, of my 
own position and cdnention. 

*" 1 have not yet mentioned that the female form (witli the exeeption 
of Llie face) and genitals have no attraction for uie (to touch the latt^-T 
with my lirunl wouhl he dist;u«tinji to oil-) ; but nmuibrum virile me<;eiv <liim o9 meuin ns ejus o<tci)httiir, milii exoptalum es»e ; indeed, 
to kist Hint of a vt-ry pleasing man would not l»p di*gn«ting to me. 
OiiBiiiAm, as lilts lieeii unid, would be fjuit-e impoHsiblc for me." 

Cii»»e III. Pitiivhicni JJt'rina/ifiiXKlih'fm. — Uetero-scxiial fi-eling early 
interfered with by nioMturbaLiun, but episoilioiilly very intense. Uomo- 
flexnai fei^lin!: nboritjine |»ervcrRC (sexual r-xcit.ition by menV boott). 

Mr. X.. of hl<;b Roclal puitition, Ru^^iinii, ngeil S8, came to me in 
SeptenilH'r, IKH7, in a do^pniriug mood, to eoiisiilt me on nccoiint of a 
perversion of hia vit'i scxuali?, which made life seem almost nnlioanible to 
him, and which had re|>eate<Uy bruuglit hiui nenr to auioiile. 'I'lic patient 
comes of a family i" wliieli iienro-^eR «n<i p«ycho»e« have been of Ireiiuent 
occurrence. In the father'^ family there had been conwiugulneons mar- 
riagea for tbrco generations. The father j» said Ut have I)ee» a Iiealtliy 
man. and to have lived morally in marriage, IIowDVcr, liis faiherV 
prefrrence for fmednoUinp servant* seuma n^mnrkablc to the aon. The 
mother'a family Ik descrikfl n» eccentric- The mother's grandfather and 
grL'nt-<;mndfal.her die<i mflnueliolic ; her siater won insane; a dau;;hler 
of tbe gnindfatlier's brother wax liy»terion.l. nud had nymi)liomania. Only 
tliruo of the motlwr'n twelve brotln'rti and niatcra mitrried. Ul' these, one 
brother waj^ bomo-Bcxual, and nlwnys nervous aa a result of exoesDive 

The patient's mntticr is said to lie n bigot, and of small mental 
endowment, nervous, irritable, and inclined to melancholia. Patient 
has a sister and n hnither. The brother is frequently melancholy, 
nnd, tliouuh mature, has never abown the 8lighte«t trace of sexual 
inolinatiouR. Tlie aiatcr is an ftckiiow]e<Igwl beauty, and much songht 
by gentUmpn. This lady is married, but rhildics4,aa reported. owing to 
tlie impotence of Iter bnnliaiul. She Iijih alwaya lieen inditferent to ttie 
att^nttona shown her by men, hnt Is chnrmetl by female beauty, and 
actually in love with some of kec female friends. 



With respect of himself, tli« pntient atwerts tlmt, wh«D four year* 
oldf lie fl retimed of hnndiwinc jockeys wearing ntiiiiing bootii. Too, Le 
Bftver fireaiiied of women when Ue grew olilcr. His ni'^litly polliitloufl 
were ain-ays induccU by *' boot -dreams." From bis fotirCb year he had u 
peculiar partiality for men, or, more correctly, for lackeys wearing 
shining boots. At first they only excited liis interest, but, with devel- 
opment of his sexual fuiictionii, tlie sight of them i^niitsed pa>werfiil 
erections ainl lustful pkasiii'e. It was only servants' Im>oI)4 that ntrected 
htm ; the same kind of hoots on perftonn of like aonial ittatJon were witli- 
ont elTect on bim. tn a liomo-^csual sense, there was no sexnni impulae 
connected with thcHc f^ituntions. Even the thonght ofniich n |HtBiiibililjr 
waa diflguRtiiig to him. At tiineK, however, he hod &en8uiUl>'-colorxKl 
hloas, — like lM.'ing Iiia eervant's servant, and dntwing off his boots; but 
the idea of being stepiied on by him, or of having to bliu-ken his boots, 
was most plejuting. Tlie pride of the aristocrat ro)w up n)<aiiist ftiich 
thotiglitA. In general, Lhene notions about boots were disgusting and 
painful to him. 

Sexual instinct was early and powerfiilty developed. It Brst found 
expression in Indid^ence in sensual thoughts about boots, and, after 
puborly, in dreams nccompuniod bv pi^llntions ; otherwise, the mental and 
pliyaionl dewlopmeiil wax uiidistui-bwl. I'ntient was well endowed men- 
tally, — ^lenrncl CR-tily, finislietl bis atudlcs, and 1>ccAinc nn ofllccr. On 
nrcnutit ofliiA diHtlnguiKlied, manly appearance and IiIh high poaition, lie 
was inuoli sought in society. 

He characterizes himsnlf a« a clever, quiet, strong-willed, but su)>er- 
Hcial man. lie a.<iH<>rt9 that he is a passionate hunter and riiler, and that 
lie Ii:t4 never lind t\ny inclination for feminine puritnitA. In the society 
of Indies he hns alwnys been reserved; ilancing always tired him. He 
had never hiid any interest in a lady of high sueiid ]>osilion. As for 
women, only the btixom peasant girls, such as nre the iuo<telH of painters 
in lUrme, hiul iiiterestetl him. lie bad. however, never fell any seinal 
interest in such repriwul.-ilives of tlie ft^uiale sex. In lliH theiitre and 
circus only male performers had exeitud his interest; but, at the Rnme 
time, Ihey hud ciLUscd him nn aensuni feclin^^s. As for men, only their 
hoots excited Idm, and, indeed, only wlien the wearers belonged to the 
urTani class and were hnndsnme men. Men of Ins own position, wear- 
ing never so tine boots, were alwolutely indifferent to liira. 

Willi reference to hin sexual inclinations, tliu patient in still uncer- 
tain whether be feeU more inelinatton towanl the opposite sex or towai-d 
hia own sex. TTc in inclined to think that originally he hul more In- 
clinatir)n for wmueu, hut that tliis sympathy was, in any case, very weak. 
He Hlates with ecrlninty that the sight of a nuked man ni»dc no impres- 
sion on him. and tlmt the sight of male genilnM was even repugnant to 
him. In tlio ea«e of women, this wns n«it exactly tlie case, but he was 
not uxcited sexually even by the most beautiful feminine form. When a 



youug officer, be was dow ami Iben compelletl to avcompniiy bis comrades 
tu brutlivU. IIv w:iH Ibt; mure eniijly pvptumled to thU, »inc« be Uu|m!i1 by 
tliU luviiiis to Ik riii of bU vilo |Mi.rlial)lj t'ur bout«; l>iiL lie was imputcui 
unlchfl lii^ lirmiglit lIia tboii^ht of iKHits in lii.s tiiii. Uiitlt-T aucb oirciini- 
KtiinwH, tbe :ict of cobiiUitAtioii wilm iiortuatly |iL-rrorrne[l, Imt. without 
pleAsumblu fueling. PuLieot full uo iini^ulsu to iiitercuurt^c wilb women, 
Hlwiiya rHi)iitriii>; svuie vxtvni:Ll CHiiKe,^t.?.,p[!t-8Ua»iuii, Lett to liiiiiw-lf, 
bis vilu HVXiinliH coiislstci] in revvliiitf ill iUciis about boots, aiit) in corru- 
Bpoodiug ilreaiiis witb iiulluliuiis. Since more niul iiioru tlieii' beciiiiie 
oounected witb Ibciii tbu ini|)iiltie to kiss liis iMtrvnnt's boot«, to draw 
thom otr. etc., tbc piilietit detennhn.^ to use every m«iiis t;o rid bUii-self 
of tbtfl discounting desire, whieli dcvply wounded bin pride. .\t Unit 
time, being in bis twuntictb yenv, nud iu Purls, lie rccnlled k very beautiful 
penwtinl fjifl. wlio lived in Jiis distant home. Hu bnptid, with her assiBt- 
nucu, to frve biint^iilt* of liix penurM; 4e.\u:d iiieliii:itioii. Hv wuiit dicvctly 
borne, luid tried to win the girl's rnvur. It seemH that the patient was 
not natumlly h<>ni<»>Ki.'xii!il, 1U> itssurtx tbiit iit tliHt tinit; he was iietuully 
in love wiLli tliis p^-rson, ntul that lier gluiice, or the touoli oT lier dix-^s, 
gave him sentiual pleasure; nnd. when ehe om^e klssctl Itim, lie bad n, 
powerfbl erection. After about a ycnr iitu) ii hnlf, the pntieiit succeeded 
in gniuing liiH desire.'* with Ihiu person. 

He wi*s potent, but i'j:icuh»ted liiixHly (ten to twenty minutes), R lid 
never bad a pleusurabic feeling in the »cL 

After about a yeitr And n hftif of scxnnl iiiterconrse wttb this 
girl, bis love for her grew cold, beciLuiic be «lid not find Ium- ho '* fine 
and piire''«3 he wisheil. From this time it w:i.s nucessiary for liim Ut 
call upon ideas aboitt boots for bclp, whicLi bail been latent, in otxler 
to be potfrnt in acxun] intereour»t' wiLh b<.T. In prup<.irLion 114 his power 
fuiled, LliL'Kt} idvtit aruM: >t|MjnU*neoiisl_v. TUen'iiflcr h« li:til t:uilii» with 
other women. Now and then, espeeially when the woranil Was in sym* 
pathy witli biiu,tbc Act took plaee without nny uAAist-itiiee of imngi na- 
tion. It ont^e bap[>eticd that the piitimt committed a th]h\ It in 
remarkablo thai on tliiM single neeas'iun be had a plea.iurablc feeling 
iu tlic (foFL-ed) uc-L Immediately alt«r thu deed be bad n feeling of 
disgust. Wbeu, an hour al'tur the forevd indulgence, Ik- had coitus witb 
tbu saiuu woumii, witb bvr consent, be experienced no feeling of 

With decrease of virility, — i.e., wlien it was preserved only in con- 
nection with idea>> about boot's, — libido for tbe upptmilc sex decreased. 
The patieiitV sliglit libido ami wi-ak iuclinaliou r^T women are evidenced 
by the fact that, while he still sustained sexual reJAtious with the peasant 
girl, he began to masturbate. He learned the rirr from " Koiisseau's 
Confessions," the ]»ook aeeiilentally falling into IiIh liandM. The boot- 
fancies immediately linkei) ibctusclvug witb uorrespoudtng inipulsea. 
He tben bad violent ereutious, maaturbated, aud ejaculation all'ordud 



Iiiiu a lively fueling; of pleuKuru, wUiuli wiis dvuiod to Iiim in coitus; and 
at first lie Tctt him^eir fres^lier and brighter, an u result or tlie masLtirlui* 

Id Utno, liowuvcr, s^'uiiitoiiiu of hoxiiuI, imtl, later, of genenil, 
iicura«tUeiii«, witb spiual irntatiou, nppcttivii. Hv tlieii at Qr;>l gavo 
up iniiKltirliutiun, mid Moiiglit tiiti (irot lovu; but olit* vriia nuw mure tliuu 
ever itiditrorent to him. Siuce liu finally iMicamc iiii|>oteiit, «^-veii when he 
called ideas of buotn to Ills asxistancc, he gave np women cnllrcly, and 
again praotiecd niiLSturlintioi) ; by which he fell liimsclf protL-eted frum 
till! impulse ti> kinn and liliiokeu scrvnnts' boot.H. At Ltie Bnme time, he 
utiiitiiiiied L(i fvL'l that his sexiiul {lOBitiou wa« a paiiiful unv. Uu ag&iu 
oecusioii^lly attempted euiUitt, and waif suceei^frul in it as soon us liu 
thought of bhiekened Iwutx, Too, after cunliuued iibKtii]en4.-e from mns- 
tnrbation, he wag sometimes suueusaful in coitus withutit any artificial 

Tlie patient says that his sexual needs are intense. If ho has not 
lind an L-juCutatiun in a lon^ time, hu becomi-it cungesLiventid psychically 
much excited. ».ud tormented by ri-pu^uunl iitin>;iis of lK>ots, su that liu 
is forced to have ooltus, or, preferably, to mnitturhate. 

For some tiniiit U\n mornl positiun liaH bc<.-n couipHi'ated most pain* 
fully liy the f»i;t [Jiat, as lliu last of n wealthy line oC high position, and 
at the imporLunate liesiits uf bis jKiruuts, bu must mitrry. Thu bride ia 
of rare beauty, and mentally in perfect synipalhy witb him; but, as a 
woman, sbe \» as iiKlilTeruut to him &» any other, .'Kstlietically she sat- 
isHeA him " as a work of art; " in liia eyes, she is an id««l. To honor 
her in a ptntonic way would be hfippineaa worth atrivinfj fur; but to 
ponaeBA her as a wife is n painful tlionglit. He is certain Iwforebami 
timt with her he wilt be impotent, save with tlie belp of ideas of iHiuta. 
To use such means, however, Is in oppositlou to his respect and Uis 
moral and «Mtlielie feeling for llio lady. Were ho to soil ber with such 
thoughts, she would Irinc, in hid eyes, all her R>Hl,lietic vitliie; mid then he 
would become iin]ioteuC for her, and she would become rcpU(^iant to 
liim. The patient considers his position one of dcstmir, and confesses 
that bu has lately been vepcatetlly near suicide. 

He Ihb man of much Intelligence, and decidedly of mnsculiuu appear* 
ancc, witb abundant growth of bvan,l,decp vuiue, and normal genitals. 
The eye Iihh a neuropathic expression. No signs of dcgcuerutiori. 
Syni]itoms of spinal nciUMSthenla. It waa possible to rean^urv the 
patient, and give biin hope of bis fiitnrc. 

The medical ailviee consisttMl in means for comlmtini; the iMQru* 
thenia, and the interdiction of niasturbiition and Indulgence of the fancy 
in images of boots, in the hope that, with the removal of the neuras- 
thenia, cohaljitntion without ide!i« of boots would Itecomu possible; and 
that, in time, the patient would become morally and pbyaiCidly capable 
of marriage. 



In the latter pnrt of October, 1888, the patient wrote mo tbnt be 
bad rtsuluU'ly resistiHl uiiiHliirijatioii niul liis iiiiagitiatioti. In lliu iutei> 
val be lia^l Ijiid but ituv: ilrvMu tibout boulR, uud sctuculji' u pollution. 
He baU Ijveu IVet; from boiiio-»exiiil iiiuliiiatioiis, but, in K(jito of this, 
tburu WHS <>rti5ii conniclerable Hexii»l excitement, wiiliuut nnytbing like 
adequate libulo for women. In tbis tlcplomble situstiun, be was com- 
i^Ued, by cIrcuiORtanccs, to marry in tbrec months. 

2. ffomo-Sextmi IinHvulunhj or Vrmngs. — In distinntioil 
from the preceding f»iou]> ol* psjcliu-aexiial lit;riDui>hrudiU?8, 
there are here, **/; or'ttjint\ sexunl de sires and inclinatio ns Ihr 
persous of the same sex exclusively ; but, in contrast with tlm 
Ibllowing group, the anomaly is limited to the vita aexualis, and 
docs not more deeply and seriously affect the character and 
mental personiility. 

The vita sexualis of these uniiii^s, nmiatis vutiamlin^ is 
entirely like that in normal hetcro-sexual love; hut, since it is 
the exact op|)osite of the natural feeliii{<, it becomes a carica^ 
tore, and this the more, since these individuals, at the Siimc time, 
as a rule, are subject to hyperacsthcsia scxualis, and, tliureibre, 
their love for their own .sex is emotional and fmsNionaLe. 

The uniing loves and deifies the male object of his affec- 
tions, just as a man idealii'^s the woman he love». He is 
capable of the g^rmtest sacrifice fur Iiim, and experiences the 
pangs of unfortunate, often unrequited, love; suffei-s from the 
unfaithfulness of the beloved object, and is subject to 
jealonsy, ete. 

The attention of the male-loving^ man is given only to male 
dancers, artoi's, athletes, t^l^ttues, etc. The sight of li-malc 
charms is indifferent to liim, if not repiil^sive. A naked woman 
is distrusting to him, while the sight of male genitals, hips, etc., 
affords him infinite pleasure. 

The bodily coiitict of a sympathetic man induces a thrill 
of delight; and. since such individuiils are mostly sexually 
neurasthenic, con^rnitally ox from onanism or unfortted absti- 
nence from sexual intercourse, \Lnder such circumstances ejac- 
ulation is very easily induced, which, in the most intimate 
intercourse with women, cannot be induced at all, or only 
by mechauical means. The sexual act with a man, in many 



instances, affords pleasure, and leaves behind a feeling of weU- 
brin^. Sliould t\u- timing^ be able to force himself to coitus, in 
wbich. as a rule, di}«^u«t lias tlie effect of an inhibitoiy con- 
ci*|>t. and luakfs the net imjwKsible, then his ftt-'Iint* is t>onieUiing 
likr that ol' a iiuiii t-oni[H>llcd to t»ke di^^stiii^ food or drink. 
However. c-.\(ierieuce teaches that not inlrL-queutl}' uruings 
falling in thU group marry, either out of ethical or social con- 

Such unfortunates are relatively potent, in that in marital 
iutcn-uurse they incite their ima^naliuu, and. instead of think- 
ing of their nives, tliey call up the image of some loved male 
pervon. But fur tlic;m c:oitU5 is a great sacrificre, and no pleasure; 
and it makes them, for days aller, nervous and nuK'rable. If 
Mich iirnings, by mams of puwcrfid excitation of their imagina- 
tion, or under the InHufMicc of alcoholic <lrinks, or by crectiuiis 
indu<M>d by an overfilled bladder, etc., are enabled to overcome 
the inhibitory feelings and ideas, then they are still entirely iro- 
|K>tent: while ^tmiily the touch of a man may iuduce |>owerfuI 
erection, and even ejaculation. 

Dancing with a n'omnu is unpleasant to an uraing. but to 
dance with a man, especially one with an attractive form, seems 
to him tlie greatest of pleasures. Tlie male urning, in so far as 
he possesses higher riiltni*e, is not op^wsed to non-sexual inter- 
coursewilh women, wlii*n by mind and refinement they niakeron- 
versatiun plea^nt. It is only of woman in her sexual role that 
he lias a horror. Tlie homo-sexual woman offers the sjime mani- 
festations, muUUU mutitndiA. In tliis degree of sexual degen- 
eration, character and occupation correspond with the sex which 
the individual rt-prescnts. The sexual iH*rvcrsion remains iso- 
lated, but an anomaly of the mental bemg of the individual 
which deeply atfects the social existence. In accoiilance with 
thin, many of these individuals, in the sexual act, feel themselves 
iu the rCk which would nalurully belong to them in hetcro- 
Bexual intercourse. 

However, transitions to group 3 occur, in as much as some- 
times the passive role which corresponds with the homo-sexnal 
manner of feeling, is thought of or desired, or at least forms 

the subject nf dreams. Moreover, incLinatious for occuimtious 
and teiidL-iieies of taste are nmnileslcd, which do not correspond 
with the sex of the iadividual. In many nises, one gets the 
irapression that snrli symptoms are artificial, tlic result of educa- 

Itional influences ; in other casus, tliat tliey represent deeper 
acquired degenerations of the original anomaly, iuducetl by the 
pcr^'crse sexual activity (masturbation), analogous to the signs 
of progressive degeneration observed in acquiivd inversion of 
the sexual instinct. 
AVith regard to the manner of sexual sati)^ faction, it must 
be stated that with many male nmings simple embraces are 
sufficient to induce ejaculation, since they are subject to irritable 
weakness of the s(.>xtial aptuiratus. In case of sexual hypcrrcs- 
thesia, and where there is pararsthesia of the moral sense, great 
pleasure is afforded by intercourse witli pensons of the lowest 
Bcoudttiou. On the same basis, desires to commit ^H'dernsty 
(active, of course) and other similar acts occur, though it is btit 
_ seldom, and a]>pareiitly only in cases of moml delect, and by 
■ reason of libido nimia in individuals es|iecial]y jmssinnate. that 
pederast)" is indulged in. The sensual desire of mature uniings, 
\in ctnUradinthu-^thn /mm ohl and decrej/U deiHturhccs, wfto 
15/er borjv {and indtd'fc in petleratty hif prtj/t-reiuyf), seems 
jr to be directed to imi/iudire males. Only for want of better 
material, and in case of violent pa.s.sion,doos the urniug become 
dangerous to lioys. The maruier of sexual satisihrtion in female 
uroiuga may be mutual and jKissive masturbation. To them 
coitus is quitp as disgusting, wearisome, and iuadeiptate as it is 
to the male urning. 

Case 113. Tlie rollowing is nn extract from » very circumstantial 
;Butobiog;ni|<Uy wljich a physician aflfcctiKl with contrary sexual instinct 
liM piiL »t my disposal : — 

" I mil now forty years ol<1, of Iieiillhy family, ' and liavc alnayB 
been healthy and considcn>il a iiiodt:! of pliysicnl and nietital tttrength 
imd energy. I am of powerful build, but have only a moderate beard, 
ami, with tlic exception of linir in tlio nxilliu ami on the mous veneriB, 

1 Lalar U beconu) known Utat » n«wr reUiUw <llnl tOMur, ami, fkutbtr, Ifaat vlfflit at 
bis tnn-tit'« cbUdrou bad died gf acate ot cbroulc bydroccitbaltu at mgv* -isngliig from ona 




my body is hftirlcss. The penia, even Boon after birth unusually lar^, 
menRurcis, in statu orcctioiiis, S4 cciUimctn.'s long by U cunlimctres la 
circumr(!rvm!u. I am il hl{ii1t'ul rider, atlilctu, tiuil swimmer, aud have 
pnssuvl through two grcjit cuuipaiL^iis as n oiilitnry utirgcon. I never 
experienced nny tnste fur femiile nltire iiiitl vtK^ntion. ITp to the time 
orpuboi'ty 1 was shy toward the fuuiHio sex, and I am yet shy with new 

" 1 haro always liad a clUtasto Tor dancing. In my eighth year an 
inclination for my own !<cx iiiiidu its npiieiirHiiee. 1 next experienced«ro ill rogJiixling my brother's geiiitiils. I induced m}' brother to 
indulj^e with mc in inatnal fondling; of the genitals, as n result of which 
I bad an erection. Later, in luithing with tlic sohool-childrcn, tlic boys 
excited a lively jntertist in me; tbe girls, none at all. I hud ko little in> 
terest in them that.aa late am my tifteeiith year, 1 believed tliat they also 
had a penis, Ju company with buy*! like myself, 1 tooit plensuie m 
mutual miiniistupm.tioti. At eleven and a half years I was given a strit't 
tutor, and tbereafler could ateal to my Irieiids but aoldom. I learned 
Tcry easily, bnt could not get along with my teacher ; and when one day 
he made it too hard for me, I became furious and struck at him with a 
knife, and would have gladly stabbed bim, if ho had not fullcn into my 
arms. In my thirteenth year, fur a similar cause, I escaped from the 
tcAcbcr, and wandered about fur i>ix weeks in the nelghborinjr country. 

"I now entered the Oymn-isium. At tiint lime I was already 
sexually developed, and amu!>ed myyetf while bathing with my comrades 
in the way mbovo mentioned, and later by imitatio coitus between the 
thighs. I was then thirteen years old. 1 took absolutely no plojisure 
with girls. Violent erections caused me to play with my genitaLs, and 1 
camo to tak^t my penis in my moutli, which I sncecedcd In doing by 
bending over. This iiutiKvd cjncitlaliun. I thu« lennicd masturbation. 
I wns much frightened, locfkeil upon myself iis :i criminal, and conressed 
to a companion of sixteen, lie encouraged and quieted nie, and entered 
into a love-bond witb me. We were happy, and satislied ourselves by 
muLunl onanism. At tbi; same time, I masturlntled, Ader two yeura 
the biuid was broken ; hut. to this day, when we occasioually meet, — Toy 
friend is » hi^h olllc^ial, — >tlie old firo Itglits up anew. 

" That tiiiiu with iny friend 11. was a happy one, the I'cCnrD of which 
1 would glailiy buy with my UtiuL's bloml. Then life was a pleasure, 
learning waa mere play, and 1 had a feeling for everytlung beautifVil. 

** During this time a phyBieiiin, a friend of my father's, seduced me 
by caressing mu au<l pruuLicing mn?itiirbiilion on me on the occasion of 
a visit, and by explaining the sexual act tci me. He advised idc never 
to practice mHUii^tupratiuu, since it was injurious to health, fie then 
practiced mutual on.-«iii.Hiu with me, and explained that tliis was the only 
way in which he could jH-rform the .lexiiai function, lie had a horror 
ijf women, and, therefore, had lived unhappily with hia deoeMod wiCt, 


Lve me n {iresstng inviLation to vUit bim as often as possible. Tlie 

pbysiuiati was a pompous loivii, rikI tlie fatlier of two suiih ageil fourtcua 
hihI tifteeu respective!^', witb whon] in tbu ^ulluwill^ yvtir 1 eDtercd into 
love-Kl»tioii8 »iiuil»r to tliosc I h:ul willi my fricntt H. 

" I WAS asliiimcd of my inifaiLlifiilnfiHS to liiiii, tniL nt tliu snme cimo 
Dontiinied my rt'liitionK wiUi tlii- pbyKiuiun. Uu prairtiirpd iiiiiluni runs- 
turbntion witli me, sbowetl nic our »pcriunlozoa uiiilci' tbu luicroscoiH', mnl 
l)ornof'raphic works niiil pictiircM, wliicli, liowever, did not [iIuumc inc, bc- 
L-auAu 1 h»d interest only for Diiile form*. On tbe ocuH'iioli of Inter visits, 
ho aski-d me to do biiu a favor wliicli be liad never yet enjoyed, and wbicli 
lip very mnrh desired. Since I lovL-d bim, I aprjuiesofid in everytliing. He 
dilated my anus willi iuatniments,an<l praetiued pederasty on me, mid at 
tbe mme time pert'orined uiaAturbtition, bo tliat I experienced plt>a*tura 
and pain at oiifi*. After this discovery 1 went immediately to my friend 
H., with iliL- tliougiit that ibis beloved man would be able to give me still 
greater pleasure. We practiced pederasty on envh otber, but were both 
deceived, ami did not repeal it; for jiassively I bad only pniii, and 
ataively no pleasure, wbile mntiinl onanism gave n« bolb th« (greatest 
enjoyment Tbereattpr, out of gratitude, I was still frtr^uontly nt tbe 
dtspo«nl of ttic pliysicinn onl^'. Up to my fiftocntb year I jii'acticed 
passive or mutual onanism witb my friend. Now I was quite grown, 
and bud all kinds of sij^iis made to me by women and i;irla; but T fled 
from tbem as Josepli did from Potipbar's wife. At Bflceu I came to 
tbe Capital. I lind but infrerinent opportunity for tbe sntisraction of my 
sexual itielinatlon. 1 reveled in ihv i^igbt of pi4;t.ureii and stiUnes of 
male forma, and could not k<>ep from kissing the Iieloved statues. Tbo 
figdenveH on tbe genitals were my principal annoyaDcc. 

" .A.t seventeen I went to the University. There, again, I lived two 
years witb my friend H. 

" Wbcn I was in tuy eigbteeuth year, wbile in a state of mild intox- 
ication, 1 was set on to bave coitus witb n woman. 1 forced myself to 
it, but imniL-diately aflerward I tied tbe house, overcome with diajruNt. 
Just as afl«r the fir»t active raanii>ittiprRtion, I bad a feeling as if I bad 
committed a crime. On the occasion of another attempt, while in a 
sober condition, in flpile of every elfort of a iHtauliful naked girl, 1 could 
not i;et an erection ; ihongh the mere sight of a Imy or tbe toiicli of a 
man^a hand on my tbigb, would always throw my petiis into violent 
urection. A short time befoi-«, my friend H. bwil bad a similiir expe- 
rience. Ill vain we racked our brains to discover tbe reason for it. 
Now 1 let women alone, and found enjoyment with friends in passive 
and mutual onanism, among others with botli the aons of tbe physician, 
who bad used them for jwderasty after my departure. 

" When nineteen years old, I made the acquaintance of two gCDaiHQ 
umings ; — 

" A., aged 66, of effeminate appearance, beardless, of small endov* 




taeat menully, pogflening a pAwerful aexoal desire Uutt h*A bMO muii- 
fesled almunnally early, tud indalged in arnJngw* lore siace his sixth 
jresr. Oaoe a inuiitli lie visttnl Uie CapiuL I bad to aleep wiifa him. 
He waa insatiable iu matual onaaisoL, and made me take part in actire 
awl pnMive pedeimstjr. wbicti waa an oopleasguic jmrt of tbe bar^n 

'* B.,a invrcbaut,aged36,orinaHCulineBppearmaoefinisaapa58iooale 
as I was. Ue knew bow to make his manipuUtiuoa on mu such a stim- 
aloM tbst 1 had to s«rT« bim passirtrtv in peilerastv. Be was tbe only 
one wilb whom I er«r bad aiij jilwuturv in ]iia»aivc pederasty. lie cud* 
liessed to me that when he but k»«w that I w»» near, be had the most 
painfbt erectinns ; and that when 1 could not serve him, be was fx>mpeUed 
to satisfy hifa'<olf by mastnrhatioD. 

" While puniuing thet^e lare-afTnirs. I wntt clinical assistant io hos- 
pital, and was considered ambitiuus and ekiUfid in my work. 1 naturally 
aougbt tbrongbout litemtiire for an explanation of my sexual |>ectdisrity. 
I found it in part an a crime deserring punisliment, while for myself 1 
conld only recognize in it the natural tt^tiBfaction or my sexual desire. 
I wasawnn- that ibis was congenital willi mp. Hut ft^Jing ra^'iiclf in oppo- 
sition to tbe « bole worM, ufleu near insanity ami suicide. 1 again suugltt 
to satisfy my powerful sexual dceire witL women. Tbe result was always 
Ibe same, — either want of suFBcient erection, or, when it U'Came possible, 
to force myself to tbe act, disgust and horror of its repetition. As a 
military snrgeon, I suiTered terribly from tlie sight and touch of thousands 
of naked male forms. Fortunately. I formed a loTe-bond with a litto- 
tenant affected similarly, and passed again n time of happiness. For 
love of him I consented to pederasty, for which he lon>:ed. We loved 
each other until lie lost his life at Sedan. From th»t lime I never gave 
myself to active or p4ts«iv« peilerasty, although 1 had many lovo-affhirs, 
and was » )M>rfton much sought. 

"At twenty -lliree 1 went to tbe cmintrv as a physician, and was 
sought and e^itccmvil. 1 satisfied my>ielf with l>oys over fonrtcen. I 
interested myself in political affaire, and made au enemy of tlie clergy- 
man, and, being betnyetl by one of my lovers, was denounce<) and com* 
pelled to flee. Tlie legs! investigation, furtunnlcly, did me no harm, I 
was able to return, but I was greatly shaken; and I went to the war 
(1810) nn a soldier, in tbe hope of meeting my death. I returne<1, how* 
ever, with many distinctions, much matnred ; ami 1 fouml still more 
pleasure In earnest work in my prnfe-snion. I hnjied tliat tbe extioction 
of my excessive sexual desire was near at hand, exhausted by tbe great 
bardsbijM of tbe campaign. 

"Scarcely bad i recovered, when the old unbounded desire n^ain 
appeared, and led to new unbridle^l siili* faction. Of course, I often 
thought of it; but my inclination, so revolting to the world, did not seem 
eo to m6. 



" For ft year, by means of llic giienteH exercise of my will, 1 al>- 
Btaincd ; tUon I went to the Cnpitiil to I'arre myself to cohabit witli n 
woman. I, wlio iit the siglit of tbc dirtiest ra^miiflln lind pjunfiil ereo- 
tiotiB, could Bciirueiy iixiuve one witb llic most beaulifiii woin^ii. Over* 
Come, I rcturacil liouic luu) obtained a young luati-servuut for my [)er«oiial 
service and Mtisfaction. 

" 'riie Solitude of life a» a country pUyoician, nud the longing for 
children, dro«-c mo. to mniTiii^e ; besides, I wislicil to ninkc an end to 
gossip, niid I hoped dLially to triumph over my fatal desire. 

'■ I knew a young jfirl, of whose re8|)L'ct nnd love for me I was con- 
vinced. Tlu'ou'^ti my usLei'tii iind hotior fui* my wife, I wiis ennbled to 
perform the conjugal duties, and begat lour boys. The boyish «iipcajt__^ ^ 
unco of my wife was of cHectunl assifltaucc. I called her my ' Raphael.' p^ 
1 foreed into my ftmey tmn^e» of boya, in oiiler to induce erection. If / 
my fancy ce.isei) for a nioineiit, the erection fniled. I was unable lit--* 
sleep witli my wife. Within tbc lust few years coitus hna become con- 
Rtantty more diltlciilt to attain, and for two years we have given up all 
atteniptn. My wife kriow^ my nientnl condition, and her esteem nnd 
love for nie may Iwcome estnuij,'etl. 

'• My Hexual inclination for my own sex is unelianged, and, unfor- 
tunately, too uden forces me U> become unlrue to luy wife. To tbiH day, 
the sight of a youth of sixteen puts me into violent sexnni excitement 
with piiinfiil erectionH, so tbiitoccnKionall)' I am compelled to help mynelf 
with m»niL4ti)pr.ition of litra and onanism on myself. 

'* The ftutfcrings I endure arc Indescrible. Friule de mieuXy I hare 
my wife practice mannsuipration on me ; but what my wife's hand ai-com- 
ptivsbcs with great effort in LalC an hour is produced by the hand of a 
boy in a few sccoikIh. Thus I live, raiHcrable, k slave of the law and of 
my duty to my wife I 1 never hud pleasure lu active or pH^sive pederast^'. 
ir I ever practiced or mitfered it, It w;is only from gratitude or desire to 

The physician to whom T owe tlie prtTcdinj^ autobiography 
HRRiirf's mi? tliat hp, up ir t]iis titne, lias had sexual iiitcrrourse 
uitii at least six liuiidrtid iniiJn^s. There were, indeed, many 
among- them who to-tlay occupy Iiigh and respected |x>sitions. 
Only abovit ten per cent, of them came later to love women. 
Auotlirr pirtion did not avoid women, but were more inclined 
to their own sex ; the remainder were cxelu.sively and lastingly 

This physician assorted that among the six hundred he 
never found abnormal Ibimalion of the genitals : but there were, 
however, frequent approaches to tlie Ibmale form, as well as in* 



complete prowtli of hair, delicalc complexion, and higher voice. 
Development of the mammic was not infrequent. He asserted 
that from his thirtoenth to his fifleenth year he bnd milk m his 
raammfe, nhich his friend H. sucked out Only about ten per 
cent of tliis number showed iiu-Unation for female occupadons, 
etr. All his acquaintances were affr<'ted with a sexual desire 
that was abnormally powerful, and made its appearance abuor* 
mally early. The vast majority felt themselves &S the man in 
their relations with the olfier, and satisfied themseh-es by mutnal 
onanism, or hy mannstupration on the (lerson of the lover, or by 
mosturliation at his hands. The majority were inclined to active 
pederasty ; but very frequently the law and ssthetir feeling were 
reasons for the non-performance of the act. Those feeling them- 
selves toward the others as women were few, and the inclination 
to passive pederasty was very infrequent. 

Id the beginning of 1887, tliift physician was arrested for baving 
coinniited :icts of indecency on the {>crfu>ns of two boys nn.ier foiirU^n 
jeam. The crimo consisted in his hnving first rubbed mcDlulain pro- 
prfam inter feinoni riri until eJHCiilstio, nnJ the snme prooedure cum 
mentiiln propria int4>r r<;niora ptieri. At the examination it was recog- 
nized thnt nn ubnorniBl instinct was in play, though, nt tlic same time, it 
was sliown thnt the culprit was not mentally unsound, nnd not deprived 
of free will ; nt least, he had not act«d in oheiiicnce to an uncontrollable 
impulse. Then-rore, he waa sentenced to prison for one year, the mildest 
possible punishment. 

Case 113. Mr. X.,Hangnrlan, tnercbnnt, consulted tne on account 
of neurasthenia and itleeplcHHneHS, whit^h Imi) existed for years. The in- 
vestigation of the CHU»« of his trouble led the jKitiont to confess that ho 
had an abnormal sexual instinct for his own sex, that he was very pas- 
•ionntu. and that his nervous trouble miuhl well come from that. The 
fallowing, tskvn from the hiiitor}' of this intelligent patient, possesses 
•cientilic interest ■.'— 

" My abnormn! sexual instinct reaches bnck to my childhood. 
WhcTi throe years ohi. I got bold of a journal of rasliions. The beautiful 
inctnrcs of the men I kissed until the pnper was torn to tatters, but I 
paid no nttcntiou to the female Ggnres, I did not like to play with bo^'s. 
I preferred to play with girls, because they alwayti had dolls. 1 espe- 
cially liked to cut out doIU' clothea ; anrt to-day, in spile of my thirty- 
three years, dolls still possess an interest for roe. When a boy, for 
hoars I wonlrl lurk about available places, in order to get a sight of male 
genltsls. When 1 succeeded, a strange, dizzy feeling came over lue. 



Weak, unattractive men or boy« mnde no iiupreMion on me. At thirteen 
I began to innMl.iir)>»to. From my tliirtt'cntli till iny fifleentU yeRr, I 
slept will) a ImntiHomc young nuiu. Tliatj van h»ppinr;<)<). Hoiita »i a 
time at nigbt, ivitli erections, I wonld wait for bis return. K In bed he 
cUancecl to touch iny genitalia, it gave inu deli^^lit. At friiirlL'on I bad a 
scliool-nintu wbiisu iuatiucU were lilic my own. For hmtvs m :i iJtue, dur- 
ing MSlioot-bours, we held encb outer's genitals. Ah, those were liappy 
hours I Af oflt-ii «<« I could, I lingered in bnth-houses. Tlmt ww 
idways a ft.-».«t for ine. The tii(;ht of male genitals indticvd violent ereo> 
tionfl. At sixteen t came to tlic raetropolifl. Seein}; »o tniiny hand- 
Rome men charmed lue. In my eightecnlli yenr i attempted roitna 
with a proHtitutK, hnt disjriist and fear made it imponailjle. Other 
RtUMnpta vera ruihircs, until my ninctcentli yvn.r, when I tried again 
with success; but the act allbnied me no pleasure, rnlber inducing & 
feeling of di^ust. 1 conquerv<l myself, and was proud of my success 
at l>cini; A man, whirrli I liiul graduidly bL-gnn to doubt:. 

" 8ub(ae<pieut utleuipts were uo longer succesKful. The disgust was 
too great. When the woman wns undressing, it became necesMiry, on 
account of my fpeling of rKpugnnnoe, U* put out the light. 1 now con- 
sidered myself impotent, connult^'d physicians, nnd visited lintha and 
saniUiriums to cure my supposed irai>otcnce; for I still did not know 
what to think of it. I took pleasure in the society of Indies, peril apH 
out of conceit; for I impn>BS<Ml uiohI ladles ns being syni|)ntlietic and 
nmiable ; but 1 valued in tlu^m nothing more than nientitl and reathetJo 
qualities. I Itkcd tu iltince with tlieni ; but if one pi'CKsed against me in 
ilancing, I experienced n feeling of re|tngnance, luul i^ven disgust, and 
felt like striking livr, IT in joke I hnppoied to dunce with a gentleman, 
I always took the |>nrt of the lady. I wonld presit and rub against him, 
and take a [wrfect delight in it. When I was eighteen, a gentleman who 
came into the ofllce, saul. ' That Is a fine youth; in the East he would 
bring a |>onnd sterling every time I' 1 puzzled ruy head over that. 
Another gentleman liked to joke with me, and steal kisses of me as be 
wns going away, which I would have given htm only too gladly. He 
afterwnnl Liec^ine my lover. These circumstances excited my attention, 
And I waited for nn op|>ortunity. 

" When I was twenty-five years happened that a man who was 
formerly a Capucine monk becnuie attracted to me. For me he was like 
a Mephistophelcs. Finaily he spoke to me. To this day 1 can almost 
feel the ben.tin<r or my heart that be caufted me; I almost laioted. Ue 
made a rendezvous for that evening at n public lionsc. I went, but at the 
threshold I turned luiuh, nfraid. On the next evening be met me again. 
He overcame my scruples, and took me to his room. I was scarcely able 
to walk for cxoitement. My seducer made roe sit on his sofa, and, smll* 
ing at me. he fixed hi^ wijuderful hlni.'k eyes on me, and I lost conscious- 
oes». This delif>lit, this ideal, divine sense of pleasure that filled my 



nliole being. — I could write too miirh nbout it. I think only an innocent 
yoiitli, ov«r Iiead and enn* in love, who lor tin- Pifst time has his love's 
longing rtilQlk-ii, could he as hnppy as I vix» ihiit uight. My seducer 
ilematKle^t my life, in j»ke; but 1 at fir»t tliouglit liim in earnest. I 
hedged him to let itiv be li»i<py for » Limv, jiikI then, iiiittod to liim, I 
wntild end my life. Tt would imve bex;n entirely in acordnnce with the 
high-dowi) ideiLs I entertained nt that time. For Qvc yenrd after tlint, I 
kept lip n reldtion with tlie num. who Is still so dear to ine. Oli, how 
liappy^and yet, often, Uow ujiliiippy, I was diirtn*^ those years 1 If I but 
saw bim ttpexk to a hnndsome young niun, I bccamu wildly jealous. 

'•When twciity-stfven, I bet-jiiiie engaged to n young Indy. Her 
mind HTul ffistlietic reeling, as well rh fluaiieiitl cotisMlerslioiiB, induced me 
to tbluk of mnrriage. At the aama time, 1 am very fond of childreu, and, 
whenever I meet even the commonest day-laborer and bis wife and a 
pretty child, I riivy thv in.tu hirt good fortiuie. Thus I miide a fool of 
mj'self. I nmnnged to get through tlic timn of courtship; whon kissing 
my bride 1 felt more anxiety and fca.r tlutn pleasure. Ou one or two 
oecasions, however, after luxurious dinners, while kissing lier pas-tinn- 
stely, ] lind erfulioiis. How luippy 1 was at that I I saw myself already 
t, father. 1 twice csiue utni' br<.*aking oti' tbc engagement. On uiy mar* 
riage^tuy, when all the gue^^ts bitd asitenihled, I locked myHvlf in u room, 
cried like s child, and fett th:it I could not proceed with the ceremony. 
At the persuasion of alt tbc ("elntivcs, to whnm I made the l)e!it excuses 
that occurred to me, I allowed myself to be taken, in ordinary street- 
costume, to tlio nhtvr. 

'" As greii.t good fortune would have it, at the time of the murri^e, 
my wife was menstruating. Ob, bow thankful I was for this excuse I 
I am now cooviucf-d that tliia cironnostancc is all that nuule later cohab- 
Itation possible. How it later liecame pttsslblc for me to colmbit with 
my wife, and have u lovely boy, I do not know. He is Ihe. comfort uf 
my ruinetl life. I can only timiik God for the hnppincHS of having a 
child. I was a checit, so to speak, in the nmrriage-bed. My wife, whom 
I rospeet for her high qualities of character, has no suspieion of my 
condition, but ^lie olYen complains of my coldness. With her gooilness 
of heart and simplicity, it was |>o8sibte for mc to make her think that 
the conjugal duty should Iw perforined bnt once a month. Since she is 
in nowiHC sensuiil., and I can find excuse in my nervcuisnesa, I am 
Rucccssful iu Uceping up the swindle. Cohabitation is the greatest sae- 
riflce for me. TJy tRkingconsidernble wine, and by making use of the erec- 
tions which occur in the rnoming, as the result of an overfilled bladder, 
it is possible for me to perform coitus once a month ; but it atTords me 
no pleasurahle feeling, and I am worried and experience an incrcftsfi of 
my nervous dilliculties all ibiy long after it. The cnnseiousness of 
having fulfilled my duty towani my wife, whom Iu all other i-cB|iects I 
love, affords me moral consolation tiud Batisfaction. With a man, it is 



otliprwifie. Willi liim I can iwrrorin tlin act several times in a nigbl, 
always takii)}^ tlie BL>\iinl rule of u iiiiin. In tills, 1 uxpvriuiice tbe great- 
est plensiire, the purest linppiness. 1 f<wl myiflf refrefflietl hrcI inrigor- 
Rted hy it Of liit«, my <lc»iru for niuii lias soniewlml ilecrciwed ; in 
fact, I linve coiirnge even to n.%'oul a linndsomc yoiin^ mnn that 
approaclics me. Will it last? I fear not. I am ahsolutety unable to d/t 
witlioiit male love; if I urn comi»L'IIetl to forego it, I beeoiiie liupresswl, 
feel n'i-ary and iui)4crable, ami have pitin and preiioui'c in iiiy head. 1 
have nlnrnys regaixled my pitiable |>ec:uliarity as Buin<Ftliinff congenital, 
and I TTould foe! happy if [ bad only not married. I pity my good wife. 
Often the fear seize* me that I cannot endorc it with her longer; then 
thoughts about divorce, Buifidc, nud flight to Americn come to me." 

No one seeing the jHitieat to whom I owe this communicHliou 
would suspect his condition. His outwar<l apireiirnnce in, in all respects, 
masculine ; lie ha» a wclE.<levelo[)e<I, full heArd.str'nignnd deep voice, vtn<\ 
normal genitals. Tlie omnium is normally formed; signs of degenera- 
tion fli-e abioliitcly wanting, and only an exi|uisilely nervous eye makes 
one suspect a neiirojmtliic condition. The vnjji'talive organs perform 
llieir fnrictions noriiuUly. Tlie puticiit prcseiiU ihu usual symptoms of 
a neurasthcuin, which may, in all essentials, be ascribed to sexual 
excesses with persons of his own sex, in a m.-»n ahn^rmiiily passionnt**; 
and to the injurioua influences of forced, though infrequent, coitus with 
the wife where horror femlnie oxtsta. 

Tlie patient dcchirea ihat he comes IVom hcftUhy pnrcnts, and thiit 
he knows of no neuroses or mental disease in his ancestry. His elder 
brother was married three years. There vtm a sciinratiori, because the 
husband never hiul sexuwl intercourse with his wife. He married a 
second lime, Tlieseconil wife nko complained of neglect on tli« (tart of 
the hueband ; but she had four children, concerning whose legitimacy no 
dofibt was ever iiiiseil. A sister is liysteropntliic 

Tlie patient sayK that, when n young man, lie suffered with momen- 
tary at-Licks of dizziness, during which it seemed to him as if he were 
.iboilt to die. He says Ihnt lie h:»* always l>een very excitable and 
emotional, and nn enthusiast for the arts, e8]>ecially poetry and music. 
He himself designates his <-li.'ir;icter fl« entginntical, nhnormsl, nervous, 
restless, cxti-avagaiit, and iindwided. He is often exalted witltout real 
reason, Hud then agnin depressed, even to thoughts .of suicide. He may 
, pass through quick and sudden changes, — " religious and frivolous, 
' optimistic and cynical, cownnliy nn«l brave, creilulons, ami.ible, and sua- 
pioions ; inclined to do others hnrm, and sorrowful to tear» over the 
misfortunes of others ; and with this.gencrons to excess, and then again 
mtserlv a la ilarpagfin.'" Tlio pntlent is certainly a tainted individual. 
He seems to be very well endowed intellectually, and, as he says, to have 
learne<l easily, and been among the first at school. 

The marriage of this man was not happy. Notwicliatanding the 



fftot tliat it w.'t« iHit vt-ry iiifivqiienMy lliitt he perronncd the inndeqmitc 
and Injurious noxual net witli his wife, nrid tlint bo sought mod Tound a 
snlmtititto in male lovers, he vemniiieil neiimsllienic. Hm tlisca»i>, nt 
titi)«ti, preHeiilK marked i>?cncvrbnli(iiiH, even miiiiifusiiiig itsulf in despnir- 
ing clci>rt;8siuii ubuiit his tuntriiiioiiial, sexual, nml mentnl condition, 
which even extends to violent tiediniu vit«. 

His Trite \tci-nmc hy^tcrnpnUiic adiI Rnsniic,ani) tlie patient Attributed 
this to scximl nbstincnco. Try as lie wotitd to I'orcc liiinncir.or Inle yearn 
Iin has not lieen able to perform coitna, crcrtion failing completolj ; 
while, in iiiK-ruotirse with male lovura, he in very potent. 

The son of tliesH tinfortiniiiLe jmrentti, who i» now over nine years 
old, dcreloiw* well, Tlic patient adds that formerly, in coitn« with hi* 
wife, ho was potent only when he thought of a lielovcci iniin. (From the 
antlior's " Lehrh. der I'syehiiitrie.*') 

Case 114. Antobioyrapfit/. " Tho writer of this is a congenital 
iirninp;. If 1 have not oonsortetl with other un\inf^<t, nevertheless, I am 
fnlly informed of my condition ; for it hns l>een my lot to see almost all 
litcrntiiriMHi thu BubJecL A tihurt Uuie hj^o, your work, ' I'sychopathia 
SexuaLis.' was sent to roc. I saw in it that you were working and study- 
ing wtthotit prejudice in the interest ot science and hiiinanity. 

*' ir I eaniiol tell you innrli that is new, yet I will speak of ft few 
thingH which I trust you will reeei%'c an one more stone V> he used by 
you In your work; wliieli, I am confident, wilt, in your hands, aid in 
Baving UH. 

'* When you presume that there is ofttMi an hereditary tainted con- 
dition, fwrhnpa yoii uix* ri^ht. My father wnn subject to spinal disease 
before my birth ; Inter, he beeame inentatly tinftoiind,Hiid took his own life. 

" Another point, which I am inclined to doLiItt, is the one mentioned 
by you in another ptnce, — i.e., that onnnism practiced from youth may 
lead to jKirverne Instinct. . , 

" I (merehnnt, owner of n «mnll husiness. unmarried) am in the be- 
giDoing of my thirtieth year. I nm nppnrently healthy, and show i^carculy 
a devinliun from tlie normal maseiiline tyj>e. The first sexual impulses 
were immedint,t>ly and exclusively directed to the male Hex, and I experi- 
enced tliem from my tenth year. I have masturbated since my Iwelflh 
jTwr. Since, in spite of all attempts, coitus with women was always 
ahBohitcIy impossible for me; and since I Imve never had defiire for 
women—on tlie contrary, rather aversitin; and since my attempts have 
never resulted in the slightest erection, I have been compelled to sati&fy 
myself by oimiusin. 

"If now 1 am to conf&as the manner of my sexual satisfoctiOD, I 
may aay tlint in my curlier years my]iil* and companions ex- 
cited me sexually. Now my impulse consists in a desire for boya of 
about ten, but mostly for youths of from fifteen to twenty years. 

"■ For a long time, strong and healthy oadets, of Oiie form, bare had 



n pnrticiilnr clinrm Tor me ; nnil by Uu-ir linni1»omc iinirorni.iand fine |in<H- 
Qiice lliGy cBi^euinlly n^ciU) my iletiin*. I liiive no oitportntiity to H|)[iront!U 
tljtin,orcvcn to enter into tiistiuit social intei-cuiirse with thera; but I am 
com|>elleil to Hiitifirv myself with following lliem in tlio titrevtt) »tiil 
Mliiares ; or in ivstuiii*»iit.«, lioi'!*»--C!ir» or r»ilw»y^i by gittinj:; iii;:ir tbeni, 
and, vhen it i.s |K>»sible to do it uiiiiotice<1, under snnb cirtMimfltauccKr 
by pnictiringouniiism. My most nrdent wish baa ofton been to become 
tlie TrieiKl, servant, or julnvu of sncb n young ninn. 

" 1 b»vu iit'ver uvuii ilri^niod of direct pcdurasty ; my desire tiaa 
always been Imdily oontnct, embrace, manusLiipration of uiy genit&ls by 
toy lovtT, nnd, on rny part, n ki** on hi>4 genitnln or iH>dex. 

" ] i>fl«n bnve tlic desii*e, bowovcr, to represent 8iu-hei-Mnsocb in 
his' Venus in Fiir«.' Tircre a man makes bimnetf tlic voluntary slave 
of a woman, nn<l rct.O>t nil inteURe Lbrlll of lustful ]>1cii3nrc, If lie jfl only 
clmstiBtnt mid luimilinted by her. Uiit> I nnlnrnlly I'ef] lliiit I could, under 
uo circum&tatiees, become the slave or a woman, but only of n iu»n ; more 
cori-eetl\'. of a yuiiu); man ; one. bowovcr. for whom 1 should liave !iucli 
an infinite love that 1 could give niyitelf uji entirely to bis mercy or 

" The lustful images that float before my mind in nuiatnrbBtion are 
those of tliiH or llint young uihu tliat 1 have just seen. As a sad ami 
incomplete substitute, 1 pmctlce Lliis onanism conntautly. 

'* I pa»« into a lustful dream in tbi» iray (and I »oy nil liere, because 
1 widb to write only the truth and the whole truth) : I choose a young 
man tlmt pLcises nie by bin ri>i'in,nnd in imntitnntlon give myttelf up to 
involuntary olM-Hiiciice to him. I ira.-iginc tlmt bewislics to humiliate me, 
and that be commnud^ me, for example, to kis-i b!.i feet; or eoin|>cl9 me 
to RUii'Il UU Slicks. For want of the de«iiTd arttiality. 1 take my own 
aocliB, smell of tlic-rn, tuke tlicm into my mouth, rub them over my geni- 
tals, and immediately erection and ejaculation, with sensual pleasure, 
take place. 

" Yes. I nm so dominated by thin mental imagery that 1 imagine 
that thfl yoiing rnnn in my confcx'^or, and. in order to hnmiliatr me, ordem 
me to cat of Ids excrement. Here again, in vcAiit of actuality, I eat of 
my own excivment. but only in 8n>nll quiiiitity. Then, witb an imperfect 
feeling of <lisgiiot. and violent palpitation of the heart, erection and 
ejarulntidii Ltke place. 

" However, I come to this vile, feverish imagery and the pcrform- 
ancp of tlii>?«e nets, only when it Iuir not been possible for me for a long 
time Lo satisfy my»eir Uy onanism in the immeilintc vicinity of a young 

"Tldsisforme more naturiil. iMwau-^n 1 1 hen have more ple:isure, and 
experience a more pt^rlVct pbysical and mcnl.'d Intnclll, even though my 
ideal of actual and direct antisfaution in mutual understanding were 
never to be accorded me. 



" I nimoftt 1)e1icvc thfit t.lie nlHtro-tncntLoncd dlAKUsttiig {mag^^M'T 
only the isvil reHiiU of CdiiHtJiiit want of iiniinfi.1 sntmfftction, — i.t;.. of my 
normal satisfnctioD as an uriitng ; aiul tliat wltli ii rugiilar sntiaracLioil, 
body tg hndy, tlie imagery that becomos almost insane would be loss 
intense, mtd c^rtniiily woultl not go to such extra vagance. Or it i» Uie 
ultimate reanlt of an aitcmpt at ali«tint>nce ; for these idiotic, senHual 
images only come after a long iierEod of it 

'* 1 lielieve, imlecd, tlnrtt. nniliT other social eonditione, I aliniild \te 
capable of ^rcat ami nolilo love and Hflf-MK-fidee. My tlninghlH are in 
no way exclusively earntil or tliseasttl. How often, at the sight of a 
handsome young mnn, a deep feeling of impatience seizes me, and I 
breathe at once tbe sweet words of Ileine : — 

" ' Du bill wfe viae S1niii«, ao hold, ao >cii&n, so rrin,' ntc^ 

" And once, wlicn I was compelled to ]>ftrt with a young man who 
bad lionored and valued mc as Ins fi-ivml and protf^etor, tl)rviii:li my love 
had remaine<l nnknowii to him, those fine vcrBes Ijy Schetfel kept passing 
through my niiud, eapfclally the last, — miilutiii muUttuHs: — 

" ' Oruu wk- tli^r Hliuuicl, eluhl vor inlr dio Wt-ll, 
Diwli viemV ■■* rli-li xuiii (lillcti mli^r BObch, 
On, tiplif r pTviiiid, III Tivueu lifiik' lih Delu t 
Hi'Imt Dir.ti (Iiitf. I tin war' xii m-tiOn |u;i7«t«M>n, 
Bcbiit Dicb GotI, ca hut ali:bt mIIcu buIu I '■ 

" I have never inde|>endcntly revealed my love to a young man, and 
hare never spoiUKi or injured one morally; hut I have, now and then, 
made the wnyeiisj' fur many. Under sueh eireiimstancca, uothlug Is too 
mueh troulilc, nnd 1 obtain vielims as only I eau. 

"When I have an opportunity to have such a beloved friend about 
mc, to edncale, protect, an^l help, if my recognized love find a (natural, 
nnsexuai) return, then all my diAgu>jtiiig mental imagery giowR leas and 
le»» inten^M; ; tlieu my love beeomeit almost ])liiU>nic and euuob]od,to sink 
again Into tlio mire when this worthy mitisfaetion in rtnnoveil. 

**A9 for the rust, and without over-estimating myself, I may say 
that I am tiut one of Itie worst of un-ii. Brighter mentally than the 
»vern;;e man, I take interest in all tliat moves humanity. I nm amiable. 
and easily mo\*ed to pity, and am incapable of doing any animal, much 
lesa a man, an injury ; luit, on the contrary, do good wherever I ean. 

*' When I have nothing to reproaidi myself with in my own con- 
science, and must, at the stame time, set myself in op|>oaitIo» to tbe 

1 " Tbon ftrt llkn Aiiy flowi>r, sa swr-tt, ito ItcciiUfuI, to pare," cle. 

* " 1>3wc-rli>]f llko ilic lipiivoni>, fhiwiiB the world on me, 
Tct blest or viinwtl will bv itie fnle I incvt. 
WIUi tntfifiig hf-nrt, iWr Tripnil, I tlilntc of ihix 1 
OcmI kM|i Uit«, ilmr I 11 would bnvn b(<cri Uxi Kweot I 
God koop tbec, dear I mch baitplDCM wu out b> tw ]" 


judgment of Itia world, I suffer very miioli. Indee<I, 1 have done no 
one Imrm, iind ( considpr my love, in ita noblvst activity, to be quite as-i 
holy aA tbnt of a luiruml man ; but, with tlic imhn|i|)y lot whicli impa- 
tience and ignomncc cnst upun us, I sutTer creu to tbe extent of tiedium 

"No pen, no tongue otin deMriboKll tUe misery, nil the unhnppy 
HititationA, the constnnt fear of Luring this peculiarity recognized, and 
of l>cin}f eist from society. The one thoujflit that, aa aonn as recognized, 
one's esitttcnce would be lot^t, nnd he wuLild bu oai^t nwiiy from all, is as 
t«rribltt an tiuy thought can b«. Thuu ali llie goml time one liud ever 
(lone wouUI be forgotten ; then, in the pride of his grunt iiu>nillly, every 
uormal man w<jutd be moved to scorn, even though he himself had bcuu 
never ho frivolous in his own love. 

"Then what doca our misery amount to F Wc may,ciirf*iug man, 
end our iuib:ippy lives. Truly, I oftcii lung for the qniet of an asylum. 
My life may end when it will, the quicker the better; I am ready. 

"■^ Tu refer to one muri; {mint : I also lielievc, like the others that 
Imre written to you, that our nervousness is first flequircd as a result 
of our unhappy, unspeakably misi^rable life among our fellow-vreatureH. 

"And still another: You write, at the conclusion of your work, 
concerning the repeal of tbe legal onactnionts concemed. Indeed, 
humanity would not he destroyed if they wer« repealed. In Italy there 
is no suL-h law, as far as I know; aud Italy is not a wildRrne»iii, but a 
cnltivatpd nation. 

" As for myself, compelled a.s I am to undermine my life by onati- 
ism, the law could nut touch me; fur I have never sinned agiunst it in n 
letter. But, at the ftamw lime, 1 sulfcr under lliu accucst-d suoru to 
which We arc ttiibJccCcd. How can the idcaa of society ix changed, »o 
long as there is a law whioli strenglhens it in its immorality? The law 
must, of coui-s*', correspiiiid with public opinion; but it should not be in 
harmony with the crroneuUH opinion of iguurance, hut oidy in accord 
with the ideas of the bvKt and most suieutJIic thinkers, — not with the 
wJKh and pn-judice of the vulgar. True thinking minds ouuuot much 
loii<{er l)e HatiAliod with the old idea. 

" Pardon me, Professor, if t close without a signature. Do not 
try to Ami me. I cuild LctI yuu itothing more. I give you these linefi^ 
in the interest of future surTercrs. Publish from them, in the interest 
of science, truth, and justice, what seems tu you to be necessary.'* 

Case 1 15. On a summer evening, at twiliglil, X. V.. a ]>by!*ician of 
a city in North Germany, was detected by a watohmau while committing 
a misdemeanor with a countrymaD in a Held. lie was practicing mtuttur- 
bation on him, and then nientulani alius in osaunm iiumisit. X. escaped 
legal prosecution by (light. Tim authurltii-M disniissMl the complaint, 
because there had been no publicity, and because immissio mumbri in 
sxiuui bad not taken place. Among X.'s etiects was found an extensive 



corrcHpondence uf n perverse scxiinl clini-ocU-r, wbicb allowed ttint tip 
li:ul bad jierveriH! intervuiirvu fur >-t:nr« with al) cUiBses of ]H)0|>)c. 

X- came uf A neurotic family. liis pnterDnl grirndfatber died by 
suicide wbilu iiiitiine. His fatber wa« a weak, |jet:uliar mau. Oiio )>rothfir 
nia«turbat«d nt tbe xf^e of two. A cousin wns aexiially i)crver»e, nitd 
|>raf:tic(^l perverse acts, similar to those of X., vrbilt! n youth ; be iMH^ame 
wcuk-mindt!d, and died of spinal disease. A |Httemal greuL-inicle wgis an 
bermapbrodile. I{is uiutbvr's sister was insiuie. His nioUier is siiid to 
have been hcallby. X.'a biolber is uurvous and iiUiwiblc. 

X., liktiwiso, Was nervous ns a cbild. The mowing of a eat would 
ereaCe great fear in bim ; and if one but itnitateit tlie voice of a cut, he 
would cry bitterly, and run to others for jirot^Httion. Sli^^ht (ibysical dis< 
Uirbanee eniined viulenl fever. He was a nuiet, ilreiimy cliild, of exuit*- 
ble imagiituliun, but of si i^' lit mental eajmbilitics. He did nut indulge 
mucb in boyish games; he preferred feminine pursuits. It gave bim 
especial pleasure to curl liie bair of the house-nniid ur of bin brother. 

At ihiiteen X. went to an Institute. There he piTicticed mutual 
mnfttiirbation, seduced UIs comrndcs, and, by bts cynical conduct, made 
tbcra unmiinageablc : so that he had to be taken home. At tiuio 
tbc [larenlti found luvc-lelters wilb lascivious contiuittt, sliowin^ perverse 
sexuality. Kiuui Ibu age of scvcntccu he sLudicd under the strict sur- 
voilUuice of a professor in a Gymnasium. Ue made but sad progress io 
learning. Hv liad only a talvnl fur music. 

After fiiii-sliing his (studies, Ibe patient entere<l the Cniversity, at 
tb« age of nineteen. There lie attracted attention by bis cynical cbarao- 
tcr and bi& association with young person."* who were thongbt to he given 
to mnscnlint! lnve. He began to lie dandified; wore slrikifig crftVRi.s,and 
ablrtH that were low cut; he forced Ills feet into narrow shoes, and ctii'led 
IiIh bair in a remarkable way. This peuulinrity disapiiearcd wben be loft, 
tbe school, and Ua^l returned home. 

At ibe age of twenty-four he was for a long time neui-asllienic 
Prom that time until his twenty-niiiUi year, he was eRme;*t and skill, 
ful in his profc»slon ; but be avoided the sticiety uf the upiKii^itu sck, and 
constantly a.'<-4ociated wilb men of doubtful character. 

Tbe ijatienl would not allow a personal exainimilion. In writing, 
be made the excuse for tliis that it would be of no use, l]ccause his 
impulse to hi!) own sex had existeil from bi.t earliest chitdliood, and was 
congenital. He bad always had horror reuiinic, and had never lioen 
inclined to avail himself of the cbarniti of women. Toward men he felt 
bttnself in the role of a mini. He i'ecogtii£ud Uts impulse towiird bis own 
sex as abnormal, ami excused bis sexual indulgence as being tbe result 
of an abnormnl natural condition. 

Since bis flight X. lives out of Germany, in Snnthei-n Italy, and, as 
1 learned from a letter, now, as before, be indnlMjes iu jwrvcree love. X. 
I8 an earnest, stately man, of umsculiue features, well-grown beanl, and 



tUy developed geiiitaU. Dr. X. furnished me, a Hliorb Uine ago, 
witb his tiutcbioijrapfay, of wliitrb the following is worthy of mentioD : — 

'* When. »t the age of seven. I entered Un- (>rh-ate school, I felt 
very unconifurli»tile,(int1 Ibnnd very little symimlhy with my companioiKt. 
Only toward one- of them, who vrtis n very huiidBotnc eliild,(lid I feel 
■ttruct«d, nnd I loved him wildly. In ehitdisli giitncH I fllwnya knew 
Itow to arninge il bo thnt I etntld iipiK'nr in feminine attire: und my 
greatest pleasure wue to form inlrieiite coitfures for uur servaut-girls. I 
often regretted thnt I wrh not a girl. 

" My sexual ihHtitict iiwukenud when I was thirteen, iind from llie 
moment of itt^ n|>|ifjtRitiL-<: v/an dirveted townni youthful, Mtroiiir men. 
At Qnit I wuh not reailly eerluin tlint this wan nbriormnl, but t.'uut4cJoii^ 
neas of it uuiiie wlici) 1 iHiw und hcnrd how my compKiiioim were eliamc- 
terizeit sexually. I began to mnstiirlmte iit the nge of thirteen. .At 
seventeen 1 left home mul went to the Gymnnsiuni of r Inrgc Capital, 
where I was put to botird with a mnrried professor of the Oymnasium, 
with who^4e son 1 nflerwaitl had sexual relations. It was with him that 
I first had itextial SHtit^lfietioi]. Tlierenfter I made the iiciiunintnncc of n 
young artist, wlio very soon noticed that 1 was abnunnnl, Riid confessed 
tu me that he was In the same condition. 1 lenrucd from him that tliitt 
nbnoiiiiBlity was very frequent ; and this knowledge ovorcnrae llic trouble 
that I had had in supposing that 1 was alone in my ab)iorinality. This 
yonng man had on extensive acquaintance with persons in like condi- 
tion, to wlii<:h lie introdiiced me. There I beeame tUc object of general 
attention, for on all sidcH 1 was declared to be very attmctire physically, 
I soon lx!onme inHnmtly loved by an oh) gentlemuii ; but, nut linding htm 
to my taste, I endured him but a short time, and then gave ear to a 
young and handsome oHIver who lay at my feel. lie was really my 
first love. 

"After pftflsing my flnnl examinntlon, at the age of nineteen, free 
iVom the diKetptine of Hcrhuol, I uuute the artpintntance ofa great nnmljer 
of |H!ople tike myself, and umung lbi.'m Karl Ulriehs (Nuuia Nunian- 

" When, later, T took up the study of medicine, and atuiociatiHl with 
many noruuil youths, I was otlen in a position where 1 was comiietle*! to 
visit public prostitutes. Ader having eouKorted to no pnrjM>se with 
vsri'ju* prostitutes, some of whom were very l>eaiitiful, the opinion wiw 
Hprend among my ii4-()nnintanri?s that 1 wait impnti/nt, and t strengthened 
this by telling of previous sexual excesses. At time I had nnmorous 
external rehtticms witli jH-rsons who prixed my pbysiwU peculiarities, 
which were considered very Iniaiitlful. The result of this was, that I was 
exciting somebody all the time; and I receivw! such a nm»a of love-letters 
that 1 was olV-n in vmbarra«smenl. The ncme of this was reached later, 
when, as a physician, I lived in tlie hospital. Then; I moved about like 
a celebrated person, and the scenes of jealousy that took place, oo my 



account, aJmost led to the fliscovcry of the whole tiling. Sliorlly after 
tins, I feU ill with un iiiHiimiimtKn) or my sbuuMer-Joiut, from wbicb I 
rtfwivtTKtl aftur Ihrei: iiiuitlby. During this illness I received siibcu- 
tAncou^ iujectioiis ol' mori>hiue sev«r:i.l timtr-s <l»ily, wliicli were sutMcnly 
dinctwtmuwl.aml which I pmcticed thei'iaitt^r secretly after ray nx-overy. 
For tlie pnrpose of speoial study, I spout sonie nioittlui in Vienna, liefore 
entering into jjrivftte iiroetice. and there, hy meatia ol" eoiiie reconiineinla- 
tiouB, I }*aiiK'd etitnttit^e to vnriuur< circ-U'tj ut* |wu[ile like uiysell'. 1 theiu 
kitniLHl ih:it the ulmormality in (question, in its vnriouti tbniLs, is spread 
through the lower clussen ns well as the higher, ami th:it tho«o who ure 
appnttichiible for money i^re not infrefiuently met nmoni; the higher 

" When I established myself in the country, I Jjoiwd to cure myself 
of the morpliini; habit by iiiennM of eocainu ; and then I K-caino a vivtitn 
of cwainc, wiiich, only alVr three relapses, I wa.** alilc to rid myself of 
(aljoiit two yoarit ngo). In ray ponition, It was linjiossiblc for mc to And 
dcxual tiutisfaction, mid I uoliced with pleiuniire that tlie use of cocuinc 
hud ovi.'n'ome my detiin-. When, on the finst oeemtiou, »t the ur^Eent 
rctjucKt of my aunt, I hnd cnuin ciliated myself from cw.'uine, I traveled 
for n few weekn, in ui-der Id ini|)rove my health, the perverj>e inipult«eM 
were si-piin awakonvd in their old strength, nnd, one evening, while uut in 
the fields by the city amuiiing nufielr with n man, I noticf^d that I bad 
been detected by the nuthoritii'S and ndvL'rti»e<l ; but Lhat the ael of which 
I WHS ncciiiicd vnm ni>l. ]inniHliablt>, in Hi;c-i.>rdani-e wltli tbe opinion cX' 
prcBHed by the highest court of the Oerman kinydmit. I had, tb^rrfore, 
to he enrelul ; for already the unnouneeinent of the crime h»d l>ceu Uci'aldcd 
oualLsiiles. 1 SHWthnt,after this, I would tie compelJed to leave Otrmaiiy, 
and find a new home where neitiicr the law nor public opinion would be 
opposed to that impulse, which, like ull abnormal iiiatinctHf could not be 
overifome by the will. Since I wiui nevur deceived for a moment about 
the matter, in recognizing my iuipultioB as oppoue^L to social usagea, 1 
repeatedly attempted to l>eeonie uuieter of Lhem ; bnt by these elforls tliey 
were increased in power. Thi» antne observation hag been uomniunicated 
to me by auniinintancos. Since I was exclusively drawn toward strong, 
youttifnl, and nniscnline individuals, and they were very iwldom inclined 
to yield to uiy wishes, I wan e4imiiel]4>d Ut buy them. Since my denire 
was limited to persons of the lower classes, I was always able to find 
»uch as were purcbat»ulile with inuney. I hope that the following state- 
ments will not awaken your repu^imiiee. At limt I intended to omit 
them ; but, for the coiuplctencas of ihis eomnnuiication; I may inelnde 
ihcm, since they sen'e to enrich the climcnl materinl. I am compelled 
to jHTform the nexnal act iti the following way :— 

" I'eue juveULK lu u» re(.'e|>to, ila ut commovendo ore meo elTecerim, 
ut in quern cupio, semen ejneidnverit.spermu in perimeum exspuo, femora 
comprimi Jubeo ct pcnem meum adreniua ct Intra femora compreasa 



imiDitto. Diim hxc Sunt, necesse ?Ht, tit jtivviuH uie, iiuaiituiu puteet, 
iLmplertfttur. (^iia* priits mo fecisse narravi, enndeni mihi nHV^riinl volup- 
tat^iu, acfd l]>i«D rja<^nlo. Kjncuiatimicm ponr iu aiium immittcndo vel 
miwu terendo asscqili, mihi DOttuni]U(im aiua'iiuin eet. 

"Sed itiveui, qui {lenau mtiuiii n4*u|H>riut aUitiv ca fitvittites, qun 
BUpm exposal, efTuocriiit, ut liMdinea mew pliinc sinl Mitiirattp. 

" Coocermii;; my }H-nM>ii, T ihuhI hIUI invnliuu llii* fulLowiiig: I ain 
186 centimetres tixll, of niasoiitiiif nppt-iHt-umre, iuh], with ttie> extreption of 
abnormal IrrilaWlity of tlu; skin, lu'althy. My hair niid l*ard ai-e hlack 
oiid thii;k. My gL-iiitals arc of mi'diiim sizu nml noniinlly foniicd. t 
am a1>le, wiMioiit any tnici; of fattgiii\ lu iwrfonn llm Hi-xual mil fmni four 
to six times iu twunty-four liours. My lifc i« very repular. 1 iisv lUcoliol 
and tolmcco very sparingly. 1 play the piiuio quite well, and tiome of 
niy uiipi'etODtiou!* comp(Ktitions ti»vc Ixvn imieh npplniided. I have 
lately finished n novel, which, as my first work, has iM*rn very favorably 
crltieined by my fVicnda. The story has several pmblems tiiken from the 
life of uminpt in the Hubjeet^matter. 

"Anioiijr the Isirgc number of fcllow-eufferers that arc jjei-wjnaily 
known to me, 1 bavc naturally been in a position to make observntiouH 
cODcemiog the condition mid tlie degrees of atmornmjily ; iind, perbn^w, 
tbe following comnmniciitiors mny he of service to yon : — 

"Tbe tnoflt abnormal thing that I am auqnairited with, woa the 
Impnlse of a pcutlcman who lived in Berlin. He preferred, alwve all 
others, 3*oung felloWM with nnwH^sheid fe-et, wliieli ho would Vwk [Taetuon- 
fltcty. A gentleman in Leipzig was similar to him; who, where it watt 
possible, would IiHguaui ia anuui immiltere, pivferriug the parts to be 
anclMined. Several liave a^^eiired me Ihut the !>i,i;lit of riding-boots or of 
parts of niilitiiry uniforms, induecti cnieh r-xeilement in them that ejueuta- 
tion resulted. A man in Paris compelled a iVieud ut in os ei niingat. 

" Willi reference lo the degree in which many feel themselves as 
women, whicli is with me not the ease, two jj«r»on» in Vienna ure ex- 
ampleti. They Uuit: feminine naiiies. One is a barber who cslls himself 
' Prcnob Lnurn,'; th« other wati formerly a butcber, who ca.llA himaelf 
' 8clclier-F.-»nny.' Both of thi-m never missed an opporlunity, during the 
Cflmival time, to show themselves in very fantastic feminine maskH. In 
FambTirg there Ib a person that many people believe to be a woman, be- 
cause he always goes about the bouse in feminine attire, and only ocen- 
sionally leaves the Uouue. and nlwayo in »ucU elolbiug This man wished 
to stand as godmother at a christening, and, as a reault of it, gave rise to 
great scandal. 

"Feminine timidity, frivolity, obstinacy, and weakness of character, 
are the rule in such individuals. 

" Several cases of perverse sexuality are known to me where epilep*5' 
and psychoses are present. TIcrnias are remarkably frequent. In prac- 
tice many persona come to me to be treated for diseases of the anna, 




because uf rtcomnieuiiatioii by filendB. I saw two sypliilitic and one 
local cUaHcre, ami f>cvenil fissurt" » ; an<I at present I :iiii treating a 
gentlfanati fur uoiulylotnatii of the ninis, whic-li funn n rotindcd tumor ns 
Inrge as n list. Owe cstne of primary AlTcctioii of tlie floft palate I saw in 
Vienna, in a yoiuij^ roan who was accuaLoiiicd to frequent mask-bolls 
dressed as n girl, niul cnlicp young men ; lie would then jtrt-tend that he 
woH menstriiHtitig, nnil tliu^ inOiicc tlio otiiciti tu use htm per o». The 
assertion was made that in this w.-vy he had deceived fourteen men in one 
evening. Since, in none of the iiiiblic«tion*c'oiit'eruiug contrary sextiRlity 
that I have seen, I have found anytliin^ concerning tlic iut«rcoui-sc of 
pederasts among thcmsoWcs, I venture to comniuiiicnlc something con- 
cernins it in condnsioii : — 

" A9 soon Its indiv'iiluals that are a(rec*te<l with contrary sexuality 
become acquninted, there is a detailed narration of their experiences, 
loves, and sediictiona, a» far as the sr»c:int dflfen-nce lietwcmi Ihcrn nllows 
anch entcrtaiiniicnt. Only in very few cases is this annisenient uiicom. 
mou with new aciiuaintauccs. Among themselves, ihey cull themselves 
* auDts ' ; in Vienna, * sisters ' ; and two very maseiiline public prostitutes 
in Vienna, wlK>m I iiccidfiitally iH-'came ac'inHiiited witli,;ind who lived 
in a perverse sexual relation with cflcii otlier, tnld me that for the cor- 
responding eomlitinn in women Itie rmmc' uncle' was used. Since be- 
coming conscious of my abnormal instuiet, I have met thousands of such 

"Almost every larye city has some meeting-place, as well as 
a so-called promenade. In sni.tllci- citica there are relatively few ' aunta,' 
Cliongh ill a snmll town of S300 inlinbiLints I found eight, and in one of 
7000 cighlci^u of whom I ivas absolutely sure, — tn say nothing of those 
whom I suspected. In my own Iowa of IJO.OOti inhabilitnts, I personally 
know about one hundrml and Iwunty 'aunts.' The greater number of 
them, and I espetrially, jkissprs the ctpabilitv of j>i<lj,(iii)2; ."iiiotlier imme- 
diately a« to wlictlier Ihcy arc alike or not, which, in the langiiatre of the 
' nunts,' is called ' reasonable ' or ' unreasitnablc.' lAy acqiiiiintn.nces arc 
often aatnuiuli'd at thii eiTtaiuty of nvy Judgment. Indlvidtmht tluit are 
apiMii'ciitly absolutely mii-SL-uliiie I recognize as 'mints* nt the first 
sight. On Llie other hiind. I iim able to behave myself in such a tnnscii- 
liiie wiiy that, ill eirclei* to whieli I have been intro<luce<I by acqusiintnnces, 
there is a donbt as to my genuineness. When I am in the mooti, I eim 
act exactly like a girl. 

" Since the majority of 'aimts,' like myself, in no way regret Uieir 
abiionnalily, hut would he sorry if tlie condition were to he changed; 
and, moreover, since the congenital condition, aoeording to my own mid 
all other experience, cannot be inQnenced; tiierefore, nil our hope rc«t4 
upon the possibility of a chanu^c of the lans with reference to it, so that 
only rape or the commission of public offense, when this can be proved 
at the same time, shall lie pnnishalile." 



Case 116. Contrary Sexual Iiietinct %n a Woman. — S.3.,StgeA 38, 
governess, eanie to me for advice abouL a nervous trouble. Her father 
was tvDipurnril)' uishhc, and died ol* a britin disease. Tbo patient in an 
only cliild, and even wben quite >oiirig she sulfered witU leeliugB of 
anxiety and ])aiiiful ideas. Site thoiiglit, for oxani]>le, that site would 
atralte In tier cotlin after it had been closed ; that at confcitsioii tilie 
migtil forget sometliiiig, and make a sinful confession. She .infTered 
much with headaelie. 8he was al-ways very much excited and appre- 
hensive, but yet she had to see borriMe things, like cur}>»es, etc. 

Bven in her carlieat cliildhood, tlic pntieiit was excited acxunlly, 
wnd began to uiiwtu rlmte without niiy tcitchin<;. Tlie nieiiAes began at 
fourteen, and were a I way a acrompanieil b^* colicky piiins, violent sexual 
excitement, migraine, and depreaston. After her eighteenth year she 
learned to repress her impulse to mn.'^turhate. 

The patient has never fell any inclinatiou toward persons of the 
oppoeite sex. If she thought of marriage, it was onlj' because she 
sought in mntriiiiony n nieann of beins atipported. On the oth«r hand, 
she felt powerfully attracted by girls. At first she regnrded thitt inclina- 
tion OS friendship; but in the depth of her nttachment to fenmie flriends, 
and in the longing Hlie i-unstantly felt for them, she reeognizeil that tfae 
feeling was something more thiin friendship. 

The [latient cannot UTKleiAtnnd how a girl can lo%'c a man, but she 
can eaRil3' see how a man might love n girl. Rlie always has a lively 
interest in beautiful women and girU, and Is powerfully excited at Aiglit 
of tliem. Her longing had always been to kiss mid embrace such dear 
crcHlures. Slie liad never dreamed «>f a man, but oidy of girls. Her 
delight had been to revel in the night of them. Separation Oom such 
female friends had alnayis madv her desperate. 

The putient, wliose ap|>e:iranee i* perfectly reuiintne and very 
respectable, states that she has never felt lierself in any particular role 
with her friends, not even in dreams. Female pelvis ; largo mamma ; no 
sign of Iward. 

Case lit. Mrs. R., Russian, nged 36, of high oocinl position, was 
brought to me, in 1886, by her husband for xdvice. 

Father wan a physician, and very neuropathic. Paternal grand- 
father wan licnithy and normal, and reached the age of ninety .six. Facts 
concerning imtcnial grandmotticr are wanting. All the children of 
father's family are hrIiI to have been nervous. The patient's mother 
was nervous, and »ulTere<l with asthma. The mutber''» parents were 
healthy. One of the molher'a sisters had melancholia. 

From her tenth year patient has been subject to habitual headache. 
With the exception of meaRles, she has bad no illneaa. She was capable, 
and enjoyed the best of training, having especial talent for music and 
languages. It became necessary for her to prejtare lierself for the work of 
a goveniesB, and during her earlier years she was mentally overworked. 



Sbu passed through an HttAck or metuDcUolia sine delirui, or soniG 
■uontlis' duration, at »evuiiteen. Tlie |>ntient atiserts thai she Uau alwa^VH 
Imd fiympnlliy only for her uwn»iex, and found only an lestbetic interest 
in men. She never had any taatc for fciuolc work. As a liule girl, she 
prcfertvd Ut play with boys. 

She Bays she rtiuiiinvd well until her twiMily-stnetith yenr. Then, 
without cxLcnial ciiusc. she bcaiuic dvptcusud and contiidered herKuIfn hnd , 
•iuful pci-son. bad no pleasure in anything, and was sleepless. During 
thix time of illness she vna also troubled with iinpcnttive conceptions: 
that slie must think of tho dcnth of herseir and her relatives. Keeovery 
alter about five luoiithH. She then became a govcroess, was overworked), 
but remained well, except fur oecH&iuual neuniHtlienio symploius und 
spinal irritutiou. 

At twenty-eight !alie made the nciiuaintancc of a huly Hve years 
younger than herself. She fell in love with her, and her love w:i« 
returned. The love was very sensual, and satjsflctl by mastur- 
bation. "I loved herns a •<;od ; licr'K ia a tiobie soul," she :«ikid,whoii she 
mentioned this love-bund. It lusted four years, and wati ended by tho 
(nnfurtunato) uiarrinne of her friend. 

In 1386, nIXer much euiotioniil »lrain, the patient became ill with 
symptom* of liyRtero-neunuHtlieiii.i (<lyBpep.sia, spinal irritation, and toiiio 
spasmodic attacks ; attacks of bemiopia with migraine and transitory 
aplia-iia; pruritus pudendi ct aui). Id February, 1886, these symptoms 

la March she beoume act|iininte(l witit her present hushaad, and 
married liiui without taking mu«h time for reflection; for he wan rich, 
much in love with bcr, and bis character wna Sn aymjiatliy with her own. 

On April fith, she rend the sentence, " Death misses no one." Like 
a fla.sli of liRhtnin}; in a clear hky, the former inii>erative coiu^eptions of 
denlli returned. Shu was forced to meditate on lUu mo»t horrihle manner 
of death for herself and tho»e about her, and constantly inia-^inc death* 
scenes. She lost rest and sleep, mid took no pleaiiuru in anything. Uer 
condition improved. Late in May, 1S86, she was married, but was still 
troubled by |)ainnj| lhon;>;lit.s at tlint time: that she would bring uis- 
fortunc on her hnslj^md and those about her. 

First coitus on June 6, 1886. She was (lee|tly depressed mornlly by 
it. She hud had no such conception of mutrimcHiy, The liiinband, who 
really loved his wife, did all he could to fjuiet her. lie consulted phy- 
liciana, who thought all would be well after pregnancy. The husband 
was unable to explain the pin-uliar liehavlor of his wife. She was fri«ndlyr 
towanl him, and siilfered bis caresses. In coitus, which was actually 
carried out, she was entirely passive, and afler the act she was tired, 
exhausted all day long, nervous, nnil troubled with spinal irritation. 

A hridid tour brought about a meeting with her old friend, who bad 
Uv«d in an unhappy marriage fur three years. The two ladles trembled 



with joy and «xcjtemei)t v) they nan k into each other*!i arms, and becam» 
inseparAhlr. The hnabatid saw that this friendly relation was a ]>cciiliar 
one, and Imsteni^d their dopnrtiire. He hnd nn opporlunity Co ascertain, 
through thf! curreKpondmici! of hiti xt\(u wilJi ihis Tritiitd, lliat the letters 
interohangcd were like thoMiol" two lovers. 

Mrs. K. be«iirae pregnant. Dnring pre^fniint'v the reninins ofdcpreB- 
BJon wild imperativf ideii» tIitMip|>eari>cl. In September, diirin]; alKtiit the 
ninth week of preRimney, abortion took pliicc. ARer tliat. reiievre<l nynijv 
toms of hystcro-ncLiraslhenia. In iiddition U* Lhis, there wern aiilfflcxio 
et later u-iM>8itio ilextm uteri, nneuMnia, nud iitoiiia vetitriintli. 

At thf. runsilllHtiou the p:itieiil gave Mie iinjireMHion of a very 
iietiropathii!, tainted iierson. The ncui*o|)atliic expression of the eyes 
cannot l«e descrilH-d. Appearance entirely (emiiiinc. With the exception 
of a very niirrow, .irrliiHl palnte. there wasi rirt akeletnl nbnc rimd i ly . With 
dilllciilty the patient could Im.- Iirought to j^ive the detnila of liui' xexiial 
ahnortnality. She complained tliat she had married witboiit knowing 
what nmrria_!;e lietween men and witnien was. She loved lier hiisliand 
dearly Tor hiK uienUd (piulilies, bnl itiiirital iiiLureuurtte wjln it iKiiii to her; 
she did H imwillingly, without ever finding any sntisrnotion in tt. Pout 
actum, :dl day lony she was we.'»ryjin(l exhausted. Since the iiborlion 
and the interdiction of sexual int^-ivourse tiy the physicians, she hnd 
been better; hut she thought of the future with horror. She esteemed 
her bn^jhand, and loved liim mentally; hut »lie would do anything for 
him, if he wonlil hnt avoirl ht-r Hexniilly in hite fntiire. She hoped to 
have »en»4iial reeling fur him in tirne. When he phiyed the violin, she 
secme^l to feel the hegiiniing of nn inclination for liim that was »oinc- 
thing more than rricndxhip; but tt was onl,v transitory, and she could 
get no assurance for tlie fnlure in it. Her greatest happtiies* w«^ in cor- 
responilence with her former lover. She felt that this wus wrong, but 
she could not give it up; for to do so made her mtserahle. 

It is rr?raarkiiblp that thfi anomaly may be long limited to 
mere perversion of tlir wxiiiil instinct, luul tlmt the imptilKc to 
perverse indnlj^nee may make its ap]jcarance bIUt some nrci- 
dental cau^e. — e.g., seduction, or some neurosis. Such cases 
might easily he mistaken for acquired contrarj' sexual instinct 
(«. ffu/>ra), if, witli n'fereiice to the sexual feeling, they should 
not be demonstrated by the history to be original and con- 

Case 118. Mrs. C.,!tged 32, wife of an official, a Iarg*,not.imoomely 
woman, feminine in ap|)carnrice, comes of a neuropathic and emotional 
mother. A brother waa psychopathic, and died of drink. Patient was 
always |>eculiar, obstinate, eilent, qnick-temi>ered, and eccentric. The 



brotb(!rB ami BiHlerH nn- lixcitiibte peoplu. I'liLnioiiiiry pbthtsis has been 
frequent in Lev laiiiily. Wben only a girl of thirlecu, wilU sigiiit of grent 
(wxiittl <?xuilx'raenl, she iittrncte<i atlentiou by enthusiniitic love for a 
female friend of her own »^c Bor education wks strict, tbougli the 
pfltieiit secretly rcatl innny novclA, and wrote inniimerAble poems. Sbe 
married nt eighteen to fVec Ucrscir fVom unpleasant circumstanceH At 

Sbo siiys sbe has always been indiirerent towanl men. In fact, she 
avoided hntln. Female Htatnea pleiDwd ber. net* ^rente^t bappinesH was 
to tbink of marriage with a, beloved woman. 8bc vras not avrare of her 
eesnal peculinrity until marriage, ami tlie thing had reraaim-d inexpti<^&- 
tit« to her. i'ntieiit did Iht marital duty, and bon,- thrt« ehilrlri'ii. two of 
whom were subject to eonvul-fion:!. She lived plensantly with ber biia- 
huiid. but b\ik t'stiH^ined him oidy for liitt moraE <]imlitie!^ She gladly 
avoided coitus. " I should have iirfffrrtil iiitoreoiirMe wilb a woman." 

Until 1878 Hhe bad In^en neumHthenie. On the occasion of a sojourn 
nt a wiitering-pliiee, slio maile the ni-tpiainlanee of a female urning, whotw 
hfetory I liaVH r^iHfrled an <Ta»i' f>, in tbe Irrvnfrpund. No. 1, 1884. 

The patient eame home a ehang^^d iHiraon. Her huKbnml says : '' She 
wa» no longer a woman, no longer bad any love for me uiid the cliiMrcn, 
and wouM have no more of marital appronebe^. She was indaniMl with 
paasionate love for her female friend, and hud taste for nothing t;lse." 
After thi- luirthsmd fothade bor lover the honw, tlnT« was iiitv-rebaiige of 
letters with sntrln-xpresaionsin thi-ni as 'SMy dovel 1 live only for yon, my 
floul." There were ram^tinga and iVighlAil excitement when an expeeted 
letter did not eome. The relation wa!< in nowiHc ])taU)iiie. Prom certain 
indications it in preNuiuablu that mutual masturbation wa# the uu'iUiH of 
sensual i^iititfhetion. This relation laotvd until liJ3i,aud made the pntient 
deciderily neurasthenic. 

She abttoluUtly negleetud the houae, and her hiii^lmnd hired a woman 
of sixty yiiars as a houfto-la-ej>er, and also a governeart for the children. 
The patient ft* U in love with both, who, at least, allowed eareasos, and 
profite*! materially through the love of their mistrwts. 

In t!ii^ latter part of 1883, on account of developing pnlmotwry 
tnben-idDKiH, hUu bad to go anutli. There she became acquaintot) with a 
Russian lady of forty years, and fell passionately In love with her; but 
aho did not meet wiUi a return of Love in her sense. One day insanity 
became manifest. She thought the Hussian lady a nihilist; that sbe waa 
magnetized by her; and abe presented formal persecutory delusionii. Sbe 
fled, and was csught in nn Italian city, and placed in a hospital, where she 
Boon became quiet. Again she followed the lady with her love, felt Iierself 
very nnhajipy, and planm^d »uhade. 

Wben she retuniwl homu,sh« was greatly depressed because she did 
not have the lady, and was contrary toward ber family. A delusive, erotic 
state of excitement came on about the end of Jtf&y, 18^4. She dauoed, 



fihoitled, and cnlled herself n man ; dcmnnded her Ibrmer lovers, and »&U\ 
kIii> was of roii'ul blood. Sbo i>!4i!:ii)(>d rrom thu liciiiKt; in niaU> atLin'. mid was 
tnkcti to the asylum in a etate of croto-mnuiiK'iil exviteuii;nt, After n fenr 
dftys the exaltation dinnpiieftrrd. The juntient hcKAine quiet, and mnde a 
desimirinfj; aiti-iupt at Miileicio ; and after it she was in great anguish of 
miml with tie<liiini vitie. The perx't-rw sexual feelini; grew less and leaH 
notiotwMe, and the tubtirenlosis [vrogreKKed. TUo piiliotit died of [ihttiisis 
in the be^niiin^ of 1885. 

The exumiimtinii of the brain presented nothing itnnKunl ns far as 
architecture and nmtnffement of convolutions were concerned. Weight 
of brain 1150 irrammefl. Skull ulightly asymmetrical. No anatomical 
siguH of dcgoiicnition. Kxteriial and internal geiiil-ids without nnotnnly. 

3. Kffemination and Vtrayinitif. — Tliere are various tran- 
sitious from the foregoing isiscs to tliose making up this cate^rj', 
chm"aftrrized by tht; degree in which the psynhiral iKTsonulity, 
especially iu general mnuticr of Jocling and inclinations, is in- 
fluenced by the abnormal sexual (eelliig-. In this group, fiiUy- 
devcIoi»ed cases in men are fcmnlcs in fi-eliiig ; in womePjj nales^ 
This abnormality of feeling and of development of t}ie character 
is often apjwireiit in childhood. Tlie hoy likes to s]>end his time 
with girls, phiy witli dulls, and hi'lp liis molla-r about ihe house ; 
he likes to cook, sew, knit, and develops taste in female Unlettcs^ 
80 that he may even become the adviser of his sisters., As he 
grows older he eschews smoking, drinking, and manly sports, 
and, on the contrary, finds pleasure in adornniL-nt of pei-son, art, 
beliett-leftrcJt, etc., even to the extent of giving himself entirely 
to the cultivation of the Ixautal'ul. Sinirt; women possess cor- 
responding inclinations, he prefers to move in the society of 

If he can assume the rSle of a female at a ma.squcradc, it 
is his greatest delight. He seeks to please Iiis lover, so to 
speak, by studiously trying to represent what pleases the female- 
loring man in tlie opposite sex, — sweetness, sympathy, taste for 
ttistlietics, poetry, etc. Efforts to ajiproach the female appear- 
ance in gait, attitude, and style of dress are frequently seen. 

The female timing, even when a little girl, presents the 
reverse. Her favorite place is the play-gronnd of boys. She 
seeks to rival them in tlieir gnmes. Thi' girl will have nothing 
to do with dolls; her puhsiuu is lor playing horse, soldier, and 



robber. Fot female employments there is manifested not merely 
a lack of taste, but often iinskillfulneivt in tliem. The toiletis 
is iiegleetec), and pleasure found in a eoarse, boyish life. Instead 
[of an inclination for the arts, there is manifested an inclination 
sj^ and taste for the sciences. Occasionally there may be attempts 
■V to smoke and drink. Perfumes and cosmetics are abhorred. 
The consciousness of being bom a woman, and, therefore, of 
btnng compelled to renounce the University, wiUi its gay life, 
f^ and the army, induces painful reflections. 
^ In the inclinations of the amazoii for manly s])orts, the mas- 

culine soul in the female bottom manifests itself; and not less in 
tlie show of courage and manly feeling. The female urning 
loves to wear her hair and have her clothing in the fashion of 
men; and it is her greatest pleasure, when opportunity oflers, 
to appear in male attire. Her ideals are historitai and contem- 
porary feminine personalities distinguished for mind and energy. 
j" With reference to the sexual feeling and instinct of these 

1 urnings, so thoroughly jH'rmeated in all tlieir mental Ix^ing, the 
1 men, without exeejrtion, feel tliemsc»Ive9 to lie females; the 
1 won ien feel themselves to be males. Thus they feel themselves 
to lie antagonistic to persons nC their own sex constituted like 
themselwes ; for, of course, they are like tliem in form. But, 
ou the other hand, they are drawn toward those of their own 
sex that are liomo-sexual or sexually normal. The same jeal- 
ousy which occurs in normal sexual life also occurs hero, when 
rivalry is thiTatennd : and, indeed, sinrc they arc, as a rule, 
liyi»Tjesthetie sexually, this jcahiusy is often boundless. 

In cases of completely-develu[)ed contrary sexuality, hetero- 
sexual love is looked upon as a thing absolutely incomprehensi- 
ble; sexual hitercourse with a person of the opposite sex is 
unthiukablc, impossible. Such an attemjit brings on the inhib- 
itory concept of disgust or even horror, which makes ei-cc- 
tion impossible. Only two of my transitional cases tn the third 
category were able, with the help of their imagination, by think- 
ing of themselves as men with reference to the woman, to have 
cohabitation ; but the act, which was inadequate for ihcm, waa 
a great sacrifice, and nffnrded them no pleasure. 



In homo-sexual intercourse the man always feels himself, in 
the act, as a woman ; the woman, as a mau. The means of in- 
dulgence, in the case of a man, where there is irritable weakness 
of tlie ejaculation crentrc, arc simply snrcuhujt, or jinssivc coitus 
inter femora ; in other cases, passive niastutbatioii, ur ejncuhttio 
viri diledi iu ore projtrio. Many have a desire for i»issivc 
pederast)' ; occasionally a desire for active pederasty occurs, hi 
one attempt of this kind, the mnn desisted because of the disj^ust 
which seized liira wlien the act reminded him of coitus. 

There loas never inctinatinn for immnfnre persons (/w^- 
fove). Not infrequently there were only phitonic desires. The 
sexual satisfaction o^ the female probably consists of amor 
iesbictts, or active mastuibatioii. 

Cast- 119. AutobiograjJnj. *■ I. i.*c«Tn/.- I nm now mi m.v twenty 
third year. I b«VL' choeen the sLndy of the technical nrt« iw mi ocrniia- 
tioD, and am coiiiiitrU'ly BntiHried with it. I litul Imt tlie mild difiuanes 
of children, while the oth«?r cltildrcn. who arc now lit-rtlthy, had to imtta 
through rtoverc UlnoasoH. My juirenta are lioth livinij.and mv fstheris nn 
ndvocnte. Up, like uiy mother, is, as we sny. nervously hyiuM'-sc-nsitive. 
Id my father's family there were two other ehiklren. who tiled eurty. 

*' 3. 3/y person .- .\it for my pliysicnl p«ciiliariUv8, I am of robust 
fi{i;ure, without tieing of especially Imndttome form ; eyes, (jrny ; li«ir, 
Monde; linir nnd 1>enn1 correspond nrith my sex and yenrs. The manitna! 
and griiiLnlH nrc normally dev(>lii]>isl. My gnil is firm nnd nhnost liPKvy ; 
my iKSiring, enreletts. It is remiirkublc that Ihc breadth of the |ielvis is 
exactly equal to that of the nhoulders, 

" T nm nntnrally well eiidowcrl mentally. In one of my certififtfttcs 
my talcntH are. tii fnct. calkfl *cxi!eUcnt.' Without luiy pnrlienlar desire 
to excel in them. I piisseil my examinatlontr with distinction, t have an 
iDtorvst in everything thnt eoueenis the well-beiii^ of humanity, and in 
science, nrt, wnf iiidin*try, Willi my cnerjfy it is coni])an4lively v»»y to 
postpone for a time the ftiiti«fiii;tiiin of my desires, whiL-h will Ik; dfiscribed 
bereaft-er. Inlentionnlly and enn.sdonsly, I enrnc the mornlity of to-day, 
which funxis those who are nlmoniial sexually lx> bn-iik laws thnt nre 
voluntarily established, and rej^ards sexual congress of two |H>rsonA of the 
same sex as a matter depcTidiiit; on the choice of the iudividunl. and 
a matter iu which law-imit^ers linvv a ri^bt to interfere. I-'rom uiy 
studies I hnvc found the moat earnest incentives to coiifitruct, on the 
haflis of the Unrwinian theory, after Canicri's metho<l, a system of morals, 
which, to bo sure, docs not harmonize with thu prcviiiling system, but 
which seeks to elevate and improve maukiuii in nccorfhuioo with nat- 
ural law. 




" I thiuk thut tliLTe iin> not mniiy innrks of borcditjiry taint iti nia 
There is a oertmu liy{>ur-w)ii«itlvmiuti& A verj* intuiiHu liruaui-Urc is por- 
Iinpf! iuiporlmit. In ).'fnt-rttl. it is occu])a'tl with tiKiille;vut luattenn, Rtiil 
uovcr hat* Mu-Oiilk-i:! si-iittiml imngetn iis a subject ; at mv»t, in tliia direction, 
it i» cnnopniffd only witli ttiimle nttir© and putting it on, which for me la 
a lustftii thoiigbt. At the sjime time, nntil my sixteenth year it often 
went to till' extent ol' somnarahulism, or. very frc<juently, a» in still often 
^k^thu case, to loud talking in sleep. 

^ ''3. JIfy iiwlinaliutiii : The idiovc-iiientionod nlinormal proclivity ia 

,\Jr\ the fttndamcnlal factor in my (wxiial foeling. When I am ilressed like a 
woman, I Teel nerfwUly aatiefiiHl. A iieeidinr feelinjr oC pi-ae*' iind i-omfort 
comes over ine, whieh alloWH me. to work tui-ulally with );ri-ater «use. 
|/J My libido for iiidulgeucc iu sexual intercourtw is extremely slight. Too, 
P» I have much love and tante for female Iiaii<liwork, ami. without Hssisl- 
anee, I leiirin'<l lo eroehet and emt>ri>ider, and I like to do tliese (Innga in 
secret, t aUo like other female employments, like sewing, cte. ; so that 
at home, wtu'iv I keep my proelivity |H>rftH'lly concealed, and guard 
against iiuhiijriiiii it hy involuntary activity, 1 have oiVen won the praisi' 
of being na good sm a servant-girl ; whicii did nut maku me attbamed, but, 
on the coiitmry, filled lue witli jn-eret jpride. 1 wui iiwkv notblnj: out of 
daiieing with women; 1 liketl to diinee only with my sehool -lei lows, for 
which the manner of our inittructiou in dancing gave opportunity. But 
in this it gave me pleasure only whrfn I could 4lance as a Udy. A multi- 
tude of other desires and dreamit, which seem to have something typicol 
ahoiil them, I pnss over, lieeause they seem exactly similar to iIioh« 
descrilK'tl in ' I'syehopatbla Sesualis.' .... In other reMpects my 
inclinations are not dilfcreut A'om those of my sex. I smoke and drink 
moderali'ty, love deliraeies, and have no pleasure in ph^ysieal exereises. 

"4. iJui^ehjimejii : After this brief description of my personality, 
T may pa)«8 on to an analysis of the clevelopmcntal history of my nhnor- 
mnlily- As soon as I was ahle, to some cxK'nt, to tliink independently. 
and I nnderstowl Uie Lliifei-ouce between the sexes. It wsu* my secret and 
flxed desire to be a girl. In f»ct, 1 believed I was one. But when in 
the linlh I s»w the shuk! genitals on other boys, the ini possibility of my 
thought heeame spparent. I leduocd my wish, and hn[wd that I was at 
least an hennaplirodite. And, onring to the fact that I had a certain 
shyness about looking closely at pictures or desoripi.ioiis of the genftals, 
this hope wius cuterisined, iiDtwitlmtandin^ the fact that I bad tthundant 
opjiortunity to writings on the snlijecL, until my studies compelled 
me to make a closer nuc|ii!»iiitjuice with the matter. lUiring this time I 
read everything 1 cnnid get about beviii»phroditi^ni, and longed to be in 
the place of llio female who, as the newspapers often reported, had been 
raised as u male and been restored to her sex by accident. The recog- 
nition of my masculinity made an end of this dreaming, and did not DIl 
me with any especial delight. I tried to destroy my sexual glauds bjr 



^ndual preHHiin*. biit pain soon cnusod me to desist. My longing is 
Ht-ill for the exitrnwi cliaracteriatica of tlie female sex, — for a ppctty 
coilture, n ruunUed brenst, a slim waist. 

*' At the age of twvlvo I flrst had an ojiportuiiity to put on fcmalo 
sittire ; and I noon raine to drniw m;, »clf, by njennu of Iwd-ulotlies. bed- 
linen, etc., with femiile pi'tticoHts. Wlieii I grew older, it wjis my great- 
est delight to put on my Rister'a dresses secretly, even if it conld he bnt 
for a few moments, arid with consljint dniigcr of detection. Later, much 
to niy delii^ht, t hnd an opportunily to play a femnle rule in a love-sc cue ; 
and it is tiaid that I was nut at all bad in the pait. Wlivii I began to 
lenil on iiulcpcrident life as a student. I ini mediately obtained female 
ilrt'SJtes and liueii, which I kept in order myself. When nt night, safe 
from discovery, I can put on one artielt> nTxor another, from cor^t to 
apron and bracelet, I am perfectly Rntisfierl,and devote myself to aome 
qniet employment. inwar<lly happy and full of delight in doing it. 
While dressing, an ereclioti UHiially oceurs, but it is never followed by 
an ejaeulation,.:ind soon ditjap[H!ari«. I uIko try to approximate the 
female aj>peamnce in externals, by arranging my hair appropriately and 
removing the Iteard, which I should have preferred lo tear out. 

"5. Sejrual inciinaliong : In passing to the description of iiij* 
sexual proclivities, I desire, first, to note, in general, that puberty 
occurred normally, as I Judgo from the pollutions that occurred, the 
change of vtiice, etc. Follutions still occur regularly once every three 
weeks, seldom more frequently. With them I never experience any lust- 
fill feeling, t have never practiced oiiaintini ; imtil lately I knew 
uothing more of It than lis name, and I iiad to seek ilirect information 
nl>out it, iu order to undertstaud it. Any touch on the erect [lenis is 
disturbing and piiinfnl to me, and without lustful f«eling. 

" Hreviimsly I ln-havi:d very shyly toward women, bnt I now act 
quietly, and associate with them as with my kind. Direct excitation, in 
asexual sense, by a wuman. sometimes oeenried ; htit when I try to analyze 
this, it s«cm<t to me tluit it was never her |x*rson, but nitltvr her attire 
alone, Hint wiis rllectunl. I tell in loi'e with her dress, and the Ihouglit 
of wearing one like it was iieavenly. Thus sexual excitation never took 
place, not even in brotlieU where 1 was led by friends, in spite of the 
sight of the gi-eatesi voUiptuoiisnitss and beauty. But friendly feelings 
for the female sex were In my heart. 1 imagined how, dressed as a woman 
and unrecognized. I could stay with them, associate with them, and take 
, pleasure with thein. I prefer the ini|iiy)s<'i(jn rniule on mo by girls whose 
breasts have not yet fully developed, part.iotili\rly those wearing the hair 
short; for such girls arc more nearly like me and my aspect. Once I was 
sn fortunate as to Hud n girl who felt tndiappy In licr sex. We formed a 
firm bond of friendship with one .luollier, and wo often took deliyliL In 
the idea of exchanging places. PerhajKi it is not inappropriate or 
uniuporlant for the obaructerization, to record the foLIowtng i Some 



monUis iigo, wlitiii tbu storv w:i<i niiiniiij^ tliroiigli tite ncwFpnpcrs of 
an Iliiiigarian countess who, drvsseil a« a man, had married, and Ttili 
like a nmn, in »lt ennit'slttesa, I lliougbt of oUcriiii^ myself to bcr, in 
order to contract an inverted ni:irri»gc, — she rut husband, 1 as wife. 
, . . r liave never Attempted coitus, and have nerer felt any de«ir« 
for it. But sinee I foresaw ihnt the erection neccsanry with a woman 
would l>e wunitng, I thoutrlit of imtting on Home of her elothtng; and 1 
think that then the expected result would occur, 

" Ab for my behavior toward nitile persons, first of all, it Is to be 
emphasized that 1 hud the warmeBt, rnen<lHhip8 during my school-days. 
My heart wa» fVill of happiness, if I eould do some small service for the 
object of my devotion. I really worsbipwl him passionately. But, on 
the slighti'St f>ccnsion, I cvinpe<l terrible jt-nlousy; nud whilt? my anger 
lasted 1 felt as if I eonhl ni'itlicr live nor die. When reconciliation oe- 
nirred, for a (;hort time 1 was the hnppieat of eieatun'H. I ali^o tricil lo 
nijike rVieiidf nf lioyp, whom 1 hriln-d with !<weetraeats, nnd whom I should 
gladly lm%'e lii>*Ked. Thongh my love always remained pWtonic, yet it is 
almorm.lI. An expression that I iinconi»eion«ly made nl that time a1>out 
an elder friend, whom I wortiln|»cd, shows that, I said I loved him ao 
that I should have liked to mnrry him. And cveti now, when I indulge 
but little in inlenxturKc, 1 am easily takim with u lutnd>4oiiie man with 
a fine beard and retined features. Vet I have never met a being feeling 
like myi^elf, whom ) could euriOde in, and with whom I could live as a 
female friend. I never attemptt'il to excrci*o my inclination* directly, 
and never committed any foolish act of thi« kind. Finally I c«ftsed to 
visit muAcitms whore nude male llgiires were displayed ; for the erec> 
tions, which were sure to otrnr, were exceedingly annoying. I bad 
often secretly wished to sleoji with a man, and often found oppor* 
tnnity. I was asked by n rnttior iinnttnictive elderly man to sleep with 
him. Cnm vo cuncubui, ille genitidia men tetigit; and though bis 
pt'nH»n was unattractive to me, I was filled with nn intense feeling of 
lust, I felt as if eoniplotoly flurrendered lo bim; in a won!, J /eli iihr- a 

" If I may be permitted to add a concluding word to what I have 
almady said, I wish to state esprcssely tl^at, though I am coiiBcions of 
the abnormnlity of my inclinalionK, 1 lutvc no dcfitre to change them ; I 
long only for n time when, more wisily and with less danger of discovery, 
I can give reiu to my desires and experience a delight that will harm 
no one." 

Case 120. Miss Z., aged .'ll. artist, comes for consultation on ac- 
count of neiim^'thenie symptoms. She ]a remarkable for enante, mascu, 
line ri>aturcs. a deep voice, short hair, a masirulinc style of dress, nuiAcu- 
linc gnit, and self-coiiscionsoBSS. In other respects she is feminine, with 
well-develop«;d uiamuue and a fenialo |»elvis, and without any iuUicatioiX 
of beard. 



Rxsmitintion witli ruferunuv tn contrary sexiul instinct gives a 
pOBitive result : — - 

The patient statt-s that even when a Htlle girl slie prefcrrwl to play 
vith bo^H, and imrtioiilarly "aoUIier,'* " mw-ohant," :md " roblwr." She 
vrnH very wild luid unrcittrainLtl in tticsc guniL'ii iritli boys, but never tind 
atiy j>roclivity Tor dolls or female eiiiployinent, of wbicii she leuniL-d only 
tbc most ordinary tilings (kulttiug, scwiog). ^ 

In ecliool she lundc good progress, being cspcciuUy iuturi-xttHl in 
mathcDiaticd and ebuuiiHtry. 3b« early bad a <k-4irt* for ttculpturc, aud 
showed talent for it. Her greate-st ambition was to become a ruulnrtist. In 
hcrdrcaniAofthc flttnro, abe never thoiigbt of murriaj^ Asnrt firti8t,alie 
WH8 int4frcsted in bniidsotne men, but she was really nttmeted only by 
female forms; she eaw male forma only " in the dlstaniv." She could 
never endure "trumpery"; "mouiy dress "was all that pleased lier. 
The or^linary HOciety of girls wan repugnant to her, because their talk 
about lotletu*. omameiittt, and love-affairM with men, sevmei) stale and 
tircHomc to her. On the other hand, since her childhood she hud had 
eDthusliiatie fnendKlii|w witli certnin girls; at the ago of ten she wns In 
love with a. girl comimnion, and wrote her natue everywhere. Since tlicn 
she had bad numerous female friends, with whom she had imlulged in 
pft88ionate kiiMting, ^lio pU>a7ied the Kirls, rb a rule, IxiCHUHe of her miu- 
enline hearing. She wrote poemi* to her female friends, and could have 
done anything ont of love for tht?in. To her il was very remarkable that 
slie was embaTrnsscd before girls, capecinJIy when they were friends. 
8he eonid not undress before them. The more she loved a friend, the 
more miwlesi, »fhe v,-s.a hefore Iter 

At the present time she ha» such ii I'clntion. She kinscs and em- 
braces her Laura, walks by her window, nml suffers nil tlie pai>g» of 
jealousy, partieidnrly when she sees her euuver^ing with men. Her only 
wish is to live always with this feinnle friend. 

The piiLtent states, however, that twice in her life men have made 
Kn Impression on her. She thinks that if she had lieen really sought, 
there would Imve been a uuirriage ; for siie is very fuiul of Tainily life and 
children. If a uuiii wtHlie<l ta possess her, it would be ni.-ees!iary for him 
to win her ; she herself would prefer to win a female friend. She thinks 
womnn i^ nioix> benutifn! and ideal than miui. In her iufrekinent eroUo 
dreams, the suhject had alwayti licen a female. Slio had never dreamed 
of men. She does not think that she could now love a man ; for men 
are lalse, and she herself \s uervuii'^ and anivmie. 

She considers herself a woman in all respects, but regrets that she 
is not a man. Even at the age of four it had been her greatest pleaanrc 
to put on boys' clothes. She certainly had a maseuline chnmcter, and, 
too, hiid never wept. Her greatest passion whs fur riding, gymnastics, 
feooing, and <lriving. She suffered much Weuusu no one about her 
understood her. It seemed silly to her to talk about feminine thing*. 



Many of lier acquAintanccs had thotiglit that she should r^&Wy have 

Wen a man. 

Tlic imticnt anys tlist slie was never scnsunl. In embracing 
femnic friends, shii hnd oftmi ex|>L'riei)cc<l n pectiliiir linftfiil feeling. 
Knibriicii)^ hikI kisHiiig bud been lier only manner of exjireHsing faer 

Tlie patient staWn tliat »he ci>mes of « nei*vou» fiither, and an insane 
tootlieT who, ax a young (firl, hitd been iMisNioiinCely in tove vritb her own 
brother, and hnd trieil M» induce him tx> Dee with her to Anicriciu Tlie 
patient's brotlicr is .1 very ceccnlric, ]>cciiiiiir num. 

The patient in'csctils no external degeiicratiTC signs ; head regular. 
She t>nyK the nien»c!i begnn at fourteen, and tlint they have been regular, 
but always prtiiil'iil. 

Case 121. ''In oHier to designate at once my unhappy di«ca«ed 
condition with its correct TKimc. I will state sit the lieginninj^ that it benrs 
all the mark^ of what, in yuiir work, ' I'syehopuLhiu Scxiiati»,' you Imve 
named ep'eminaiion. 

" I am now thirty-eiglit yeai-H old, and, thanks to my abnormality, 
I look back on n life IhHt ha* been full of indescribatile siitfertng; ao 
thnt I am ortcnnstoiiiithed tn ihiiik whntcapneity for sutlei-Ing a miin has. 
Of late conBciousnc9s of ttic siiU'ering I have endured has hccomc the 
eouix'e of a kind of tfi>lf-re»pect, which, in itttulf, mitke» my life, in n mea^iure, 

" But 1 shall now endvuvor to descriiio my oondition with nil ti'utb. 
1 am phj-sically liealthy, and, ak far as I can remember, hare never had 
any aevci-c illness. I conic of a healthy fumity. But my imrents are 
both of a very excitable nature, my fnrlier being of ihc .soK-nlleil ehoterJc, 
and my mother of the sanguine, teniperamt-nt; she hns a strong tiMulenoy 
to mild mcl»neli4ilia. She is n lively woman, loved for her good-liearted- 
ness and ;i<-tLvc Umevolunei- ; but sho is still very dependent nud deUeient 
in aelf-conllilciicje. All the;*e peculiarities were miirkeil in her fHtlior. I 
mentioti tliis fact, ticcamte I am toUl that I i-esemblc them Ijoth ; and aa 
far as the two pecnliaiiticA nrcconcerncd, T can myself acknowledge 
tlic reeiemblnnce. Hut when 1 made iittcmptn, by means of my inner 
strength and by thinking of my own power, to rend the bnui) tliat. with 
magic force, draws me to men, ttiere was nlwnys n residuum left that 
1 could nut cradicHte. Ah far as I can remember, I have nlways had this 
elementary longing for a mule lover. To be sure, iu tlrat expressions 
were of a coarse, sensual nature. I do not know whetlier T was yet tea 
years old, when, while lying in beil in the day-time. I sii<ldenly discovered 
how, by pressure on my genitals, I induced a new and iutoxientiug feeling, 
white fancying thnt n man of my acquaintance iierft^rmeii sen&ual manip- 
ulations on me. It was only many years aflerwaixl that 1 learned that 
this wiu< onanism. At first 1 was so frightened and so depressed by the 
iaexplicahleness of my longing, that I then made my first attempt at 



Buicide. If I hnil odI^' put it into cxuiutiori I For since then ttiuro has 
been bucU frequeot violent sgitntion of mind tind bod,v that my heart hits 
been bound »* with s cliain, rind mnde c-<.ild. I ia:iy say nt oik-u that, up 
to the present time, oiinnisiii litis not lijoscnvd me from it~'4 vlntcbvs; it 
hiia orcrcotiic all attempts and ellbrtA to escape, and tny desire to rcitiet 
tt 18 almost dcslrovcd. Three or fonr times I have given it up for a 
mouth lit a time, utfimlly under the iiil1ui.-iitie of niL'nt:il excitement. 

" When about tliirtwu, I liad my Br»t love. To-day it seems »» if 
my ^reatDKt wisli then watt to kis« my flclinoUlV'llowV fWwIi, rOKy lip'*' It 
was n passion fiill of romantic dreaina. At tia- age of lin^ien or eixteen 
it became more violent, when I firat cxperic'Uped ttu' iiisflno panps of a 
jealnin^y whiirli in more terrible than that of nntiinil love tan be. This 
8iK!oud period of my life hii^tcd for yuaru, though I Kpent but a few dnys 
wit)) the olijecl of my passion; mid then we did not bvv cneh other for 
fifteen yenra. Gnidually my feeling cooled, niid I then fell paBsionatoly in 
love Bcvural times witli oUier men, who, with the exception of one, were 
alwut ray own »ge. 

"My love — if you will Itindly allow this expression for a feelinj; cwn- 
dcmned by the mnjorily nf mnnkintl — has never l>cen returned ; I have 
never had iiitercoiin^e with a man in any way that would not bear the 
light of day ; never has any one shown even exlraurdinary interwtt in ine, 
though uni* of my friendn discuvercd my secret lonpinff ; and yet I have 
bad a burning desire for mjisculine love. Jn tbi«> longing my ftwlingei 
aecm to mp to be entirely those of a loving woman ; and I notice, with 
horror, that my sensual ideas grow more and more like ihosi: of a woman. 
During the [leriuds when I am ft-ce from any iiarticnlnr love, my long- 
lug degenerates ho that, in my onauiHtic nmiiipuhitions, I conjure uji only 
coan^. t^eUHUal ideas. But I am t^till finally idile to overcome these. My 
efforts to rt'pretiK the love, however, are iiheolutely vain. At the present 
time I ulu nguin autferiog with sudi an exaggerated state of feeling tliut 
baa existed for months ; and I have [londered so much over its pi'«-nli»n- 
tics that I think [ ciiu describe my feelings truthfully. In this way I 
have made the peculiar obaeri'ntion that 1 have never loved a liearded 
DiaD. From this it might enHily be presumed that I am given Co so-cnlled 
boy-love; but thiit Is not the cnse. For, U> the pensiial ebarm, on closer 
HSMciation, u me[iU«l intere»l is added. With tliiK lK-<;ins the meuUd 
pain. I am seize<l with such n piiMsionate longing (hat I am willing to 
Bacritlce myself, in a way. I t-xcito contideuec in myself; and from this 
mutual feeling a he.^rt-felt fnendship might Ik' engendereil. if deep down 
in my soul were not ^leej)ing the demon which impels me to tbo closcat 
of relationships, which is allowed only between hinniin beings of op- 
posite sex. My whole It-ing, every fibre of my body, longs for it, and 
1 am consumed l>y a hot, glowing paasion. I womlcr that here I can again 
deacribe in unfeeling words the feelings that coursed through my whole 
being. Of euurse, by the struggle of years, I have been forced to IcAm 



to ooDCca] my iiidinatintj, and ftiiitif! wbeti torn by pftin. For, la oever 
turing my lore r<^tunit^<l. I hnvv lenrntnl to ktiow all the sufleniigo of 
lore. Jealousy — iUMiiif, blindmi; jii-Alou«y — of any nnd every body who 

bat a Oiendh' f^aucc at tlio object of my secret love] 

" 1 love emphaaizcii tbc mental element, in order to sbow tiow 
>ly rooted luy nbiiyrmal im pulse i«. _ I Ijave never fctt the slightest 
iclTof sensual love for the opposite sex. The idea of being forced to 
associate sensually with women ia repugnant to me. At times I have 
sntfered enough on beint^ asHnrei) of th« love ofyonng girU. Like every 
young mnii, I liave hod abundant o)>|iortunity Lu ci^oy the modem social 
pleaHurvH, diiucing among ihem. I like to dance; but if 1 could danoe 
witli men, an a girl, I »bouhl Ih- reully ba{i[>y. 

"I wirth once more lo rt.-iiiark tlmt my love is entirely sensnaL 
How could I otherwiae explain the fact that the pressare of my lovcr'u 
hand, often merely tiia glance, caiisos (lalpitation and erection I I have 
done everything to eradicate thi« love from my — let us say * hcarL* I 
have trieil lo still it by means of onniitBUi ; to drag it in the mire, in 
order to misc myself above it. (About ten years ago, during such a 
time of love, I avoidetl onanism, and felt thjit my feeling of love elevated 
me.) I still entertain the deluinion tliat if the object of my love were to 
tell rae he loved me, that he loved me, and only me, [ should willingly 
give up sensual grutlflcation to repose in faithful arms. But that is 
certainly a sclf^lcceplion. 

^ Uouured «ir, I hare a res|K>nBible occupation, and I think 1 can 
giro the lunsuntncc that my abnonmd tucliuation has never, even in s 
hair's breadth, causc<l mc to deviate from the duty imposed on me. 
Aside fVom this abnormality, I am not insane, and I might ultimately 
become contented ; but I have, particularly of late years, surfercd too 
much nut to look on the future with painful fceliug. For the future will 
certainly not bring fulHllment of the desire which constantly glows 
under the ashes, — the desire to ifossess n lover who uiiderstatids and 
return" uiy love. Such a relation wouhl make mu truly happy. I have 
thought much about the origin of my abnoritmlity, particularly because 
I think I am force<l to assnmc that it was not inherited. I believe that 
onanism hna changed the inlmrn feeling into a burning |>AS3ton. I might 
long ago have put an end lo niy miaery, ttince I have no fear of death, 
!UI<1 since in religion — which, strange to say, h:i8 not departed from my 
impure heart — I find uo warning against suicide. But the conacions- 
De»8 that 1 am not alone reaponsible, and that a worm ha« nipped my 
whole life in the bud, — a ccrtnin comfort that baa sprung up of late out 
of indescribable sufTcnng, — leads me to sec whether comparative happi- 
ness In life cannot be obtained on an entirely new basis: something 
which fills the whole heart. I chink I could be happy under the Influence 
of quiet family life. But I dare not conceal from you the fact that the 
thought of married life with a wife is terrible to mu, and that I make the 



attempt of a change of life with a bloediog lieart; for ttiim I alMnlntely 
abautlon tlic hope Clint is always awoke ; namely, the delusion tli:iL fale 
may yet hriiif; mi'< ttm ileslrei) )ia|i|)iiif!»B. 

" Tills delusion is go dcvply ruulcd in mu tbut 1 ibiiik uuthiiig hut 
hypnotic sujjgetttion t-uuUI Ik'Ii) uie. l( yuu cuuld advis« uie, you would 
niuko me iiii»jX'«kiiljly Imppy. Of cuiiiBo.your «tiiclc>iiL iiijuiiotion would 
hv to nltAiidon onaiii>iin. How gladly I would follow iti But if I wvie 
uot to have dJrc-ct itbyslcttl, some mcchauiual, lucans at hand to help me, 
I should certainly )>e unable to free myself from this vice; nnd tbis the 
more, btjcausi; I fcnr that, by hjug years of bahit, uiy nslure has become 
accustomed to it. Of coui-se, I have not oseujM'd the effectH of it, even 
eliougb tbey are nut so terrible as tbey are ulleu pictured. I KUll'er with 
mild ner\'OU8iivss, am, indeed, vreak«ned, and Imvv iwriodicnl diHturbnoco 
of digestion ; but I t:iiu still endure bard work, and tike a certain 
pleasure in it, when it is not too great. I am dt'prcused. but I can be 
bap])y, and, fortunately, I take pleasure in my cflllin^', and aiti interested 
in varifmK things, p»t-t-iuuhirly music, art, and bdtes4eUre». I luivc never 
indulged iu Icuinle pursuits. 

" A» may be seen from the foregoini;, 1 like to associate with 
men, especially with tbuse who are hnndnomu; hut I have never 
had intimate relations with them. A wide giUf wpMratcH me from 
them I 

"Postscript : I fenred that in the foregoing T httd not deseribed my 
sexual life with sudit-ient e.<caetitess. It (X>n8iiit8 only in uniuiiHm; but in 
it I abandon myself to atiiioi^t nil the repugnant uets that are compre- 
hended under roitu»i inter femurn, eja<-ulatio in ore, etc. 

" My r6l<; i» passive. When 1 am seized by a pasaion, the ideaa 
change, and become entirely a desire to Iw imjirefrnatcd. The struggle 
agaitiHt sucb a {latssion is su terrible, Iwcauue my mind Is al^o impli- 
cated. I lon<j; for the closest, the most complete union that ain Ih* 
conceived as exinliny between two men,— always together, common in- 
terests, unlimitt.iJ conllUence, sexual union. I think that natural love 
i» dilforent from this only in ita degree of warmth ; it doett not reach 
the boiling-point of our passion. Just now I am fighting the battle 
over fi^ain; with fon-e I slitle Ibc insane passion that has so long 
enthralled nie. All night long I walk about, followed by the image of 
bim I love ; for love of whom I would give U]> all I |>ossess. How aad 
it is that the noblest feeling given to man — friendshl|> — Ik (sullied by 
common sensual feeling I 

" I wish once more to state that I cannot come to the determination 
to traDsfonn my sexual life by means of sexnai intercourse with the 
opposite Bex. The thought of such intercourse fills me witli repugnance 
and diBgust." 

Case 122. " 1 write, aa well as I can, the history of my suffering, 
actuated only by the desire, by this autobiography, to clear up to lome 




extent the mtAan<1(>rstatidinf; and errors concerning 'contrary sexnitl 
instinct * whteh arc still so widely [>rcvalcnt. 

" I am tUirty-scTCQ yeurH old, and come of licaliby jMin-nU, both of 
whom wcr« very oerrouit. I only mention this, because I liiivc often had 
the thought that my contrary sexual inKtinct canie hy *r;ty of inheritance ; 
hut this is nothinjf more than vngiir. Of my ^rAtidpnrent:4. whom 1 did 
not know, the only reinitrkahlc thing I can mention is, that my maiemal 
grandflither was known a» a ^ront Don Jttan. 

"1 vTHfi rather a weak child, and during my (irst two years suflered 
sererely with (it<t, a« a result of which my undun»taiidiiig ami memory 
may have sulTercd ; Tor I learn hnt »lowly thin^)) which do not |«irticularly 
Interest me, n lid easily forget them I may also mention tlint, during 
the time hcfore I was horn, my mother was suhjet't to violent mental 
excitement, and was often rriglitetiod. From my thinl year I have l>ceii 
l>crfcctly well, aud have eacniwd scveni illnc&s. Only wlicu a boy, Trom 
the age of twelve to sixteen, 1 liad peculiar, iiidescribnhie uervous ecu- 
sations, which made themselves Tell in my head aud finger-tipSf and tn 
which it seemed to me as if mj* whole l>ctng were about to cease. For 
many years, however, these attaokit have ceased to occur, I am ratlier a 
powerful man, with abundant growth of hair, and In all respects 

" Even when a boy of six ycnra, I came indei>eurlently to mastur- 
bate, and, onlil my niueteenth year, I practiced the vice nuilv pcrsistenlly ; 
and even now, /aute de miettx, I quite fretjueutly resort to it, notwith- 
Btnnding the fact that I imdcratnnd the vilcncss of the passion, and 
always feci somewhat weakonud after lu But sexual intercourse with a 
man does not aifect me in the leant ; on the conlnity, il gives me a feel- 
ing of being ati-cngthened. 1 liejran bcIiooI at the age of seven, and 
soon experienced an intense feeling of sympathy for my comimnlona, 
which, however, made no other impression on me. In the Oynnmsium, 
at the age of fouitivn, my eompimions explainwl to mc the sexual life 
of man. which, up lo that time, was absolutely unknown to me ; but I 
was not much interested in the matti^r. .Kx, this lime I aUo practiced 
mutual onanism with two or three friends who had Kedrn^td mc into it; 
and it had an extraordinary charm for me. I was still jierfectly iincon* 
sciouaof the porveroity of ruy sexual iusliuct, aud considered ray vices 
as <iiu>i of yontli. like those committed by nil Itoys of the same i^e. 
Intercat In the female sex I thought would come in time. Thus I 
became nineteen years old. During tlie following years I fell insanely 
in love Ihreo times, — once witli a very hiLudsome actor, then with a hank 
employ*?, aud with one of my frieudn, thi_' last two Iwing t!ieu who were 
nothing less than l>eautiftil,and calculated to excite sensual reeling. But 
this love was merely platonic, and occasionally fouud ex|»res.sion in glow- 
ing poetry. It was, perhaps, the most perfect periiKl of my life; for I 
regarded everything with pure, innocent eyea. In my tweuty-firsL year 



I jij^dunlly bvgaii to notice timt I wns Dot constituted exactly like my 
comi-ades; for I found no pleasure in DinscuUiie pursuits. 1 hml but 
little Ukiug for smoking, drint(in|;,»i)(] Cii.r<.t-[t1ayin^,nii<l I was friglit«ii<'tl 
to dontli tty ft brothel. I have ucvcr been in oite ; I was always able to 
avoid vislling one uii some pretext or other. But I now l>cgiiii Co think 
nhout myseir; I oruui Tult terribly Itinesonie, niiHcmble, and unhappy, 
jiiiil huiged forufriond constituted lilto luyi^uir, without, hunuvor, ever 
thinking th»t there could be other men like luc. At twenty-two ] made 
the acquiiintaoce of » young miiu who finally expliiiued to me contrary 
iiexnal inetinrt and the individnaU alTc-rted with it. Liu, being also an 
uming, was in love with me. It wna as if scales had fallen from my eyes ; 
and I bleas the day this explanation cnmc tu me. From that time I saw 
the world with different eyes; 1 wi.w thni mimy others were given the 
8Aine fate ; and I began tu learn to ronteiit niyHelf with this lot t\» well us 
1 could. UuforLuimtuly.l did nut Kcicceed very well, and ] urn still oltcu 
Bcizod with bitterness and a deep hiUred of the modern ideas which tre at _ 
us poor urnings with siicli t'-rrible hflr»lnie»«. For wIimI is our fule? In 
most eases we are not ntiilerstood, and are derided and despised; and 
cren when »ll goes well, and we are understood, we are stilt pitied like 
invalida or the iiianne, — and pity was always sickening tome. I now 
began to piny n part, in onler to deceive my felluw-inuri as to my state'" 
of Qiind ; and it always gave me great satisfnetion to suvceeil in this. 1 
made the acquairitiuiee of several men like myself, with whom I cst4(b- 
lishei) rclntionii, whi<'li, however, never Iiv>fled long ; for I wii» very 
rcarful and cautious ; but, at the same time, I was very jKirticular and 
easily wearied. 

"I have always absolutely despised {HHlnrasty as something un- 
worthy a mill), and 1 only wi>«h that nil those like me would di» the ^ime; 
Imt. unfurl ninitely, with many this ia not tlie case. If all like me tkouglit 
as I do. then the contempt and scoHIng of inon that feel dtlferently would 
be a still greater injusliee to lis timn it now is. 

** Toward the man I love I feel completely like a woman,an4l, there- 
fore, in the sexual aet I am<)uitc passire. In whole sensibility 
> JAd feeling are feminine. I am vain, coquettish, fond of orniuueut, and 
like to plnwe otliem. I love to dn-ss myself beautifully, and, in cases 
where I wish to please, I even make use of the arts of the toilet, in which 
] nm ipiite skilled. 

'■ While I have but little interest in politics, 1 am passionately fond 
of nmaie and an inspireil follower nf Rtchivrd Wagner. I have noticed 
thi« preferenee in the mnjority of us; 1 Qnd that this music is perfectly 
in avconl with our uature. 

" I play the violin quite well ; ! like reading, and read much, but I 
have little interest in anything eltsc. Kverything else in life is quite in- 
dilTerent to me, owing to the deep resignation that more and more takes 
poflBttsalon of me. 



" Even ttiouj!li 1 should have reasou to be satisfied with my fate, in 
that I have aii aasuretl position in a tet-Lnical erajfloymeiil in « hirgo city 
of Germany, ittUI I take no plcaxure in my calling. 1 shouirl he be«t 
Hnitwi if, indepenilcnt find IVw, 1 nniiM travel abont with a bandsorue 
lovor, ami live tor mn.iic anil literatim?, jiarticiilarly for tbc thoutre. whiuh 
eeems to me to be one of the greatest plnutures. A conneutiuti with n 
court theatre 1 think of as lK-ing vyry iit^tieii table. 

" The only position or calling that »»>ero« really desirable to mc ia 
that of a great artist, — singer, actor, [>aitit«r, or sculptor ; anrl it aeems 
to me that it would he even liner to l« born to the throne of a king, — a 
Irish that is in hafuiony with ray prononncetl desire for power. (If tlicre 
19 really such a thing as tmnBtiiigmtlon of hoiiIs. a snlyw^t I have studied 
much, and which seems to me to oiear up much, 1 must have lived at one 
time us an emperor, or raler of some kind.) But a man must be boni to 
a!I this; and since I nm not, I am without ambition for so-calleii social 
honora and distinetlons. 

"As to my tastes, 1 must mention a ijninftil diusension there i» iH 
them. Handsome. intvlle<.-tiial young men of at least twenty years, who 
must Ijc of my own social station, »eem to me to be auit^^d rather for 
platonio love; but with thorn T satisfy myself completely with a straight- 
forward, though ideal, fl-ieiidahip, which seldom goes beyond a few kisBes. 
But I can ire excited sensually only by coarse, powerful men that arc at 
least of my own age, and mentally and socially iRinentli mc. The reaaon 
for this strange pbcnomcuon may bo that my pronounced feeiiiig of shame 
and my ianate apprehensiveneas, with my cautious cli&potiitiou, have the 
effevt of an inhibilury idea with men of my own social position; so 
that with them it in with diJKculty and seldom that I can induce sexual 
excitement in myftelf. That this diversity is painful to me ia owing to 
the fact that I am always afraid to discover myself to these simple men, 
below ine in st:ition, who may onen Ite l)onght with money. Hut I can- 
not imagine anything worse than a scandal, which would at once drive me 
to Buicide. For 1 can think of nothing more terrible than, through some 
slight act of carvlessncHS or thu enmity of any man, rtuddeuly tv be 
branded before the world, and to l« powerkea to avert it. But what is it 
that we do that is so diflcrent from what normally constituted men can 
do, at least, quite as ft-tH}ucnt1y without embarrftssmenl, and without 
sliamef That we do not feel aa the crowd feels ia not our fiiult, but a 
cruel trick of Nature. 

" Innumerable times I have puzzled my brain to know whether 
science, or any of her free and unprejudiced devotees, could think nfany 
way in which to give us toteiM;hiIdrcn of Nature a more endural^e posi- 
tion before the law and mankind. Bat I have always reached the same 
wid conclusion, that when one enters the lists in bt-balf of Hnylhiiig, he 
must first know thoroughly, and be alilc to explain, that for nhicb he 
contends. And who is to-day able to perfectly explain and define con- 



tmry sexiinl instinct ? Yd Uipre miiHt be 8ome correct explanation of 
il; tbt>n> muKt \*v sonic way in whicb tlic mass of niEiiikind can b6 
brought to n uiiUler ami more reaKonabk judginvnt of it; and, first of 
ttll. there must be some way to show that contrary »extuil instinct sliould 
not he re^nlcd as nicanini; the nftnto as jioderaaty, na the majority of 
men — I inny say all — regard it. By such an act a man might erect for 
himself an immortnl nioniiraent in the gratitude of lh<jiiHan<]!> of men of 
.present ami future geiier»tiona; for tiiere Imve U-cii, ure, ami will ever 
''be, Timiugs. and in greater number than perhaps ba^ been suspected. 

" III W'ilbraml's work,' Kridoiin's Secret Marriage,' I find a very 
plan»ib]<> theory given in cxplanatiou of tbi« matter; for I myself liave 
rppeatctlly tiad opportunity to observe that nil uniinga do not love men 
with the same intensity, but tlirtt therv art" innumerable Bul»-variet!L'si,— 
from the niOMt feminine uiaii to the man of contrary sexuality who \^ 
equally sensitive to female eliarms. Thin may aUo account for the so- 
calle<l diffiTence l»otweeii L-ongvnital wrid acquired contrary M-xtinl instinet, 
■ my itia/lec|uate opinion, does not exist. Yet, in all the fifty-five 
individuals I have become acquainted with in the threeyeara since I came 
to nndcrstand tliiH matter. 1 tinvc met the samt- peiruiiuritiea of tempera- 
ment, dit^poititiou, and eharaotur. Almost all uf them are more or less 
idesdinta : they smoke but little, or not at all ; they are bigot«d, rain, 
ideairoae of sdraimtion, aiul Ku)wr>*titious; and. unfortunately, I must 
CMifess that they i-omhine moiv tlie ilpf'erts and the reverse sides of both 
•exes than their goml ijualitiea. For woman in a sexual r&te J expa- 
rienee a feeling of true- horror, which I could never overeomc even with 
the help of my vvtrcttu'ly lividy imagination. I have never attempted il, 
beeause I am thoroughly convinced of the IVnittessncss of such an 
attempt, that Kcems to me uiinaturni and sinful. 

" In purely nocisl and friendly relations, I like to ns«ociat« with 
ladies nnt\ girls, find I am gli^dly woloomed in Indies' society ; for T nm 
much interested in tlie fnsbions for ladies, and know how to talk of such 
Ibinga with great skill. When I wish to, I can be very gay and amiable ; 
but my faculty for convrrsatinn is. for the most part, only .nssumed, and 
it always tires mu. i have always lind great «kiU in fenmle work, and 
«hown intei-est in it. As a child, and up to my thirteenth year, 1 was 
I>as9iotiately foml of playing with dolls, whose clothes I made myself; 
and it still nironU ine much pleasure to work at beautiful embroidery, 
which, unforliiniitety, [ can do only in secret. I have the same prcfcr- 
eneo for knick-knacks, photographs, flowers, «w«H!ttncats, loi let-articles, 
and such feminine thing's; and my room, which I arranged and deconited 
myself, is like the ov«r*crowdcd hotidoir of a ladj*. 

>' As |HirticnIar1y n*nmrk.^blc. I wish still to mention that I have 
never sutTeixMl with putliitioiii^. I dream very miieh. and intensely, 
almuet every night; oecii.'«ioiLally I h.ive lascivious dreams, which bnve 
only mcu a« suhjevts, but 1 always wnke out of them before it comes to 




ejiiculntloii. Ill raulity I am nut very pnssiouate sexually, aud 1 Imve 
peri(KlH Instinc; IVom loiii* to six weeks, in wUicU I bnve ninioet no sexual 
ilesire. Uiiroilmiately, tlifNe iieritxla are inTri-'quiMil. hiuI Hiey are usunlly 
followefl liy an swiikfiiirijj of my intense scxuii-l dt-sipt that is only the 
more violent; wliicli, when it in iinmutistieil, ciumts intense |ihysicnl »it(l 
meiitiil sulleritig, I tht-u bL-cutuo mood}*, (1c-|nvs.sG<1, tipriaitivf, irritnlilc, 
«nil njl,iriii<;; pecuHarilies, Iiowevpr. wliif'li, with tin- first oppmtTinity I 
liiivc for sfxuul (iratifluatioti. agtiiii iliHHptH^r. I ihuhI mention, also, 
Hint olten, on the sliglitest occnsion, my mood may clmiige several timcn 
iJnring tlie clay; it i«i like April wentlier. 

" I diinoe Well, ami like to ; but I Invodnneinfl; only for Its rhythmi' 
col movement, Jind lic^-nn-se uf my p:irli.itity for music. 

" In conelusion, I wittli to spenk uf something Ihnl always arouses 
repug^nHnce in me. Wc are it^iially eonslilered diweftse*!, Jiml Ihnt in 
ahaolnt^'ly iiiforrect. b'or in every diswiae there i* a. nie:in<« of cure 
or amelioration ; hut no power In the world can tiilce from an uruln;; his 
pervt'ree nntural constituti on. Kven Bugpcstlon, which hiia been used 
"with (io mueli appnrent siiocess, wiiinot indni-i- any enduring cbaugo in 
the mental IiR> of an uming. lu us, effect is mistaken far cause. Wc 
are considered disensed, bec-aUBe^n Jinie t hej iijviority aX..w_ rtalb'. becoSae 
' ill. 1 am almoHt conviuewl that two-lliiixlK of iw, in Inter lii'e, when we 
really live so long, have a mentHl defect of one Icind or another; and 
this Is only too cnsily explaini'd. Fnr, what strength of will and nerves 
is required for one to constantly iliasimulate, lie, and piny the hypocrite all 
h[» life I How ofleu in the aooioty of nurinsl iniMi, wlicn the ciinveraation 
turns to contrary eexual instinct, luust one agree with the wordtt of ahuiw 
and contempt, while every one of them wounds tiie heart. On the 
oilier hand, tlKT« are always the tiresome and inil^ecent jokes and talk 
nlmut women, etc, that must be lieard ; and which icwiay, in 8ow?al!ed 
'good society,' are jwpular — and to show interest and give attention to 
them I Daily and honrly to see so many bundBome men to whom one 
cannot reveal himself; to be compelled to go without n tViend, inter- 
course witli whom we desir« so much ; and besides, constantly the fear- 
ful anxiety of bi-lrayinif one's w-lf before the eyes of the world, and then 
standing covered with iy:noiuiriy and shame t It is really no wonder that 
the majority of us arc Incnpable of real work; for wc need all our 
strength of will and power of emiiinmcc for the strugtjle with onr own 
fiLte. How injurious it is to our nerves constantly to be compelled to 
shut up all thuse thouglits and feelings In our heartri : where our lively 
ttkiiey, fee<Ung on it all, plays all tlic more intensely, so that we go about 
with a burning tire within ns that only too otU-n threatens to consume us I 
Uappy are those of us that arc never denied the strength to lead sueh n 
life; but those, too, an' happy that have passeil l»'yond it." 

Case 123. Aiitobivyraj^tf. " In what follows, you will find ttie de- 
scription of the character, as well as the mental and sexual disposition. 



of an unii]]);, — i.«., of nn iiulividuul who, in s|)lU' or bis nuiRruline form, 
RfelB as a womnti, whose i^cnso^i women do not excite, and wbOBO aexual 
desiros are coni^Uiiitiy dirwtwl N>war*l mori. 

" Convinced tlint the enigiiin of oitr fxiittvnee can be Holved, or, st 
Icaat, i1l^minnt(^d. oiity hy ttio tinprejiiduroil IhoiiKlit of i^oientiflc men, I 
(lusorilic inr life only with tho aim of porliiLp^ clearing up thiit crnel &rror 
of Nature, ami jHinaibiy doiriir ii klniliu-ds to peoplf lilcc me to come In later 
generations ; for tbL-re will Ix' uruin^t^ n» lony aa niiji an? lH>ni. junt an it 
is a fact that tht-y have exislud in every aye. With the progress of 
aeieuoo in our epoch, men will aec in me and lho«ie like ine not ohjeeta of 
hatred, hut olyoctR of pit_v, which deserve not the odittm, hut the com- 
passion, of their more fortunate Ijrotbi-rs. I shall Ik- as lirief as possible 
in my communicaltoii, and alwi uliJL'i-tive; and, with refercnoe to my 
eaustic, often cynical, style, I may note that.alKivc all. [ shall be honeat, 
aitd, tberefore, not avoid atroug expreasiuns ; for they are moat happily 
suited to the t>ubject in haml. 

'*f am in my thirtylftb year; n mfrchaut, with a fair income; 
Bomewhai above average heiftht, alim, weak of muscle, with full Ward, and 
quite ordinnry Isfc. and, at first night, in nowist dirterent from ordinary 
men. On the olhi->r hand, my i^iit ih feminine, ami |)n]*tii'idnrly mincing 
in fast walking; the movements arc awkward and di»[>leaaing, ludicatlve 
of a want of iiinnly feeling. The voice in neither feminlae nor shrill, but 
rather a baritone. 

"This is my cxtemnl appearance. 

" T do not smoke <tr drink, and enn neither whistle, ride, do gym- 
nnstie feats, fi-ncc, nor shoots [ have nlmoliitcly no interv-il in boraes or 
dogs, and have never had a gun or swoni In my luuul. In inner feeling 
and sexual desire, i ntu compl etely ii woman. Without thorougE educa- 
lion.^l p:iSKL-d (hrougii but few classca in'the Oymnaaiiim,^! am yet 
inlellijjf-nt, likf to rt-a*! well-written, improving bnoks, and have good 
Judgment : but 1 allow myjielf to be carried away by the feelings of the 
moment, and I am ejisily tnrtuenceil hy any one who knows my weaknees 
and bow to niala- use of it. foustantly making resolves, I tuivi; never 
the energy to carry them out ; like a woman, I am moody and nervous, 
odeu irritated wittiuut K-Ht>on, and soinetiniea mean. Toward persona 
tbnt do not please me, I niii nrri^ant, unjust, and often idiameftiUy 

" In all my conduct I am 8uperQeinl,and often n-tvoh>uH,und T have 
no deep tnoiTil feeling. I have little consideration for parents and 
brothers anil ni;<tern. I am not egoti^tie. but, on occasion, Helf-«acri> 
fieiug. 1 cannot withstand tearv, and can — like a woman— be won by 
amiability and entreaty. 

" In my enrliest years I aroidiMl playing soldier, gymnastics, or the 
rough games of my manly comrades, and ran nbimt with httlu girls, with 
whom I was much more in sympathy than with boys. I was retiring, 




boshful, and often blusbin^. Wh«n no more than twelve or thirteen 
y<^r« old, the clu«e-fitting (inifonn of a linnd«oiiK- moMier gave rae the 
mofit [MH^utinr feeling ; and while, during the nrxt few yenrs, my comradeH 
were atwaj'B talking about };irla,and even engaged in lovc-aflairs, I could, 
for hours at a lime, nm al^er n well-built man with wclUrouoded hips, 
and fenet my eye« on the si^ht. 

** Without thinking mneh of these impreitsionfl, so different from the 
feelings of my comrades, i began to mnstujliate. always during the act 
tliinking of a heroic, handsome form : ati<l IhiH eDntinui*<l until niy 
sevuiite<!nt)t year, wlicn 1 learned fW>m a eompauiou constituted like my- 
self a true explanation of my ijoudition. Since that time I have been 
with girU eight or ten times; but, iu order to have an eree!|ii>n, it waa 
always neri-ssary to lliink of ;» lijindsnme man of mj* ncc^uftintnnciv And 
1 am thoroughly eonrinced that to-day, even with the help of imagination, 
I abould be nnalile to have intercourse with a girt. 

" Shortly aft^'P my di«co%'ery I prffi-rred to asHdciate with mntnre, 
powerful urniiigK ; fur at lhi»> tiniu I had neither mind nor opportunity to 
associjitc with real men. Since thia my tavte baa changed entirely, and 
men, real mt?u, of twenty-five or thirty-five years, with Kupple, poworiiil 
forms, are the only oneit tbnt ravish my senses, and charm mo as if I 
were a woman. Cireumataneefl havn allowed me, during tbeae years, to 
make about a dozen male neigiiaintaTiees that would serve my pur[)oso for 
A gulden or two a visit. If 1 am aiom* in a room with a bandxome youth, 
my greatest plenHiire iii membrtim ejue vcl niasime s\ magnum atque 
crasttum u^t, miutibuM enperv vt apprebeudere et pretuvre, turgvutes nates 
J^monique tang:ere ati|ue totuin coqius manibus coiitrettare et, si con. 
ceditur, on faeit-iu atijue totum corpus, inimovcro nates, ardentibus 
oscnlis olttcgere. Quodsi memhnim magnum purumque est. doniiim»qne 
ejus niibi ]))ni-i'l, arilitiite liliiilbie nu-utulam ejus in oe mourn reccptam 
coraplun'H horas t^ugere possum, neijue nuteiii detector, si semen in os 
meum ejaeulatur, cum maxima eornin qui " iirningii " nouiiuautur parH 
liao re uon n)o<lo deleetatur, sed eliam semeu nonnunquam dovorat. 

"The most intense delight, however, id experienced when I find a 
real man, qui membrum meum in oa recepit et crectionem in ore auo con- 

" Impn>liab]e as it soundfi. 1 am yet able to find some coarse fellows 
who will allow Itifinsolve* to be nsyd for tbi'* purpose. Thvy learn tlie 
thing while in ntilitar)- service, for urningx know that under iiucb circum* 
stance** they can be made to do the most for money ; and when the fel- 
lows are onre trained, rirciimsinnces often compel them, in spitf of their 
paasion for the oppofiite sex, to continue the practice. 

"With certain i.-Keeptionn. umings muke no impression on me, be- 
cause everything feminine \» repugnant to me. At the same tiiuu, there are 
some that know how to give me tlie most intense pleaHure, just as a real 
man can ; and 1 prefer to consort with tbcm, for the reason that somctimea 

EFPRvnrATiON AND TreAcranr. 

they raturn my panicmonte caresses. In lUe-A-iite with such a person, I 
throw ail ebwik IVom my i>xciteei svhsi'm, ami ^iv« my niiimnl pasftions free 
rein, osculor, preiflo, aiupleetor eum, liiiguaiu uit-'aiii in oh ujiifi inuiiiKo; 
ore cupiditnte treniente ^us labrum supi^rius su^, t'liciein meam tid ejus 
nnte9 Hdpoiio el odore volupt»ri v nntibu« emunente volujitnte ol^ttipc- 
Btor. Real mm, in ciow-fittin}; uniform, make the ih*cpest iinprpssion on 
me; and if I luivc an opportunity to pmlirrtfc ant] kisa snrh » rarishinjr 
fellow, ejarulation takes place at ouce. — » wcnkiiesa which I attribute to 
my frtHpieiit mnotiirlmtion. lu my earlier years I practiced it very ft-e- 
|quently. almost every time I saw n man pleimiiig to me, whot^e image I 
'kept before my eye diiriuji the act. For lhi« my taste is iu nowise ditli- 
cnlt to please — like that a servant-jiirl miftht have in finding her ideal in 
a dragoon guard. A hnnd«ome face is a plist-snnt supplement, inflamin({ 
my sensnnl de»irc, but in no reet[>cet nil essentifil. The retjuisitc remains: 
vir inferiorc corpom parte robusla ut bene furmosn, tnrgidJB femorilnis 
durisque nntibus, while the upper portion of the body iriny be slim. Cor- 
pulence diitguHtH ine. A tteiisual mouth with pretty teeth ntlects me more 
intensely; and if the person has also a membniiu [>ulehrum magnum 
et luiuolitcr fonuatum, all my demands — the mont far-reaching — are 
fill tilled. 

" When I wa»i younger, with men thiit pKiased me and excited my 
passions intensely, ejaculation took place from five to eight timei* in a 
night, and now it occurs from four to six timea; for I am iitinsualU- 
atrong senRually, and, as nn example, even the clinking of n bn&snr'a 
sword mJiy excite nic. At the wune time, I hiive a very lively fiincy , and 
Bpeiid must of my leisure hours thinking of handsome men with strong 
limbs; and I would be delighted to look on when a ])owerful feltcw, using 
forcv, magna meiitula prwditus me pneceute puellum fiituat; mihi |)er- 
suasum est, fore ut hoc aK]>ectu nensus mei vehement iiM*i ma pertnrhatione 
alliriantur ot dum futult corpu* adoUTscenti* pulrhri titngam el, ai liotat, 
a»)cendam in eum dum cum puella ecncumbit atque idem cum eo facinm et 
membrum meum in ejus nnuin immillam. The lu-eompliHliment of thetw 
cytiiisiJ ideal* — with which my mind \i ollen tilled — i.s hindered only by 
my limited meaus; (itherwieie. I should long ago have had the reality. 

" Soldiers have tlie greatest chano for me, but I have also a weak- 
neaa for butcheii*, fakirs, drivers, circus-riders, and brntt-^-nptHin* ; and all 
thcftc must be )tup|)le and powerfully built. Urnings I hate in intimnte 
relation, and for the miijority of them 1 hare nn iiiexplivnble and unjust 
avention. I have never had but one iiruing for an intimate friend. On 
tile other liand, the most afTeetionate and enduring tiei^ bind me to men of 
my own age, in whose company 1 delight, hut with irhum 1 have no 
4exual relations, and who have no idea of my condition. 

" Talk un {Kjlitic^t and ei-nnomics, like every other eameitt sul^ect, I 
hate ; though I gossip with considerable sense and ])eculiar pleasure about 
the theutre. At openu» 1 *kk myoulf on the stn^e, fuel uiyoeU applauded 



by tlip ptiMiu, and would pn-fcr to sing an a iioMiive heromo, or In the 
draaiatic r(>te or a wonmn. 

"The most iiitci^HiiiR stilyoct of coiiTersation for mc>, nnd those 
like me, i», howev<T, alwftys — men; for us this is im-xlinustiliJe. Their 
(KCivt charmfi am lU'scTibcd iu tiic mmt minute tieuile, nii-iitulH^D^stinuui- 
tiir, qunnta sint iiing^nitmlitit', iiUBiitfi, fraiwitinlin« ; <U' funiiii oarum utque 
n^iditati' coiiCeriiiHis, altt-r :il) hIhto t-ujjmweil cujus si'men celtfriiw, ciijus 
UniluH cjai-'utttiir. I iimy aiM that, of niy four brotJiew, oue ipiv*- himself 
to the service of urningH, without hiinself l.>eiii)j om?; «ii<l Jill four are 
larlien' uiuiuaiitl iu<lulg« in !«exi)!il ex<-e»4es. The getiitalfi of tho men of 
our ffiiiiily nrf, without, exri-p*''^"- tiiinsnally *levelo|M-'l. 

" In roiiduMluu, I repeat the words with which I Ijo^'an these lines. 
I eoiihl not choose my expressintiH, l>e<>nu«e my ohji'ct iu the forpgoiii(; 
hiut Iie4!n to nllbnl rimlcrlrLl fur ihe study id' tlie uniin<;'tt fxi^^tencL', and 
abHolutu truth vitis L-K»eutial. I lurg Ihu uiimerous cyuics to keep tiiui 
otrcumstance in mind." 

In Oi-tolicr, ISflll, the writer of the forrgoinfi lines presented himself 
to me. In all esi^ontials hittnpp^^ariiiun- c-orreH[iioudi-il with his de^eription. 
Genitals largv, with nlnindiint (^ruwtli ul' hair. Hia pareuts had Iieen 
well nervously. One hn>t]H'r had «bot liimfiplf on acetmnt of nervous 
trouble; three others were intensely nervous. The jjatient came tome 
in a atat'b of dexpair. He conld not endure tttteh a life any longer; for 
he hnd 1>een admonished ahout ititerconri^e witii men that could be 
l>i)U)^ht; and with his extreme s<-iisiinl ntitiire he w»s iinnble to nhstain. 
Too, he could not uii<h?rstaiid how he conld he mnde to love women, 
and enjoy the noliler joys of life. lie hiid liml love for men since his 
tliirteenth yiflr. 

He felt in nil respec^t-* like a woman, and longed to be won b^- men 
thnt Were not urnings. When he? was with iiii uniiiifr, it wa» just as if 
two girls were together. Tie would prefer being sexlcHs to living longer 
as he was. AVould not cnstrntion help him* 

An attempt at hypnosis with the highly excited patient induced 
only n very Blight degree of lethargy. 

Cane 124. B., waiter, »ge*I 42, siti^rle, wng sent to me by his phy- 
sician, with whom he w:is in love, a* oui- who was siilferiiig from contmry 
aexoal feeling. B. very willingly, and in n decent manner, gave a history 
of his past life, esiH-cIally of his sexual life, and was glnd iit least to have 
an authoritative opinion conecrning his sexual coudlfioQ, which had 
always Appeared to him abnormal. 

ii. knrw nothing to re|mrt of his grandpareiito. His father had 
b«n a passionate, eTKeitahlc man, a drinker, and slwayn very sensual. 
.\fter he had beffoMpn twenty-four rhildnMi by one wife, he was divorced 
(Vom her; and after that his himllndy bccamo three times pregnant by 
bim. UiH mother was healthy. 

Of tho twenty •three cUilclr«u, but aix were living; several were 



nervous, but not sexually uhiionnnl, nilh the eXL-eptiou of one sister, who 
alwaf8 sought Tiii-ii. 

B. As»ert>t tlmt from childhood he van nickly. At eight his (lexnal 
life began. He iiimitlirlMLried, ntid IteciLtnc pos^eBScd of the ideR penem 
alioriim pueroruiii in on urrigciv, which ^nvc him the f^reiiti'»t |ilt«Hurc. 
At twelve Ue Inrjiiin to liJl in love with mvji. usuidly with tlitwe In,'tww-'U 
thirty and forty, with muiistiiclies. Ercn at thnt time his sciunl desire 
was gi'eatly develoj»e<i, and lie had er«ctiunK and polhttioiiH. From that 
tini(»,inflM"d,hc rnnst.iirhnt:<?d diiily.rtiid diiriiiy llu'scl lhouj{litorii Iwlovod 
lUQu. VfthiKgrtat(>stdirli^ht liatl \\vvn \icnvm viH In a-i ftrrigerc. Diiriniif 
the BfX he Imd I'JRciilittiun. with nn iiil4'neti> riH':Iiiif; of pleasure. Only nhout 
twelvu tlnie« b:id he Imd IhiK pU>iuitin>. lit- limt tievi^r felt diH^iiRt with 
the penis of aiiutlier syinpiitliftie nmu ; i|iiitc the contrary. lie bnd never 
itewptwl proirers of jKtlenifty ; activeli" or passively, it w»8 vevy dis- 
gusting to hiin. Ill the |»erver*e wxual act be had always thought of 
himitelf ill fhe r<3/e nT n nonmn. His (iiisiion for men in synipnthy with 
him had |ji-en nnhonndc-d. IIo would hitve done evorythinjf for a lover; 
even at the si^^ht of him he would tremble wilb excitement nud Joy. 

At ninelet>n lit' on-tMi tillowt^l hiiiiHiilf U> l>f. taken by IiIh eommdeft 
to houtH'M of imiHtitutioii. lie never hiul pkiiKurc in eottus, and only in 
the moment of ^aculntion felt satinfiiotioi). In order to get itn enaction 
with M woman, it vta.i alwayx net>eftsary, in the aet, for liiiii to think of a 
beloved nmn. He would always liave prtifenvd to hare the woman allow 
immiasio peniit in ofl, whieh, howAver, was always denied him. Fattte de 
mi«uji, he hiul practictil (K>itus. and, indeed, twice iMH-anie h ffithcr. The 
last child, a girl of eight, had iil ready befinn to practice niaxtnrbation and 
mutual nnaiiitun, wldeh trouhlcd him very mueh as a father. He wished 
to know whether there was any remedy for it. 

The iMitifiit aHft<-rted tliat he always felt himself toward men in a 
feminiiK* role (al^o in sexn.-d intereonrtte). He had nlwny.t ttion^ht that 
bis sexual perverftion had rc-sulted fnun his fathor'n wishing to liegHa 
girt when he begat him. His brothers and sisters had always joked him 
on account of his feminine manners. Swivping' and house-cleaning had 
always been pU-uNanl occupations for him. liis aelivitios in this direc- 
tion had oAuii lieen wondered at, and he was considered more skilind 
than n girl. Whenever he could, he dresaed like a woman. At the 
carnival he appeare^l at the dances masked as a female. lEe wn» very 
suceossAd at coquetry on such onmsiumi, beeanse be had a feminine 

lie had never had i-eal pleasure in drinking, amoking, or in mascu- 
line oecupations or pleasures; but, on the other hand, beloved to sew, 
and as a child hiitl often Iveen scolded for Iiin playing with dolla. HiH 
interest at the circus or theatre was conllned io men. Frequently be 
rould not overcome the impulse to hang around water-uloButs, in order to 
get sight of male genitals. 



nolj vbcM Im tboof^ of s belorcd sbul Nocturnal p b O bI m — wan 
•Jwrnyv iadaecd tjr bMiriotw draun* of omil 

In ffpite of micfa «exittl trteem, B. had never mSerad froa ■!>!■■ 
tbenfat •exoalia, wid, baridee, then wu not ■ sjMaptoM of wriiUiwiw 
dieormrsble in bim. 

Patient i» ddkate, and his TfaiskeiB and moiutacbe. whtrh made 
Ibeir appearance hi bin tveotjr-et|:hUi year, art- thin. Extrraally. with 
the vxcrfAioD of a vcaring gait, be pruenla ttothing which woold 
point to bift frmintnc natare. Ife Mserta that he haa oftea bem )oked 
abool bia Ceminine ^it. His rondnct U in all nagp ecte decent. Hie 
geoHaU are Urgp, wpit UeTvloptH], and nonual in all reepects, and the 
growth of genhal hair is abuodant ; the pelvis ia maKaline^ The bead ia 
rachitic, ftomewhnl bTdrocephalic. witli prominence of tlie parietal booeeL 
The fa«*; in rvinsrkaUy amalL The patient iaya that he i» irriul4caad 
caeily aoffcred. 

Cane liL. On May 1, 1880, G., Ph.T)., and a writer, wna brooffat 
to the clink* for tnciiUil diseaaee, at Gm.r.. hy tlie public aathorities. 
While on liiti rvtam from Italy, G. fonnd a soldier in (Jrax who ^re 
bfanaelf up tii liim for hire, l>ut iiitimately denounced G. to the police, 
'beoatife U. Iit<'l »penly vnntvtiM^l hit* lure for in«ii. Tbv anthorities con- 
iiidered hiit mentai condition dootitfnl, and sent liim to Alitrnists for 
examlnfltion. To tlie physician* G. relatM. with cyni^^l openness, that 
yenrv U-rorc, in M.. Iic> lud hwl Just such nn nffair with tlic gWire, nnd wa^ 
In prlaon fourttfn dnyi*. In the Stnith there waa no <laa^r (Vom such 
people ; it wan only in Germuuy and Aost ria that the thing was regarded 
aa aa eviL 

0. ifl fllty years old, t.all, powerflil, and baa a hnmerouA expression, 
and a cynical, coqiiettifth manner; the ryt; ha» a neiiropnthic, swimming 
BxpnMMdon; the teeth of the under jaw stand far liacb ftom those of the 
np|*er Jaw. The craniiini in normal, the voice masculino, an<I the lieard 
bIhiU'IiuiI. The (^L-nitnl^ are well funned, though tin; testiele^ are some- 
what iininlL With the exception of slight ctnpliysema of the lungs and 
L'xtt-riial llHtiila in atio, there are no remarlcable nnouiuHo^ of the- v(>}ieta- 
live orftAnii. G.'s fstlicr wo-t Riilijcct lo jteriodicnl insanity. Tits mother 
wiu a hifrh-Htning pcrxon, and xlie bad on insane sister. Of the children, 
four diifl In cliililhiKxI. 

Wirh tlie exception of AcrofnlosiR, G. aosertu that lie was healthy. 
FTd ((trfjiiiieil the duKreo of Hoelor of PhilofiCtpby ; at twenty-five, he had 
hiemnptyMis, and went to Itnly, where he baa since lived, with slight 
Interruption, by writing nnd by giving private Icssona. (i. says that be 
oftidi bJiH euiigeHlivufl. nml hIho Hoiue spinal irntatiun, — i.e., pain in bis 
back, — but otherwi>«_- he litM n gciiiiU disiioKition ; uiily be is nut much of 
a financier; and at the same time, like all old prostitutes, be has a very 
good appetite. Further, be stAtes, with great satisfoction and remarlcable 



cynicism, lluit Im liati tiongDiiitul conlrary scximl iiiHiiiict. When only 
five years oltl, it wa« Ui« grcaitost pleasure to grt sight of a pftuH, ami he 
hong ftltout ajiin-opmtc plncf-s, in ordi-T to enjoy llmt plwinun*. Kvuh 
before ]Milwrty ht- pniclit'ocl ninaturbiition. At the time of jnilirrty he 
noticed an inward reeling for frlvnils. An oljacurc impulse pointed ont 
to him tlm wiiy liin Ioyl* wotikl talie. lit' was ai-liially iinpi-ileil to kiss 
young men, and now and then to c:ir<'ss th»-ir gciiitaln. WIil-q twenty- 
six years old, he firnt began to bftvc sexual intercourse with tnon, toward 
whom he felt like n womnn. Even us a child, it was his prentiifit clelinlit 
to put on female attire. He wati ulYen chnstit^ed by bis fnlhcr bcuiusc, 
in the eirorl to nilist]/ this impulse, he put on his sifter's dotblng. 
ir be UiLppeoed to see a ballff, only the nwile dancers tnterostei! hini. 
Since he could lememlwr, lie Imd bad a horn>r leminie. If he hnpjKjnod to 
visit K brothel, it was only to sec young men. He was, indetMt, a rival of 
prostitutfs. If he saw a young niiin, bo Just looked at his eyes ; in case 
thefic pleaswl him, then came the mouth. — whether it was well formed for 
kissing: tbeti he woidd look at the genittds* — wlielln-r they were well 
develo|K!d. (}. {Ktinted, with great tVvliug of Kelf-tiattsfuclion, to Wm poeti* 
cal works, and tried to make it appear timt persons with natures like bis 
were poeticiilly endovrwl. He gave as exampkvt Voltaire, Frederick the 
Great, Rngenc of Savoy, and Plato, as well as numerous distinguished 
men of the present, who, according to his opinion, were umings. Bla 
greatest pleaiinnt was to have & sympalhi^tie yiiiing nuin ren<l his verses 
to him. During the lu^t summer he bad bud 8ucb a lover. When 
he bad to part with hiui, he was t|uite undone, and be did not cat or sleep 
until gradually he had regained bis former condition. Ho said that the 
love of urriiiigH wa« a j>astti(nwle. inner fire. Aci,-onling to his statement, 
in Xftplej* the effemmelli lived in a quarter together, Just as in Paris the 
griaelte* live with their lovcn*. Tliey Ra<;riiic<! theniaelves forlhcir lovers, 
and cnre for thu household, Just as iho grisettes do. On the other hand, 
an uriiiug repels un urning, ''Just as one prostitute doeti another — that is 
the curse." 

The nee) of Intercourse with niales occura about once a week with 
G. lie is happy in his iieculiar sexuality, which he. it is true, ronuiders 
peculiar, but which he will not ri^ard as alniormal or wrong. He tliinks 
tliat nothing renmius for him and those like him but to raise what is un- 
uatuml ill tbem<>elves to the su)) He lookm n|K>n the love of 
urnings us the higher, the ideal, as godlike, nn abstniet love. "When 
shown that such & love is far from the ]iuq)OHe of Nature and the prcaer- 
vation of the racp. he expresses the pessimistic thought iliat the world 
should die out, and the earth turn round its axis K'ithoul men, who were 
on it only for trouble. A» reason mid explanation of bis unnatural 
sexual feeling, (J. refers to Plato, " who <;ertainly was no beast." Plato 
axpreased nllcgoricalty tbc idea that men were originally Uills. The 
goda bad di\idcd these into two hemispheres. For the mo«t {uin, 



man ia Hiited to wonwn, but somrttmc-ii man to man. Tn the Intter case, 
the itnpnlfie to union is quite as powerful as in the former, inid they 
HtrcnjTthen each other in the same way. G, fiirther rolatps that his 
dreatnH, whim tJiey were erotic, never had women, hnt only men, for their 
eiilijecbt. Maltf-lovc was the only Idnd that could satisfy hitn. He con- 
8iderv<) it disgufitiu); for one liuman huinii to lie pnjddin^ ;iliuiit in the 
ahdoiuen of anotlier with hifl penin, «inco he had he»r«l ttiat in this dis- 
gusting fashion coUun waa nsnally i^arriml out. He hud never had the 
cariOHity to inform himself coiu-oming the femBlr ^rntt.nbt; the suKjecl 
iras disgusting to hiiu. The indulgence of liis seximl np[>otito he did not 
cotiskler a vice, but the result of a nutunU im])iil»e which comimlled him 
tti il. It conduced to self-pre)<ervntion. Onanii«in was a |ioor subetitutc, 
and, moreover, injurioii», while iirning-luve wim juonilly elevating and 
conducive to phy«ical well-being. 

With moral iiidignntioo, which in coutrast with his cynivitqn in 
other direelions «p)>e»rt.'d ridiuuloun, he protected nguinst the ulaHfiifun- 
tion of urniupti with thoi^ie who indulge*! in )K^tern»ly. lie looked on the 
podex wilh dis^just, ns it waii n sieerotinp: orpnn. The iutereourHe of 
umings alwny« took place in front, and was combined onanism. 

This was tlie extent of O.'h dirtclosnnw, whose mental condition was 
certninl^' congenilally abnormal. A» prouf of tlits, may Iw citctl his 
cynicism; his incredible frivolity in his applicntiou of his vices to re- 
ligion, in which din-clioii we eunnot follow him withtmt overwtcppiiip the 
bounds (set by fcicntitic Iniiuiry; his i»ervenH* |>hiio8ophic«l ideas with 
reference to his sexual [icrversion ; his porverso manner of looking »t the 
world ; his cthicnl defiTt in all directions ; his vn^boiifla)>e; nnd hit* |xt- 
verse mind iin{l exlurior. (3. luakiw the iiuprc-ssion of an oritfinal 
paninniae. (Pi-raom*! cusc ZeUBvlirift /Ur PsychuHrie.) 

Case 12(t. Tiiylor had o<;ca»ion to examine a certain Eliza Kdwarda, 
aged 24. It wan diH(.'uven-il that nUv wa» uf luaiieuliue sex. K. had worn 
female clothinu fmm her foui'tecnth year, and nleo Ixwn an actress. The 
luiir wai* itiu-ii lonj( after the manner of femaleit, and |>nrted in the middle. 
The form of the face was feniinitie, lint nlherwise the body wuh miuiculine. 
The beard wa^ carerully piilli-il niiL Tlie nmHcuHiic, welUleveloped geni- 
tals were llxe<t in an ii|>w!ii'd position liy nn artfVd handjige. The con- 
dition of the anus indiesited passivu pcilerasty. 

Oa»e 127. An ollicial of middle afre, who for some yeara luul been 
happy in family life, and was married to a virtnouA woman, presented a 
pctMiliar manifostatton of contrary itexual feeling. 

One day, through the indiscretion of n prostitiite, the following 

Bcaudal Wcame public: Alwnt once a week X. would apiwar in a house 

of profltitution, and thcro dresn himself up as a woman, alwayn nxiuiring, 

aa a part of his costume, a coiinire. When hlfi toilet was compWti^l, he 

I vould lie ilown on the l)cd, and have the prustit-ute perform miinustupm- 

[tion. But be very much preferred to hB\'u a male i>crsou (a servant of 



the liouiic). This mnn's fktbi-r was hereditarily tainted, bad \»en uinane 
Mveral times, sod wm afflicted with hypeneittbetiia and puttsthosia 

Cane 128. C. R., luaid-ecrvaut^ aged 26, suirered rroin the time of 
her developuieut with originjil immnoia »tid hysteria. A» a rcstilL or her 
di'lusioDH, her Wtv had been somewhat romuntic, and in IHi^i, in Swilxcr- 
liind, when- »\ie had i^one a8 a rennlt of delusions of |>en»evutio»,iihe ^'ame 
under the (>ti<4rrratioM of the authoritici;. On this oc^'aaiod, it was ascer- 
tained that K. was affected with contrary aesual instinct. 

Conceniin;^: hur {HirentH nnd rebttivoa there is no infonnation at 
band. U.aMtertcit that, with the cxecptioo of uii liillaraniatioa of Ibc 
lungs at the age «f sixteen, she had never been severely ilL 

Fimt menittruation nt fifteen, without any diUloulties; thereafter it 
was very often irrejiular and ahnormaHy oxce«8ive. Tht! |>:iti«iit declared 
that she never bad had incHnatioiis toward the opposite Ht-x.and had never 
allowed the approavh of a man. She never uouhl understand bow her 
friendH eoiild dL'M.Ttl>e the beauty and ainiuhilily of men. But it was 
eliarmiu^ and iiiH|)iring for Iter to imprint a kies on the li]i» of u lieloved 
female friend. She had a love for g^irU that wi^ tncouipreheasible to her. 
She liad pajwioiiutely toved and ktN.sed some of her feinide friends, and 
«he would hnvc given up bcr lite for tbcni. Tier greatest delight would 
have tiet^it to have constantly lived with such a friend and ahAoluteiy 
puoaessed her. 

In this she felt toward the belovnl girl like a man. Even as a 
little chiltl, 8be hud an irirlination only for tlie play of buys, and she 
loved to hear ahooting and militarj- mnsic, waa atwnys miieh excited by 
them, and wonid glniUy liave gone tm a soldier. The chase and wur have 
lirt'n her Idi-als. Ill the tbeiitrc only fi-mininc [H-rrnmivrti interested her. 
She knew very well tliat the whole of this inclination vta» unwiiman]3*, hut 
she voutd not lieli> it. U bad always been a gi-vnt jileHBure for her lo go 
atHJut in niitic dotliin^, and in Ibc same wiiy («he had alwnya preferred 
muHcnliiiu work, and ?<hown nniuuul ^kitl in it; while with refer- 
ence to feminine fiecDpation.t. espei'inlly handiwork, iflie had to aay tho 
contran.'. Tlic [lallent bad uUo a wctikneHH for Rmrtking and spirits. On 
account of |HT»ciMit<>ry delusions, in order to rid herwlf of her ]>er8ecu- 
tions, the [intient had olten gone alKint in mnle attire, and played the 
part of » miiu. She did tins with such (conguuital) aklll that, us a rule, 
she was altle to deceive ix?ople crf)nccming her aex. 

It is authoritatively es.trtblif*heil tbut in 1SS4, for a long time, the 
patient went almnt tn male attire, now in the garniuntH of a civilian, now 
In the nninirni of a licuLunant; nud in August of the same year, dressed 
as a Dinlc servant, ?he tti^d to Switzerland as a result of detut)i«)im of |)er- 
Becution. There she found service lu ii mercliant's family, and fell in love 
with the daughter of the hoUKe, " the lieaiitifUI Anna," who, on her side, 
not recognizing the sex of K., fell in love with the handsome 3'onug man. 



Conccmtnfjr this episode the pntient oukca the rollowing choiacter- 
Istie stalcuiuuL : ** I wa.i madly in love wiUi Aniu. I don't knuw how it 
csnic iit)oul, aud 1 cannot put myself right uoacenung thw impulee. In 
tfais fktol love lies the renson why I pUyed the rdfe of « man so long. I 
b*veiiev«r \L't Ttflt an}- lov« for a umn, ami 1 Ivlievo that roy love U for the 
female uiid not the male sex. I can in nowise tindersund rar conrlitioo.^' 

From i^witzerlanU R. wrote letters home to her friend, AiucUa, 
which were prodoce<l at the euiminatiun. They are letters showing {los- 
sionatc love, which goes lieyond tliu liuund^ of rrii-iiil»Ui|>. She ii|H»tro- 
fjfaizes her IViond, "' My Sower, sun of my heart, longing of my iwul." 
Sbe ws» her greatest happiness on enrth ; her heart wax her». And in her 
letter* to her friend'x |i»rentt she wrote: " Yon, too, ttlionkl wnteJi your 
ilover, for, if sbe should die, you also would be nnahle lo endure life.** 

For the purpose of inrcstignting her mental condition, R. remained 
for Bone time in uti n^ny lum. On one occaHion. rrUen Anna van allowed 
to pay H. a viiiil, there was uo end of passionate embraeeH and kiHses. 
The visitor acknowledged freely that they had before secretly embraced 
and ktiwed in the tuime way. 

R. is a tidl. slim, stately person, of feminine form in all re-specta, 
bat with mascnline featurett. Cnuiium rc^lar; no amtomiral signs of 
degeneration. Genitals normal and indicative of vir^nity. All the 
olrcumatsucee indicate thai nhe lias only iudul>fed in platonic love. 
Olanec and appoaranee arc indientive of n neuropathic persoti. Severe 
hyiteriu, oecuHional cataleptoid attacks, with vitfioaary and delirious 
BtateM. The patient is very easily bronchi into n state of sumoaaibuli^m 
by hypnotic intluence, and in this euiidition la suseei>tible to nil possible 
aagg(»(tioua. (PcrMtnal case. Fricdretch't Blotter, 18S6, Ilcft 1.) 

4. Amlrotji/nt/ uitif <7^7i«/M/r//.— Forming direct transitions 
from tilt' Ibregoing groujw are tkoisc iudividiials of contrary sex- 
uality in whom not only theclmrartcr and all the feelings arc in 
accord with the abnormal s^-xiial instinct, but also t)ie skeletal 
form, the leatures, voice, etc. ; so that the individual approaches 
the opposite sex aulJir(>iK)to<(icaI1y, and in more than a psychical 
and |)»y(;ho*ttextiaI way. TluEi antliro^Kilogical form of the cere- 
bral anomaly apparently represents a very high degree of degen- 
eration; but that this variation is based on an entirclv different 
ground than the teratological tnunifestation of hermaphroditism, 
hi an anatomical sense, is clearly shown by the fact that thus far, 
in the domain of contrary t>extiality, no transitions to hermaph- 
roditic malformation of the genitals have been observed. The 
gcuitaU of these ^wrsous always prove to be fully differentiated 



sexually, though not hifrequwitly th<;rc aro present itnutomicnl 
signs of degeneration (epis[mdiasi!i, etc.). iu the i$euse of arrvsU 
of development in oi^ns tiiat are otherwise well differentiated. 

Tliere is yet wantinj; a siiffiriciit record ol* en-ses belonging 
to thisint4Ji-estiiig fjroup uC wumeii in mnsctdint! attiif with mus- 
culine genitals, and men in feminine tlresj, with the sexual or- 
gans of the female. Ever) experienard obsprver of liis felhiw-men 
remembers inasetdiue persons that were very remarkable for tlieir 
womanish character and ty[»e (wide hips, form rounded by 
abundant development of adi^Kisc tissue, absence or insufficient 
development of beard, feminine fealun*s, delicate complexion, 
falsetto voice, etc.); and, ou the otlier hand, women that, by 
reason of build, |iehis, gait» attitude, lieavy and dceiriwUy 
masculine features, rough and deep voice, etc., had little to 
remind one of femininity. 

We have already met some indications of such an anthropo- 
logical tnnisformation in foifgoing groups, as in Case 106, 
where the woman bad the tcet of a man; and in (Jase 112, 
where tliere wiis development of mamma; and protiuction of 
milk during puberty. 

In |»er6on8 belonging to the fourth group, and in certain 
ones in the third, forming transitions to the fourth, there seems 
to be a feeling of shame (sexual) toward persons of the same 
sex, and not toward those of the opposite sex. 

Cnite 329. Androyi/ny. Mr. v. H., a^cd 30, single ; of oeuroijathic 
uiothvr. Nervous nud mentaJ dim^ses arc said not to have occurred iii 
tln! [wti^nt's family, and bis only lirother is said to he nu-ntally and 
phyfticfllty connjletely normal. Tlie |nitifntdi!ViilopKd timlily physically, 
and, therefore, spent lutich of his time at the sca-Bhora and cliimitic 
rt-HortH. Fnim cbilibood he wns of neuropathic constitution, nnd. accord- 
ing to tlie stfttoinents of bia relatives, uulikc otbcr boye. ilis disinclina- 
tion for mnsculine jmrtiuits and his preference for feminine aiungetueuta 
were early remarked. Tbus he avoided all boyii^li jrame,^ and gymnastic 
exerclHtti, while doll-play and feminine occnpntionit were particularly 
pleasing to him. Thereafter he deveh>|i«l welt plivHically, and escnpefJ 
severe JllncAtten, lint he reniaioMl menLally abnormal, ineajmhle of an 
earnest aim in life, and decidedly feminine in thought and feeling. 

In hia seventeenth year pollutions occuri-ed, Ijccttnie more freijuent, 
and Onally look pUice during the day ; so tliatthe jmtieDt grew weak, and 




msnifcsU-d vuriaiis iiurvotitt ilisturluuiccH. Syinj)tnm« uf uuui-ofitbeuU 
Hpiiiatis made tlivir nifpeuruiice, mid tuivv hu«tud u]i to tbe last few yenrs, 
hut llicv bavv iH-romi? miliier wilL Iht decivHW in Lhu nuiuWr of [>oIlu- 
tionn. Onanism is ilcnieil, Imt in very prali»)ilc. An indolent, etfeminnte, 
dreamy habit (tf thought has Ijccome moru and more uoliccahiL* ever siuco 
puberty. All efTurtB tn induce thi- imtk'nt t« take up ati tiirucKt purHtnt 
in life WLTu vuiii. ili» iutcllfeluiil ruuutiuuit, tbougU Ibrmaily quilf 
andi»turbed, were tieror c^|ual to tbe motive of hu iiidegjvndent uhameter, 
and the hi|;iiur idL-Mlx of lifv. Uc ri'iiuiiiiiK) dL-]>emk'nt, hu overgrown 
child; nnd nothing niorc^ cl<>»rly indicAt<^d lii» original abnormal condi- 
tion thnu an itcttml inciipftbility to take enrc of money, and his own con- 
fcBBion thill be lind no ability to imo money riviKonubly ; tlint a» »ooii tm 
he had uKJuey Uo wasted it for curios, loilut-arliclirs, and thu like. 

Incapable jis he was of a it^ma liable u»e of money, the jmtient was 
no more capable of leading n social existence; indeed, lie waa iuoapable 
of gaining itu !iiei<{1it into its signifieanee and value. 

He learned very poorly, spi'iidiiig bis time in loileUet and artistic 
notbinjjM, pnrticulaHy In painting, for wlticli lie evinced a ccrtiiiii cajm- 
bility; but in this direction be aocomptialicd nothing, since be war 
wnnting in perse vert'iicc. He could not be brought to take up any 
earneHl tliuught; he had iLniiud only for extiM'naly, was always distracted, 
and serious tbiii;^s quiclily wearied biui. Preposterous nctis, eouseless 
Jotirneya, waste of money, and debtn repentc'dly occur throiigliont tbe 
counie of bis Jatvr life; ami even fur tiu-^u pol^itive faults in his life he 
was wanting in nnderatanding. Ho was nelf-witled ami intracUible, and 
never did well as <tooii »» un attempt was iimde to put liiin on bis feet and 
point out to him his own intcrescs. 

With these mnnittslatiotis of an original abnormal and liefetJtlvo 
mind, there were notable iiidicatiomi of pervertse sexual feeling, wbieli 
were aUo indteuled in the soinutic bnlntus of the [iRtieiit. Sexually, the 
patient felt like a wuin:ui toward nieii.aiid litid inoliiiatioit^ lownixl people 
of bis own sex, with inditfert:nce, if not actual dUincliniition. for fenmles. 

In bis twenty-second year it is asserted that he bud sexual inters 
conme with wiiiiicujiind wait ahlc to perform Uie net nf eulinbitatlon nor- 
mally ; but, partly on account of increase uf ueuriihLbentc tiyniptoins 
wbich wns oeeusional after coitus, niul partly on nucouut of feiir of infec- 
tion, — but really by reason of a want of SKlisraclion.— he sonii ceased to 
indulge iu siieli intercourse. Concerning bis abni^niial sexual condition, 
be is not quite clear; be Is conseioua of an inclination toward the male 
sex, but confesses, only in a sliame-fitced way. chat be has certain pleasur- 
able feelings (if friendship for nia^ciilinu Individuals^, wlitoh, however, mtc 
not accompanied by any sensual feelings. Tbe female sex he does not 
exautly abhor ; he couki even bring himself to mnn'y n woman wbo oouIU 
buve ail atlractioii for him, b)* me»ns of similarity in artistic tastes, if Im 
oould hut he freed fk-om conjugal duties, which were unpleasant to him, 



uid the ]>crfominnce of nliich mtide him tired anil wenk. Re denied 
liBviiig had sexual intercourse vritli men, but bla hluabing oud cmlHtrrasft. 
inviit, uiiil, Klill more, mi occurrence in N., wtieru tbc pnticnt, some time 
bttfore, jtrnvukcil il suuuilul by atteuipliiig to have Bexuul inlcrcourse witli 
youths, gave liim the lie. 

Too, his external «ppenrance, habitus, form, KestureR, muDiter«, and 
dress arc reuuirknbU-, mid decidedly recall the feminine form and «,:iiftme- 
teristics. Tiie pntient, however, Ih over niiddle height, but thorns aud 
]>elvi8 »re ducidudly of femiaitiB form. The body m ricli in fiit ; the Hkiii is 
well cored for, delicnte, aud soft. This impression of a vomun iu mascn- 
line dress i» further iiicreasvd by s thin growth of bair on the fsice, whi«h 
i» shaven, with the czueplion ofaiituall moustache; by the miiieinggait; 
the sliy,e(reniimite manner; the feminine feattires; tlie swimming, neiiro- 
pAlbic expression of the eyes; the traces of powder and paint; the cur- 
tailed cut of the clothing, with the bosom-like promiiieiioe of the u{>pcr 
gnrmenls; the f^'inged, feminine cravnt; and the buir brimbed down 
smoothly from the brow to tlie temples. Tbe pbynieal examination makes 
undoubted tb« feminine form of the body. The ejttenial ^jenitals aiv wvU 
developed, Ihoufrh the left testicle ha-s remained in the canal ; the growth 
nf hair on tfu: mons veneris Is thin, and tbe hitter is unusiuilly rich in fat 
and prominent. The voice i» high, and without masculiuc timbre. 

Too, the occupHtioii and maimer of thought of v. U. are decidedly 
feminine. lie has a boudoir aud a well-BUpplied toilet-table, with wbicb 
he spends many hours- in all kinds of arts for beiiutil5,'ing himself. He 
abhors tbe chM!-«', practice with arm**, and such maseuline pursuits, and 
calls hiniHelf an asthele ; speaks with preference of his paintings and 
attempts at poetry. He is interested in feminine oixnimtious, which — 
tf.^.jembroidei-j-^hc engapeH In, and call^ bis gn'Uteflt [deasiire. Heeould 
apeud h\» life in au artistic and u^^thctic circle of Indie;? luid gentlemen, in 
conversation, music, and (esthetics. Uis eouversatJou is prerorably about 
feminine thiujj;B, — l!iu»biou», needlework, cooking, and household work. 

The iwtient is well noiirisbed, but anaemic. He Is of neuropathic 
constitution, and prei^puts symptoms of ncurastbculn, which are maiu- 
tained by a liad iimiiuer of life, lying abed, living in-<loors, and elfemi- 
nateness. FIc eotni>lainK of occasioual puiu aud pivusure iu tbe head, and 
habitual obstipntion. Ue is easily frightened ; complains of occasional 
lassitude and fatigue, and drawing paius In the extremities, Id the dircc- 
tlou of the luml»o-»lKiorainal nerves. After pollution.'^, and regularly 
Bftor eating, he feels tired and relaxeil ; he is sensitive l« presHure over 
the spinous proeenses of Uie dorsal vortcbne, as also to pressure along 
acoessible nerves. He feels peculiar sympathies anit antijjatbies for cer- 
tain persons, and, when he meets people for whom he has an nnli)mtby, 
he falls into » condition of peculiar fear and concision. His pollutions, 
though now they occur but seldom, are {mthologlcal, in that they occur 
by day, and are uuaccompauied by any Bcnsual exdtemcnt. 



Opinion: 1. Mr. v. IL, aecoi'ding to all obserrntions and reports, ia 
nit^iitally hii tLlinurtiml nml clfft-L'ti^'e- jHtrKoil, ami iLal. in fact, ab uridine. 
H'tn coulmry sexual iuBtiuct roprcsviits a part of hie abnonnal ph.veical 
and iiK^tiUl coiKlitiou. 

2. Tbia I'ondition, in that it is congenital, is incurable. There 
exists dofectivf oi-)j;:inizatioD of the highest cfrc-ljml centres, wLieli renders 
liiin inruimltle of Iciuling an iiidupuuduiiL life, and of ohtairiinj^ u position 
in life, liis iK-rvei-Be sexual iiistinet jjieveote laim fl'oui exercising 
aorm&t nexiuU riiiiction!i ; and Vbis is atlvtided by All tlie ooeial eonse- 
qiieoce^ of «ueli an guiotualj', and tbo danger of itatiHfiicUon of perverse 
impnU<-s ari*inR out of his rihnomud organization, willi consequent 
s<icial and Itigfd conflicts. Kwir of the hitter, however, cannot Iw great, 
since the (perverRcl scxtinl impulse of the patient is weak. 

3. Mr. V. U., in tlie lejral sense of the wor<l. is not irreKiJonsible, and 
neither lit for^ or in iiee<l of, trentiueiil lu ii bo9i>it»l fur the iii^iK-. it is 
poftsihic for liiin — ^tliongh but an overfjrown child, nud incapable of pcr- 
Bona! indcpc'iidentre — to live in soeiaty, though under the uare uiid guid- 
ance of normal individuals. Too, to n certain extent, it is possible for 
lilui to re»|>ect the laws and rk.-»^trietionK of Hoiiiety, and to Jud^c his own 
acta J but, with respect of possible sexual errors and contlicts with crimi- 
nal laws, it must bo eniphuMizeil that hiH sexual instinct it almonnal, 
liftving its oripin in oif^nie iiatholo^ical conditions; and tiiis circuni- 
atanco should eventually be uHe<l in his favor. On account of his notorious 
lack of independence, he cannot he disoliargt-d from parental or 
^larilianship, inasmncb as otherwise he would be ruined Onancifllly. 

i. Mr. V. H. is also physically ill. lie presents signs of slight 
RDKniin and of neurasthenia spinnhs. A rationoi n^ulatlon of his man- 
ner of life and a tunic regiuieu, and. if possible, hydro-therfl|ieutie trent- 
ment, seem necessary. Tlie suspicion that this trintble has il» origin in 
early raasturKition should be entertained, and tbe possibility of th« 
existence of spermntorrha'ji, that is of importatif-c etiotogicatly and thera* 
poutically, lies near. (Fcrsonal case. Hcituchr.f. FKijrJiiatrie.) 

Case lao. Miss X..hged 3H. uonsultwl mv.hite in the fall of 188], dd 
account of severe spinal irritation ami obstinate sleeplessut-Bs, in combatr 
ing which she had liecome addicted to mnrphine and chloml. Iler mother 
and sister were ncrvons Hutforers, but the rest of the family wore hcJiltby. 
The trouble dated from a fall on her hack in 187'2, at which time the 
patient was turribly fVightened, though, when a girl, she liad liewi subject 
to muscular cramps ajid hysterical symptoms. Following Ibis shock, 
a neurasthenic and hysterical neurosis developed, with predoiuiuatiug 
spinal irritation and sleepless ncaa. Episo<lically, hysterica) jMiraplegia, 
lasting as long as eight months, and hysterical bflDucinntory delirium, 
with eonvulsivc atlsicks, occurred. In the courae of this, syinploins of 
morphinism were added. A stay of some months in the hospital relieved 
Uie latter, and considerably lmpruv«d tlie neurnflthuiuo nourosia, in the 



treatment of which genentl fanidization exerted n rt'ianrkably fuvomble 
irtfliiencK. , 

Even at the flret mflctiog, the patient produced a roMiarknble im- 
preH»)ir>ii hy rcHKon of Imr nttire, fetitiires, and i-oiidiu't. Slit* wurc r 
gcntlenuui's hat, hc-r hair clotwly cut, oye-glusees, a gcutlcuiaii*» cntvut. u 
coftt-Iike outer gnrment of masculine cut tlint reached weil down over her 
gown, and hootH witb high h«fi>lrt. Shv had coar*t.', somewhat mniiculine 
feature^); a harsh, d^'ep Toice ; anri nmde rathfr the impreswioTi of a man in 
female attire than that of it Indy, if one but overlooked the bosom and 
the decidedly feriiininr furtn »if tlie pelvis. Pnring the long lime tJiat 
she was observed, there were never signs of erotocism. When LjueRtionefl 
conoerninK her attire, 0he would only resfiond that the i*tyle she ehose 
suited her better, Oraduatly it wirnn n^eertaiiiei^l from her tlmt, even wlien 
ahe wa« a itnialt j^irl, ^he tiai) had » preference for horsea and mnitoiiline 
p'irBuitR, and nevor any interest in foiinnine ocenpationB. Later she 
developed a particular ph'asure in rending, nnil iire|)are<l h«n«3lf to be a 
tiaeher. Dancing had never pleased lier; it liinl always aeerncil silly to 
her. Too, tLic Ixillel had never iatcrcttted her. licr greatest plcaaurc 
had always be«n in the cireua. Until her sickiiese, in 18T3, ahe had 
neither ha»1 inelinatinn for puiRons of the opposite nor for tho«e of her 
own Bex. From that time she had, what vnm rcmarkaiile to liermdf. a 
pecnliar friendship for females, particularly for young ladles; and she 
had a draire. and satiHfie<l It, to wear liAt.t and eoatH of niaHcidine Htyle. 
Since I86y, beside-s, tthe had worn her liair short, and [isLrted it on the 
Bide, BS men do. She ntitserts that she was never nensuutly cxcitct in the 
company of men, hut that her (Viend^jhipand self-sacrificu for»yni[)athetic.' 
ladieM was unbounded; while from that time ahe also experienced repug- 
nance for gentlemen and Their Hociety. 

Her relntiveft rejK>n thai., Iiefore lK12,the patient Imd a proposal of 
mnrridge, which 8he refused; and that when she ivlurned from n Hojourn 
at a wiite ring-place, in ItiTl, Hhe wa» sexually changed, and occasionally 
Khowe*! that she did not reganl herself nts ii female. 

Since that time ahe wouhl associate only with ladies, and has had a 
kind of love-relation with one or another, and made remarks which indi- 
cated that she looked upon herself as a man. Tliii^ predilection for 
women was decidedly more tlian mere IViendship, since it expmwed itself 
in tears, jealousy, ete. 

When, in 1874, she was fttopplng at a wneering-place, a young 
lady, who took her for a man in diac^iliie, fell in love with her. When 
this lady married, later, the i>at!ent was for a long time depressed, 
and Kpoke of unfaithfulness. Moreover, since her aieklwsB, her relatives 
were titruek by her desire ft»r nntseuliiiu uttJre, her masculine conduct, and 
di<iinelinntion for feminine purHiiit>«; wliile previously, at least sexooUy, 
she had presented nothing unusual. 

Further inveHllgations showed that the iwtient had a love-relation, 



wbicfa w»» RoC pardj pMonic, witb tbe ladj deacribcd un Caae 118 ; sad 
thxt «be «T0t4* bet mfbctiooate lett«n tike those of a lover to Im briored. 
la Itt7 I i^B WW tke patient' in a wiiterim, vl»eR At had Iwca 
ylMJcd m ■eeomt of kyater»«|alepcae ■tnafca^ iinMl irrilatuM, ttad 
■orphfrrfBiii Tbe oootruy Mxiui Cediag nktad — chiagii^ aad ooljr 
by tiic oMMt caniftil wstcliing wm tlw patint kefit (rora improper adraocM 
toward ber fUIow-paticntiw 

B«r coodrtioo KtoatiMd quite ■"r'tfy * until 1S89. Ttuti ibe 
patient b^in to fUl, and iibe dkd of " exhaostioa," in AogoBt, ISSS. 
Tbe aotopcf sbowed, in tbe regcCatire organs, amyloid degcMMHtioa of 
tbc kidneym, flbroma of tbe utenn, and cyst of tbe left ovary. Tbe frootal 
booe was macfa thickened, aneren on tbe inner sorfiKe, witb Domerons 
exoatoaea ; dam arlh<>'rent tn vaolt at mminnt. Long diameter of skuU, 
1)5 n]iUiQietre« ; lateraJ diameter. 148 millimetna ; weight of the <£deina- 
Uiua, hut not atrophied, brain, 1175 grammes. Tbe ramlngeo delicate, 
aarily reroored. Cortex pale. Convoluttoos bruad, not numeroiu, 
regularly arraiitfvd. Nothing abDonnaL in cerebellain and greet jnui^ia. 

Ciu»e 131. OynanJry.' History: On Novi-mlwr 4, I8S9, the Mep- 
btber of a certain Count f^andor V. complained that the buter had 
nrindted him out of 8(K)f., uoder tbe pretenne of requiring a tiond aa 
eecretary of a stock company. It was aseertained that Sandor bad 
entered into matrimonial eontraci« and eneaped from tbe naptiabi in tbe 
apring of 1889; and, more than this, that this ostenRiblo Count Sandor 
waa no man at all, but a womau tii male attire, — Saralta (Charlotte), 
CouDteiw V, 

R. waa arreted, and, on account of deception and forgery of public 
documenu, brought to examination. At tbc fin>t h«niring S. confe^Red 
that flhe waa liom on Sept. R, lfli?6; that she was a female, Catholic, 
Bin|;le, and worked a« an nutlmreas under lli(> name of ('ount Sandor V. 

From tbe autobiogmphy of this man-womnn I have gb^ncd the 
following rvmarkablv facttt tliat have lieuu indfpL-ndently confirmet) : — 

rt. coiiiea of nn luicient, noble, and hit'bly-rwpwted raniily uf Uun- 
|[ary, in which there have l>ecn eccentricity am) family' pet-uliarities. A 
fliHUT of the mah-iiinl grnodmother wiik hy!*l'>ricAl, a somnambuliftt, and 
lay N^vi;nt4M!n yoaft in U-d, on iicroiint of fitncte'l paralysis. A second 
Igniat-nunt Hiicnt acven years in lied, on aecoutit of a fancied fatal illneaa, 
and at llie same time gave bnlln. A third bnd the whim that a certain 
table in ber »al"n wim bewitched. If auytluDg were Inid on this table, Rbe 
would become greatly excited and cry, " Bewitched ! liewitehed !" and run 
with the object into a room which Rhc called the " Black Ch«niher,"' and 
the k*iy of which ahe never hit out of ber hands. After the death of thia 
lady, there wore found In tbU chamber a number of shawls, ornaments, 

■ Camp. Uio cxt>"^ tncdioi] o[iliifoa of Ihla caae, bjr Ur. Blrabavb«r, |q FtMnloh% 
Bl»t«r f. fcr. tied., 1891, H. 1. 


bank-notCB, etc. A fourth grcat-aiinl. during t«fo\ ^ 

hwr room, nn<I neither washed htr»«eir nor cwnbed K tf 

ftgnin nuiiie her «pi>o:ir!inee. All tlipw ladies were, d., 
lectual, finely educate?*!, and amialjU';. X 

8.'» mother was nervous, and <.^oidd not bear tho \xg\l 

From Iter fatht-rV family U. is said h\k had a traou U}^ 
line of the family gave itself up almost entirely to BpirituA 
lilnQ'l-relationH on tlitr CatUer's Hid<- nbot thenDtelres. Th« mnjc ^her 
male rvlativea are unusually tatetitcd ; the fomftU-* are decidedly narrow 
and dome^c. S.'a father bar) a liij^h pOHitfon, which, however, on account 
of his cocentricity and estravagaiioe (he wiisted over a million and a holf), 
be lost. 

Anions many foolixfa things th:*! ber father encoura{;ed iu b«r was. 
the fact that he bronj^ht her uji a» a ttoy, called her Sandor, allowed! her 
to ride, drive, nud hunt, admiring her mumcular energy. 

On t]i« other hand, this fodlisli fiitlicr nilowei] bis HK-oml iton to go 
aliout in female attire, and hnd him lu-ongbt u|j aa a girl. Thiti farce 
cca'fed in his fifteenth year, when the son wns i»cnt to a higher dchool. 

KaroltJi-Sandor remained iiiMk-r ht-r fnlher's influence till hiTtwelPlb 
year, and then came under the cure of her e<«entric mnteniul grand- 
mother, in Dresden, by whom, when the mnacuHue play became too ob- 
vious, she was plneed in an IiiHtitute, and nuidi.- to wenr feniale attire. 

At thirl-een she h»tl a lovu-rflation with nn KiigUsb girl, to whom 
she reiiresentet) herself n-s a boy, and mn away witb her. 

Snrolta returned to Uer niotber. who, however, could do nothing, and 
was comiwllvd to nllovr her daughter to again becnme Sandor, we»r male 
cIotheK, and, at Imat once a year, to fall in love with persons of her own 

At the same time, S. recvivvd a earefVil education, aud mitde long 
JounievB with her liilher, — of course, alwayn as a young gentleman. She 
early l>ei-nme iudi<|H>iident, ai]d visited caftan, even tho8e of doubtful char* 
actcr, and, indeed, iK^asteil one day that itt a brothel she luid had a girl 
sitting on va<.h knee. S. was itfleii intoxir-aterl, had a {uiaalon for maae^i 
line MiJorUi, ami wa>* a very skillful fencer. _^--' 

Sbc felt herself drawn particularly toward actreasea, or atliers of 
ainiilar |)o8iti()n, aud. if iiossible, towm-d those who were nut very young. 
She aiu«ert-'« tli:iL she never had any inclination for a young man, and tbafc 
Ahe b«fl felt, from year to year, an increasing dislike for young men. 

"I preferred to go into the society of ladies with ugly, ill-favnred 
men, an that none of them rould juit mc in the kIduIo. If I noticed ihaL 
any of the men awakened the symiwithies of the ladies, I felt jealous. I 
preferred ladies whi> were bright and pretty; 1 could not endure them 
if tliey were f«t or much inclinetl tuwjird men. It delighted me if the 
pamton of a lady was disclosed iiiitler n |io«tic veil. All immodesty in a 
iroman was disguatiug to me. I hud an indescribable nveraioD for female 



attire, — intleed, for evcrj-tliing rcrainine, — hut only in as far as it con. 
ccrnci) me : for, on tlie other liniKl, I was nil enLliiiHiuKm for tlie beau- 
tiful BCX." 

DiniiiB tlie last ten years S. bad lived almost constantly away From 
lior relative<i, in the gtiine of a man. She lnul tind many tiationt with 
ladies, traveled nuicli, spent much, and lunde debts. 

At tlic Kiime time, she onrried on literary work, and wae a valued 
{HiIlabonLtor un two iiutud juuriialtt of the Caiiitiil. 

Her passioD for ladies woa very changeable ; coDstaiicy in love was 
entirely wnuting. 

Only onee diil such a Hainan last three v&ltb. Tt was year*i before 
that S., nt Cnslle G,, innile the acquaintance of Emma K., who wrts ten 
.yean) older than iientelf. She fell in love with her, made a marriage- 
eontrtiut with her, uiid tbey lived togetliur, as man and wife, fgr three 
years nt the Capital. 

A new love, whirh S. regarded as a fate, caused her to serer her 
raatriinniiini relations with E. The latter woidd not have it «o. Only 
with the fn^'ntest aacrifiee was S. able to purcliase lier fVeerlom from B., 
who, it in rfjiurted, still lookti upon bei'sclf :ia u divoreed wife, and regards 
hcrwlf as the Counteas V.I That S. also bad tlie power to excite 
passion in other women is shown l«y the fuc-t tbnt when nlie (before her 
inarriftgu witb K) had grown lircd of a Miss !>,, aftur bnving spent 
thou.S'aiids of g^uldons on her, she was threatened with shooting by X). if 
she bUouUI become nntrue. 

It wns ill the summer of 1887. while at a water! ng-plaee, that 8. 
made the Bc<iuaiiitance of n distinguished otKcial's family. Immediately 
she fell in love with the daughter, Marie, and her love was returned. 

Her mother and cousin tried in v.iiii to break up this ntlair. During 
the winter, the lovers corresponded Z(?:dously. In April, 1888. Count S. 
paid her a visit, and in May, 1889, nttntned her wish; in that Marie^ 
vrho, in the meaulitue, had ^iven np a position as teacher — liccame her 
briile in the (JreseuKo of a frienil of her Inver, tlio ceremony being per- 
formed in an arbor, by a false priest, in HLingary. S., with her fViend, 
forged the miirriaj;e-eertiQcatc. The pair lived linppilvi and, without the 
intorfcrcuce of the -Htet>-ratber, this false niarrin<re, probably, would have 
lasted miicli longer. It is remarkable that, tlnriiij; the comparatively 
long existence of the relation, 8. wos able to deceive completely the 
family of her bride with regard to her trne sex. 

H. watt a pa^siouale smoker, and in all reH|K>cts her tasteH and |)aB- 
Blons were maseuline. iter letters and even legal documents reautieil her 
under the address of '* Count 8." She oHen spoke of having to drill. 
l-'rom remarks of the father-in-law, it seems that S. (and she afterward 
confeaied it) knew bow to imitate a scrotum with haiidken-biufs or gloves 
stnffed in the trousers. The fatherindaw also, on one oce&sion, noticed 
Bomethiiig like an erected member ou his future sou-in-1uw (pro1>al>1y a 



aa). Slic also occasional Ijir rcniurki^il thnt •iho wtm nlilijrcd to vcnr » 
Buspeusory bandnge wliilt* riding. Tbe I'act ift, S. wore a baTulage amtiud 
the boil,Y, |K)»&it)I^' UH a niutns of ri^Uuiiing a prIaptiB. 

Though S. olVu bftii licreuir Blmvud pro forma, the aervantH in the 
hotol wheru she lived were convinced llmt she wap a woman, btvauac the 
chftmhormaids found trnccfi of mt.'n»)lruiil lilotxl on her linen (which S. 
cx]ilmn<.-d, howcvpr, an ha-moiThoidal ) ; and, on the ♦X'fasioM of n hatb 
which S. WB9 at'ciiBtomed to lake, they elairacd to have convinced Ihem- 
aclvtfs of her real hc-x by looking throngh the key-hole. 

ThefamUj of Marie uiake it tiiH-m prolwble that hIic for a long time 
was deceireU with regard to the true «ex of her fitUe bridegroom. The 
following passage in a letter fi-om Marie to K., August 26. 1889, Kjicakti 
m ftvor of the incredible inimpUeity and innocence of thie unfortunate 
girl: " I don't tik*- chihln-n !iny more, but if 1 ha«l a little Beuerl or 
Patscheri hymy Smidi, — ah, wh^l h«|i|iirie88, Sandi mine I" 

A lat^ nuinlicr of nianuttcriptK allow conclusionn to be drawn 
oonceniing S.'s inentnl indivldnnlity. Tlie chirograjihy pos>*e*8e« the 
etiaruetvr of (IrnineHH and iCertainty. The ehiiraiterH an' genuinely mas- 
culiae. The same peculiarities repeat thcmselres everywhere in their 
LContents.— wihl, unbridle^I passion ; hatred and resistanee to all that 
fopposes the heart thirsting for love; pu(>ti(.-al love, which ia not iniirred 
liy one ignoble blot ; enthnsiai^m for the beaotiful and noble ; appreciation 
of science and the artB. 

Her writiiig« belmy a woiidrrfiilly widi* range of reading in classics 
of nil languages, in eitallonR fVom poi'ts and prone writers of nil landtt. 
The evidence of those iiiialified to judge literary work shows that S.'s 
poetical and literary ability is by no mennti ttui»ll. The letteni and 
writings concerning the relation with Marie are psychologically worthy 
, of noti<«. 

S. speaks of the happineaft tlierc was for her when by M.'s side, 
and expi'e*sir» boundless longing to see her beloved, if only for a m<iinent. 
After sucii a bnppinesn, fltu* coidd have but one wi-^b, — to exchaugu her 
cell for the grave. The bittercfit thing was the knowledge that now 
Marie, too, hated her. Kot teart, fnongh to dmwn herwlf in, she had 
ahcd over her lost happiness. \Vh«de i|uireH of jmper are given up to 
the apotheot«is of this lovo, and reminiscences of the time of the first 
love and aci[uniutauce. 

S. complained of her heart, that would allow no reason to direct it ; 
she exproRsed einotinnn which were auch as only could be felt, — not sim- 
ulated. Then, again, there were outbreaks of nioMt silly {wasinn, with 
the declaration that she could not live without Marie. "Thy dear, sweet 
voice ; the voice whose tone perchance would raise me IVom the dead ; 
that has been for m« like the wrtrm breath of Paradise! Thy presence 
alone were enough to alleviatn my mental and moral anguish. It waa a 
magnetic stream; it was a peculiar power your being exercised over 



mine, which I cannot ^uitc ileSiie; ami , tlierufore, I c-Uii^ tu that ever* 
truu <l(>nnilu)ii : I lovu yoa lH.'eii.ii»<i; i luvo you. la the night of sorrow 
1 bad but uuc stur, — the star of Marie's lore. That Htar hns lo^t ita 
light; now then; n<miiii>H hut it« tthUumer,— the swi-vt, i^mX muuiory 
which oven lights with its soft my the decponiiig night of dwith, — a ray 
of hope." 

This writing i-uiIh with the ajJCMitroiiho : " Oentlciueii, yea learned in 
the kvr, payuhologiais and pathologists, do me justice I Love led me to 
take tht- stf>p t took ; nil my dutd^ were conditioned by it. God put it 
in my liearU 

"Iflle created me so, and not othenviHe,am I then gnilti" ; or is it 
the eternal, im'OinprehonKible way of fate H 1 relied on (}od, that one day 
luy final I ri patio u would come; for my thought was only love itself, 
which is the fouadatioii, the guiding principle, of His teaching and Uii 

"O flod. Thou AU-pitying, Almighty One! Tlmu tteest my dis- 
trees; Tlum knowvKt how I huIKt. liR-lint* ThystU" to me; extend Thy 
helping hand to me. deserted by all the world. Oidy God is just. Uow 
beautifully doen Vict^ir lingo dvscribu thij* in hia ' Legendeit dii tSt^leM 
How Nad do .Mendelssohn a words eoumi to mc: 'Nightly in dreams I 
see tliee'I'' 

Though S. knew that none of her writings rcaohol her lover, &he 
dill iml prow tired writing of her pain und deliglit in love, in page after 
page of deiliration of Marie. And to induce one more pure flood of 
teara, on one atill, clear ttununer evening, when the lake was nglow with 
the setting Hun like molten gold, and the Kdls uf ^t. Anna and Marin- 
Wortli, liltnding in biirmoniou* mi-hniL-holy, gave lidingu of rest and 
peaec, she wrote: "For tliiit poor soul, (br this poor heart that beat 
for thee till the last brwith." 

Pereoval Kraminnlion: The first meeting which the experts had 
with S. wa«. in a meamire, a tiunt of enilmrrassnient to tioth sides ; for 
them, UeCMHsi^ perhapw ti.'-a somewhat dazzling and foix'cd miusculine ear- 
ringu imprcRSod thtim; for her, hecauHe she thought she was to be marked 
with the fftignin of moral insntiity. She lind a iileaaant ami intelligent 
face, which, in spite of u eerlnin delicacy of features and diminutivft- 
nesaof all its parts, gave a decidedly nuiseuline impresaion, had it not 
been for the absence of u mouMlaclie. It was even diflleult for the experts 
to reAlixe that they were concerned with a woman, desjtite the fact of 
female attire and eon^tant association; while, on the other'liand. inter- 
course with the man Sandor was much more ftnpc, natural, jtnd apjmrently 
correct The culprit alno fi-ll Ihia. She imineilintely hccnme nmrt^ open, 
more communicative, more free, as soon as she whs tn.-:ited like a man. 

In Kpitc of her inolinntion for the female sex, which had l>een 
present froin her earliest years, she ast^crts that in her thirteenth year 
■be first felt a trace of sexual fueling, which expressed itself in kisses, 



dBffirmc«s, nnd cnresses, with Bensiml pleasure, and tbts on the oooaHton 
of lier olopuiiH-iil witi) the rod-liuired Knglisb );irl rrom the Uircsdca 
Institute, At tlii\t time lemiuinc Forms exclusively nppeareU to ber in 
dr«am-pic-tur(>ti, atid ever since, in seiitttinl ilrcams, she bait felt her>ieir in 
tbe sittution of a man, nml occnsionnlly, Also, at sucb times, ex|)ertenced 

She knnwH notbiii<; of solitni^ or miitiml onniiiKm. Sitcli a thing 
B«emo(l very disgusting to bor, and not conducive to mniilincsB. Sbe 
bad, also, never nlloTred berself to be touched itd geiiitnlin by others, 
because it would bave revenled b«r great secret. Tlie menses began fit 
seventeen, hut were alwuys s«inty, and 'without pain. It waa plain to 
be seen that S. bad a horror of speaking of menntruation ; that it was a 
tiling repugnant to ber ma-wiilinc constiiousncat* nnd feeling. She reuog- 
niz<^il the HluuirmiLlily of boraexiial incHnatlonR, hut b:ul no desire to 
have tliein cbaugcd, since in this perverse feeling she fcit both well and 
hnppy. Tbe idea of sexual intercourse with men disguated her, and sbe 
also tlimight it vroiild he iinpoi««ihle. 

Ilcr innrlesty wiis so great that she wonid prefer to sleep among 
men rather than among women. Thus, when it whs necessary for ber to 
answer the calla of nature or to change her linen, it whs net-csaary for her 
to ask her companion in the celt to luni her face to the window, that she 
might not 8ee her. 

When occostonntly S. came in contact witli this companion, — a 
woman from the lower walks of life, — she experienced a sexual cicite- 
ment that made ber MuhIi, Indeed, without being asked. S. related that 
she watt overcome wilh atrtiial fcnr wlieii, in her cell, Ahe was eom|>eUecl 
to force herself into the unusual fV?mnlc attire. Hur only comfort 
wiis, that she was at least allowed to keep n shirt. Keraarknble, and 
wLpat a!*io speaks for the significance of olfactory sensations in her vlt^ 
scxualia, ia ber statement that, on the occnaions of Marie'ii absence, ahe 
hnd sought tlio^ie places on which Mnrie'a head nns nccustome<l to 
repose, nnd smelled of them, in order to experience the ilelight of inhal- 
ing tha odor of Iter hair. Among women, those who arc henntifnt, or 
voluptuouH, or quite young do not (Kirticnlnrly interest Iter. The phyatcal 
charniK of women sbe makes snbordinate. As by magnetic attraction, 
she feels herself ilrawu to those between twenty-four and thirty. She 
fonn<l Iter aextul satisfaction exclusively in corpora feminte (never in 
her own person), in tbe form of manii*itupi'ation of the beloved woman, 
or cunnilingiia. Occasionally she avfiiled herself of a stocking atuffed 
with oakum as a priaftus. These ndmisHioiis were made only uuwilHngly 
by 3.. and with Hp|tarcTit shame ; just as in ber writings, immodesty or 
cynicii$in are never found. 

She is religious, has a lively Interest in all that is noble and beau- 
tiful, — men exccpt«l.^nd is very sensitive to tbe opinion others may 
entertain of her morality. 



Hb(! fltwply ngtvlH \hat in her |MiAsion Hhe riuitle Marie unhsppy, 
ftDd rcgania ber sexual ft-eUngs tut iwrvenw, auti sm-Ii a love of one womau 
for anothiT, an)on}{ iioniial indJvtdiialH, a» Diorally riTprc-henflihle. She 
ban gT(*t literarii' talent anrl an PTtwordinflry mcinorj". Her only wealt- 
IK8B is ber ^rmt frivolity and bcr incajKiliiHty to manage mont^y and 
property reaBonably. But she is irouiiiciunt) of this ncakottss, aud does 
not care to talk about it. 

She ift IA3 ocntimetres tall, of delicate skeleton, thin, bat remark- 
ably luuBcutnron the breast and thighs. Hor gait in remalt' attire is 
awkward. Her movcnit'tits are powerful, not unpleiuiing, tUuugh they 
are Bomewbat inasculinc^ and lacking in grace. She greets one with a 
firm preMore of the*h&nd. Her whole carriage is docid«<l. Gnn, and 
soiiiewbat M6lf<-on8cious. Her gUnc-v is int^/lligent ; inten fionii'rwhat 
diftid<-Rt. Peet and hands remnrkahly ftmall. having remntned in an 
infantile rtagc of development. Kxtcnftor siirfaces of the extremities 
reiniirkultly well covered with hair, while there is not the slighlesL ti-ace 
'of tK!anl, in spite of all ithaving exjieriments. Tbe hips do not corre- 
«|iond in any way with those of a female. Waist is wanting. The pelvis 
i% KO vlim, and mo little prominent, that » line rlrawn fruiii the axilla to 
the corre*t()onding kD«« i« straight, — not curved inwnrd by a waist, or 
outward hy the pelvlfi. The skull Is alightly oxycephalic, and in all its 
measurements falls below tbe average of tbe fbmale skull by at least one 

The eii-cumfereooe of tbe head is 58 centimetres; the occipital half. 
circumference, 24 centimetres ; the line from ear to ear, over the vertex, 
23 centimetres ; the anturior halCcircu inference, 2S.5 centimetres ; the 
line from glabelln to occiput, 30 centimetres; the en.r-diiri tine. 26.B 
centimetTw; long diameter, IT conlimetrcR; grenteet Intcml diameter, 
13 ecntinietre<<; diameter nt auditory mcati, 12 ccntimeti-es; zygomatio 
diaraeti-r, 11. 2 centinii-ln-'s. Tlie upfn-r jiiw pnyect* strikingly, its alveolar 
procvsB proje<--ting Iwyond the uniler jaw iibout U.5 centimetre- Thfl 
pOAilion of tbe tw-tli is not fully normal; the right upper canine bos not